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Essays on liberty in america

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Bertrand Russell#8217;s Theory of Perception. Bertrand Russell’s Theory of Perception, put forth in his book The Problems of Philosophy is focused around the theory of sense-data. This essay will outline Russell’s theory and present some of the arguments that support his view, such as the argument from hallucination. I will outline an attack on Russell’s theory and then move to essays on liberty in america, present an alternative argument accounting for the relevant phenomena: the adverbial theory and show how Russell’s theory does more to convince one of the nature of walmart our perception. Russell’s theory of perception is rooted in his faith in sense-data. On Liberty! This is the walmart, notion that whatever we perceive are mind dependent objects whose existence and properties are known directly to essays in america, us and about which we cannot be mistaken. Sense-data are representations of statement ‘real’ objects in the world outside the mind, of on liberty in america which we can be mistaken.

For Russell and the sense-data theorist, what is being perceived depends greatly on the mind for its existence and that what we perceive is college not a public physical object but a private, non-physical entity. He also believes that relying on on liberty, the experiences of college other people is question begging and therefore commits himself to finding; ‘…in our own purely private experiences, characteristics which show, or tend to show, that there are in the world things other than ourselves and our private experiences.’1. Need essay sample on essays in america, Bertrand Russell#8217;s Theory of Perception ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. So, according to Russell, we can only have knowledge of external objects by being aware of the representations of objects that our sense-data gives us. However, it is important to note that according to sense-data, objects cannot exist unperceived. This is a form of indirect realism, and there are some arguments that support Russell’s theory. There are three sub-arguments that fall under the college papers, broad term of the Argument from Illusion that support Russell’s assertion that sense-data is distinct from the physical object and that what we experience is not that of a public object. These arguments concern illusion, hallucination and perceptual relativity.

The Argument from Illusion appears to be very persuasive. In this case, we are talking about instances whereby, ‘qualities are immediately experienced that the relevant object clearly does not possess’,2 for example, perceiving a stick appearing to be bent when half immersed in water. Essays! In this case, no relevant physical mind independent thing is bent. Thus, one must be perceiving something non-physical. If, in the illusory cases, one is perceiving something non-physical then in the non-illusory ‘good’ cases, one is thesis also perceiving something non-physical, so therefore, in essays on liberty in america, all cases one is perceiving something non-physical and mind dependent.

This works as a convincing argument for the sense-data theory and in Sajahan Miah’s book Russell’s Theory of Perception, he is also supportive of papers this argument, stating, ‘The argument from illusion forces us to admit that in any perceptual situation what we are immediately aware of are sense-data.’3. Another argument concerning the way in which we perceive things is the Argument from Perceptual Relativity. Here, we can consider the in america, passage where Russell speaks of regarding the table in his study. He notes how the appearance of the table seems to change depending on the perspective, or conditions under which it is being perceived.4 Russell finds that the nature of his sensory experience of the table changes not only in regards to colour and cover, shape, but for many of the qualities of the table such as touch and texture. However, Russell maintains that although we are presented with different sense-data that appear to be separate from on liberty in america, one another, the object itself does not change. However, since what we see does change, we cannot assume that what we perceive is a table. So what the notion of perceptual relativity claims is that though we experience many different phenomena when regarding one object, we must assume that one of them could be the physical object itself.

However we have no means with which to single out paper dissociative one experience that can be identified as the immediate physical object and so it is safer to assume that our immediate experiences are distinct from the physical object in question5, thus, supporting the sense-data theory. On Liberty In America! With regard to hallucinations, we consider instances whereby we actually consider certain qualities that could be attributed to some kind of physical object when there is no physical object present at all, for example, seeing a pink elephant. In both cases, we are presented with sensory experiences of qualities that the object in question does not posess, and assignment due date, so, these experiences must be distinct of the object, thus, reiterating the sense-data theory. The argument from illusion has been attacked by the likes of John Austin in his Sense and Sensibilia when he suggests that the argument ‘trades in confusion’ between an illusion and a delusion and gives an example of a church being camoflauged to look like a barn. He wonders whether any sort of serious question can be asked about what we see when we look at it. On Liberty! He tries to put forth that we don’t see anything immaterial and for writing college, that we can’t say anything about it concerning out essays on liberty in america sensory experience of it. However, I think that one must take this example from a personal point of thesis view and think about what you would have an experience of essays in america if you were to look at the church/barn.

You, having no idea that the building has been camouflaged, would have the sense-datum of a barn because you don’t have any evidence to suggest that it is something else. It would only cover sales be if you were to delve deeper, as it were, and investigate the inside of the building that you would have grounds to change your interpretation of your perception. On Liberty In America! So this in fact backs up Russell’s theory about sense-data because you have only the knowledge of due date what your immediate sense-data tells you about the object and cannot derive any further information regarding the building until further investigation is undergone in which case, even then, your sense-data would adapt and correct itself concerning the object in on liberty in america, light of more informed inspection. A second argument in favour of Russell is the Argument from the Scientific Account of Perception. This argument puts forth the view that perceptual experiences can be altered by natural science, such as ‘…changes in the conditions of perception or the condition of the relevant sense-organs and the resulting neurophysiological processes…’6.

This can happen without any change to the physical object in question and, so, we can only have knowledge of the sense-data that this gives us and not of the object itself. A particularly poignant part of this argument concerns ‘time-lag’. It concerns the fact that often, in the short amount of time it takes for the object to be perceived and statement, the perceiver actually having the sense experience, the object can invariably have changed in essays, some way. In fact, if you look at some astronomical examples, by the time we have the experience, the college, object may even have ceased to exist. So this most certainly backs the claim that sense-data is entirely independent of the object itself, for it is surely inconceivable that we can have a sensory experience of something and assume that it is one and the same as something that does not even exist. On Liberty In America! An alternative argument for the nature of our sensory experiences is the thesis statement, Adverbial Argument. This argument removes any need for an object within the material world, my mind, or anywhere else for essays on liberty in america that matter. It is concerned with the person as a sensor and walmart statement, focuses on the sense-datum itself as an object, thus eradicating the confusion of the object as a physical object or a mental object etc. So the argument concerns itself with the state of on liberty sensory awareness of the apa format for writing college, person. It is the specific manner in which the person senses or the essays, way in which something is appeared to them that is in question and thesis system, it is this that can tell us of the essays in america, specific content of the immediate experience. Thesis Statement! So, in the jargon for this argument, if I hallucinate a multi-coloured elephant, I sense, or am appeared-to a-multi-coloured-elephant-ly, or if I perceive a blue circle, I am perceiving bluely and circularly.

So the attraction of this argument is on liberty that one can say that if they experience a blue circle, then something is letters sales modified a certain way, but there isn’t any need to incorporate some abstract or mysterious sense-data.7The adverbialist is concerned only with the essays on liberty, experiences themselves and not with the cover, objects that they may or may not represent. However, this argument in fact fails by it’s own principles. For example, suppose you experience a brown square and a green triangle simultaneously. The adverbialist would have to say that his state of on liberty mind is ‘sensing brownly and squarely and greenly and triangularly,’8 But then, couldn’t that be read as the state of mind is sensing a brown triangle and a. Apa Format For Writing College Papers! green square? The adverbialist needs something more in his characterisation of the experience in order to escape this confusion. Bertrand Russell’s Theory of Perception is a theory that makes a good attempt to account for our perceptual experiences and their relations to essays on liberty, objects and the arguments from Illusion and The Scientific Account of Perception offer interesting solutions for perceptual phenomena that seem to trick us so often.

However, I find Russell’s strategy of completely disassociating objects and our perceptual experiences from walmart statement, one another quite ambitious as it would seem to me that though our sense-data can give us knowledge about the representation of the object in question, we also have the ability to manipulate the object in ways that force certain sense-data to appear to us. Russell talks of sense-data in a manner suggestive of on liberty something that has power over us and our thought processes. However it seems to me that I can alter the sense-data that I experience. for apa format for writing example, I were to perceive a sheet of paper, I could change the sense-data that I receive simply by tearing the paper in half. In this manner, it seems to in america, me that there is some kind of causal relationship between the object, the perceiver and the sense-data, and research dissociative disorder, that the perceiver can have power over the sense-data. Russell, B. The Problems of Philosophy (OUP 2001) Miah, S. Essays On Liberty! Russell’s Theory of apa format for writing Perception (Dhaka University Press 1998)

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How to Write the in america, Best Nursing Cover Letter. A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as important as a well crafted nursing resume. When done right, cover letters are a key factor in getting a nursing candidate’s foot in the door. Of course, nursing candidates understand this so they spend time researching how to assignment due date write good cover letters. Essays? The problem is that the vast majority of readily available information on nursing cover letters is paper identity, uniform and antiquated. As a result, the vast majority of nursing cover letters read exactly the same and fall well short of on liberty piquing the walmart thesis statement, reader’s interest.

So in this blog post, we’ll cover the basic items to review before sending a cover letter, summarize the conventional approach to nursing cover letters and discuss its shortcomings, and offer a unique formula that will wow employers and land you an essays, interview. Covering the nursing cover letter basics. It’s critical to carefully review your cover letter for apa format for writing papers, the basics before sending it out to essays on liberty in america professional contacts or prospective employers. Dissociative? What are the basics? We’re referring to things like grammar and spelling. As obvious as these basics may be, a very large percentage of cover letters include basic mistakes. So be certain to review your cover letter for the following issues: Spelling : Yes, it’s a good idea to use the spell checker. However, you must also carefully review your cover letter for errors that the essays in america, spell checker won’t pick up.

For example, you may have typed “form” instead of enzyme assay alcohol “from.” And yes, some recruiters and hiring managers are that picky. Grammar : The best way to essays in america review grammar is to read your cover letter out loud and word-for-word. If you’re unsure if the grammar is correct, then try to simplify the caption in question. Simpler is assignment, usually better anyway. Correct Employer Information : Be sure you’ve used the correct employer name, address, contact person, and in america contact person’s title. It’s easy to lose site of this when you’re applying for multiple jobs and sales using the essays on liberty, same cover letter template. Date : Be sure to use the current date. Walmart? We regularly see cover letters with last year’s date, most likely because the candidate used a template from their previous job search. Your Contact Information : Make sure your contact information is current and correct. Congruence : Make sure that the essays on liberty in america, information you provide in your cover letter matches the information you provide in your resume and/or job application.

General framing for your nursing cover letter. With the basic considerations out cover sales of the way, we can begin to frame or conceptualize the cover letter. For starters, it’s important to consider your angle . Are you responding to a job advertisement? Are you sending your cover letter and resume to a professional contact to be forwarded to someone involved in the hiring process? Are you engaging in a general inquiry expressing interest in working for the organization in some capacity while having no professional contacts within the organization and despite the fact that there is essays in america, no job advertised? Your angle should guide how you frame your cover letter and dictate a small but important set of information to include. Assignment Due Date? Consider the essays on liberty, following: Job Advertisements : If you’re applying to a job advertisement, then your cover letter should reference the advertisement, job ID if applicable, and assay alcohol test Job Title. Professional Contacts : If you have a professional contact within the organization, then your cover letter should include the name of the professional contact, their title, your relationship to the contact, and perhaps a few references to on liberty 2nd degree contacts and conversations you’ve had pertaining to the job in question and/or organization. General Job Inquiries : If you’re merely expressing a general interest in potential job opportunities with an organization, then be clear about what role(s) you’re interested in. The conventional approach to nursing cover letters:

Now that we’ve covered the basics and have an idea of assay alcohol how to frame the on liberty in america, cover letter, it’s time to move on to the sales, meat of the letter. On Liberty In America? A Google search for “nursing cover letter” returns pages from many reputable and seemingly authoritative sources. You’ll find pages from Ohio State University, Johns Hopkins, Monster.com, Duke University, and walmart statement many others. All of these sources utilize virtually the same general cover letter template. Their general template recommends the following. First, start your cover letter with a brief introductory paragraph that quickly gets to essays on liberty in america the point. Introduce yourself professionally, let the reader know why you’re writing and do so enthusiastically. You might also praise the employer on some recent accomplishment or milestone they’ve achieved. Second, include two to three “strength paragraphs.” These are paragraphs that describe your professional strengths.

The general recommendation is to describe how you’re a good fit for the position in question. It’s often suggested that you draw on statement, the job description for details about essays on liberty what the employer is seeking. Then, describe how your skills and college papers experience fit the criteria. In doing so, you might describe some past experiences and essays even offer some stats and numbers for emphasis. Finally, end the cover letter with a brief conclusion paragraph. Dissociative? Recap your interest in the job. Once again summarize why you’re a good fit. Essays In America? Perhaps offer some well wishes and good sentiments. And let them know that you’ll attempt to contact them and they can contact you at their convenience to set up an interview. What’s wrong with the conventional approach to apa format nursing cover letters? There are several problems with the conventional approach to nursing cover letters.

First, it does nothing to set you apart from the rest of the essays on liberty in america, candidates. Almost every single candidate is taking this approach. It’s so pervasive that cover letters for different candidates often read the same exact way. Everyone is drawing from the job description which is usually very generic. As a result, they’re all explaining how their prior experience makes them organized or clinically experienced enough to do the job. Or how their orientation towards team work will help them fit right in. Paper Dissociative Disorder? Once the in america, recruiter or hiring manager has read this cover letter a dozen times, they’re simply tuned out. Second, the conventional approach fosters a tendency to summarize the resume. Candidates often use the apa format, same exact information included on their resume when writing their cover letters to describe why they’re a good fit for the job. On Liberty In America? This is a waste of valuable space and sales time, but it’s almost impossible to avoid.

A resume is a summary of your work history and experiences as they pertain to essays in america your qualifications for the job in question. Meanwhile, the for writing college papers, conventional approach to nursing cover letters is recommending that you describe why you’re qualified for the job. These are very closely related. Third, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is a passive approach. It turns the candidate into a passive receiver of details provided by the employer and then asks that they reword their resume to on liberty address the details. Not only is thesis supply system, this a poor stance for job seekers, it doesn’t consider the reality that employers routinely offer canned job descriptions that don’t really offer any actionable intelligence for essays on liberty in america, the candidate. An alternative approach to nursing cover letters. The conventional approach was fine in 1986 but it’s not up to snuff for the information and networking age. Information is now so readily available that if you’re focused only on the job description when writing your cover letter, then you’re missing some major opportunities to separate yourself from the pack. Thesis On Water Supply System? And separating from the pack is the primary goal of this alternative approach to essays on liberty in america nursing cover letters because it will greatly increase your potential for landing the interview. The question becomes, how do you find and use information regarding the targeted employer to craft an amazing cover letter?

You start by completely changing the walmart statement, guiding principle behind your approach to the cover letter. Remember, the guiding principle of the in america, conventional approach is to dissociative disorder draw from the job description to develop “strength paragraphs” that describe why you’re a good fit for essays on liberty in america, the job. Statement? Again, this a passive approach that steers nursing candidates to rely on on liberty, information provided by a job description that is often vague and confined to the minimum requirements. By contrast, our alternative approach is based on sales and marketing principles. After all, a cover letter is a sales vehicle, plain and simple. You’re using it to sell yourself to the employer. This sales based approach to cover letters fosters an apa format college papers, aggressive mind-set by recommending that you seek out additional information beyond the job description which will be used to on liberty help you develop your sales pitch.

Now there are many different approaches to selling things. We’re going to focus on perhaps the most successful sales approach, “problem solving.” Essentially, you’re going to define a problem facing the employer and describe why you’re the solution . In doing so, you will draw on your skills and statement experience in on liberty in america a much more natural way. Assay? And the exercise will almost certainly give the essays on liberty in america, opportunity to assignment due date offer information that isn’t included on your resume. Trust us, this is much easier than it sounds!! Start by researching the employer. Researching the employer is the first step in crafting your cover letter. Begin with a visit to the employer’s web site. Look for a blog or a “News Room.” If the employer has a very limited website with no blog or company news, then review the “About” page or anything you can find that will offer insight.

The great news for nurses is that many hospitals and healthcare employers maintain regularly updated and highly detailed blogs and “News Rooms.” Check out this example from Swedish Medical in Washington state. There’s even a “Tag Cloud” on the right side that will help you locate information about specific units and on liberty various specialties!! Next, find the employer on all the major social media channels. Again, most employers are using these channels to disseminate information that is important to apa format college them and their clientele. The easiest way to find a company’s social media channels is to locate the social media icon buttons on the company’s website. You know, the buttons that typically say something like, “Connect with us.” This approach is much better than going straight the social media outlet and essays on liberty searching for the company which usually returns poor results.

For example, we were easily directed to on water supply Swedish Medical’s Facebook Page by clicking on the Facebook button on essays, their website. However, a search for “Swedish Medical Center” on disorder, Facebook didn’t include the official company page within the top 50 results. Next, check with your own social networks to see if you’re connected to someone who works for essays in america, the employer in question or knows someone who does . Don’t be afraid to post an assay alcohol, inquiry on your own social media accounts to find out if anyone you know has any connections to the employer in question. You might be surprised by on liberty in america what you find. I’ve never been to Washington state and I was able to find 6 2nd degree connections to Swedish Medical within my network in a minimal amount of thesis on water time. You can also search for news articles on the employer on on liberty in america, both national and local levels . Sales? For example, a search for essays in america, “Swedish Medical” on dissociative, the Seattle Post Intelligencer returned 419 results.

A search of in america Google’s News database returned 97 results. If you’re still not able to find any actionable intelligence after conducting these searches, then you can conduct a search for information on the industry or market niche in question . Not every nurse is applying for jobs at hospitals or other large healthcare organizations that have the resources to cover attract and maintain the kind of media presence described above. Essays On Liberty? You might be applying for cover letters sales, jobs as a school nurse, or jobs at small addiction treatment centers, or some other form of small employer. In these cases, check for an industry or niche association that advocates for the interests of employers in the industry or niche in question. At this point, you’re probably wondering what exactly you’re looking for while doing your research. You’re looking for information you can present as a problem, or potential problem, for which you are the essays on liberty, solution . You see, almost everything can be presented as a potential challenge or problem facing an employer. On Water? For example, if a hospital just achieved Magnet Recognition, then maintaining it will be a challenge. The same goes for any award or recognition an employer has achieved.

Of course, you can also look for actual problems that an employer is facing. For example, an employer may have a high employee turnover rate, or they maybe in the process of attempting to achieve some goal or milestone, or they may be undergoing an EMR conversion in the near future. Of course, you need to be able to convince the reader that you can help with the problems you define. So merely defining a problem isn’t enough. You need to define a problem for which you can convincingly sell yourself as the solution . Using the examples above, you may have worked with an employer who turned around their employee turnover problems, or with an employer who achieved the same goal or milestone, or you may have experience with the EMR that the employer is converting to.

In conducting your research, start at the base level and essays on liberty work your way out. For example, if you’re applying for a Staff Nurse position in a hospital’s Intensive Care Unit, then start with trying to find information that is research, pertinent to the unit. These problems will likely be in line with your expertise. Essays On Liberty? From the unit level, work your way out to the industry level to identify a broader range of problems for due date, which you may be the solution. It’s very likely that you’ll find multiple problems to define, and that’s great. You can easily touch on two to three problems and describe how you’re the solution for each in the span of your 1 page cover letter. If you are unable to find any problems to define after exhausting all of your research options, then you can use the job description provided by the employer (assuming there is essays on liberty, one) to define problems. In doing so, you’ll write a much more powerful cover letter than you would have using the conventional approach described above.

Why is this alternative approach to nursing cover letters better? The problem/solution approach to cover letters is better than the conventional approach for several reasons. First, you’ll differentiate yourself from the pack. College Papers? Even if everyone were to use this formula (which they won’t), they’d all find and define different problems and/or offer different solutions. Second, you’ll demonstrate that you’re knowledgeable about the employer. On Liberty In America? Third, your cover letter will read like it was written by a human instead of a robot. Your cover letter will actually be interesting to read!! Finally, you’ll be selling yourself to the employer as a solution to sales their problems as opposed to regurgitating key points from your resume. How to on liberty write the best nursing cover letter.

To recap the steps: Consider your angle when framing your cover letter. This is described above under the heading “General framing for your cover letter.” Include an identity disorder, introduction paragraph that quickly lets the reader know why you’re writing. Define problems and essays in america describe how you are the solution. Sell your skills and experiences as solutions. Be sure to make use of all research options to find problems that are not included in the job description. Close the deal in a conclusion paragraph that describes the next step. Let the reader know that you’d like to discuss these issues in greater detail and learn more about the cover, challenges they are facing. Essays On Liberty In America? Offer your contact information and let them know you’ll be contacting them. Review your cover letter for the basics described above under the heading “Covering the cover letter basics.” 5 Things that New Grad RNs and walmart statement Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us.

How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an essays in america, effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to enzyme assay alcohol Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs. Essays On Liberty? We provide. Do you have a sample cover letter? I get the problem solving concept but would like to for writing papers see an essays in america, example of how to convey myself as a solution. My apologies, Sarah, but we do not have a sample cover letter. We’ll work on posting one though! Thank you Kyle! That helps a lot! Thank you for these blog posts!

I’m trying to go back to apa format for writing college papers work after staying-at-home for essays on liberty in america, three years with my kids (which seems like an even tougher situation than being a new grad). Prior to that I had very minimal nursing experience (2 years total) in two niche type jobs: school nursing and travel medicine. I’d like a job in thesis on water system mother/baby and know people on the unit. Trying to draw attention to the extensive CEU’s I’ve completed recently all related to in america OB. I’m also working on certification in a Neonatal Resusitation program (NRP). 1. Is the supply, cover letter a good place to explain the large gap in work history (i.e. being a stay-at-home-mom)? Can I take a moment there to highlight social achievements since I don’t have any work achievements? 2. How do I sell myself as the on liberty, solution when I have so little irrelevant nursing experience? (maybe there’s no answer for this)… what i do know is that the competing hospital in apa format the area just opened their own Labor and Delivery and are recruiting OB nurses from the on liberty in america, hospital I’m applying to. Any advice is much appreciated! Great questions, Adrienne.

Yes, it’s okay to use a brief portion of your cover letter to address your experience as a stay-at-home mom. You may even use some of what you’ve learned as a stay-at-home mom to relate that you’re the solution to a problem the hospital faces, or a goal they’re trying to achieve. Often times, a hospital’s/unit’s challenges and goals require more than just technical skills. You may be passionate about something or have indirect experience that will be an asset to them. The important thing is to illustrate that you are aware of the employer’s challenges and goals and you understand that their employees play a pivotal role in addressing them.

I hope this helps!

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Viktor Frankl – an Overview of Logotherapy Essay. The term ‘Logotherapy’ can be described as taken from the Greek meaning of essays on liberty in america, ‘logos’ and ‘therapy’. ‘Therapy’ is the treatment which is given to heal a disorder. Assignment Due Date? Having looked into the meaning of the essays on liberty term ‘logos,’ I was very surprised that the description was linked to Jesus! According to apa format for writing college papers Wikipedia, John’s Gospel identifies the ‘Logos’ as the one through which all things are made, and essays on liberty in america, further to this describes Jesus as being the ‘incarnate Logos’ (incarnate meaning to be embodied in flesh or taking on flesh)(1) The Greek word ‘logos’ traditionally meant ‘word’, ‘thought’, principle, or speech. Two main paths can be followed from this- the first being ‘human reason’ (the ability of the human mind to understand the world in a rational manner) and, as already mentioned above, ‘universal intelligence’-the sense of the ‘Divine’.(2) For Frankl the description of his work seems to point to the former- this being ‘human reason’- an individual needing to find a ‘meaning’ for being. In his book ’The will to meaning’(3), Frankl is trying to describe the way psychologists/psychiatrists might try to understand the many facets of a human expressing or finding meaning in the world.

He is expressing the different ideas given by psychoanalysis; Adler; and other individuals. The dimension (he speaks of humans as having many dimensions- and that by trying to embrace these one is letters able to get a full picture of who they are), of ‘logos’ in essays, the scope of logotherapy, implies ‘meaning’, and also implies ‘spirit’ (as mentioned above). Frankl says this is without any primary religious connotation. Walmart? He states that ‘logos’ means the humanness of the human being- plus the meaning of being human.(3) So what I gather from his writings; Frankl desired his ‘logotherapy’ to embrace all of what it means to be human and essays in america, also the meaning of being human. (my own understanding) Introducing Dr Viktor Frankl. Viktor Frankl was the founder of thesis supply system, logotherapy In ‘Mans search for meaning’(1959) the introduction describes it as the ‘third Viennese school of essays in america, psychotherapy’- after Freud’s psychoanalysis and Adler’s individual psychology(4). Frankl was born in Vienna to a Jewish family whose working background was in the civil service. Frankl took another path- he studied medicine at the University of Vienna, where he specialized in neurology (a study of disorders of the nervous system) and psychiatry. The topics he was most interested in were depression and suicide.

During his time as a medical student, he organised a special counselling program for high school students (this was between 1928 1930). One well known psychologist, Charlotte Buhler, was involved. The success of this program resulted in no students committing suicide in Vienna in 1931. His completed his neurology and psychiatry training in Vienna in 1937 and afterwards set up a private practice. When the thesis on water supply system Nazi’s first occupied Austria, Viktor had the essays opportunity to supply flee to America, as he had been granted an immigration visa. He couldn’t decide whether to essays on liberty in america go and pursue his work in logotherapy, or to remain with his parents and face the Nazi regime.

He explains in ‘Man’s search for meaning’ (1992) ‘It was then I noticed a piece of marble lying on a table at home … (his father) had found it on the site where the National Socialists had burned down the largest Viennese synagogue..…..One gilded Hebrew letter was engraved on the piece; my father explained that this letter stood for one of the commandments…’Honour thy father and thy mother that thy days may be long upon the land.’(p13) This was the moment that he decided to assay remain in Vienna with his parents and let his visa lapse. Experiences of life in concentration camp. Although Frankl had already begun to formulate ideas of logotherapy before the war, it was the essays time that he spent in concentration camps that really cemented his ideas together and persuaded him that his ideas had a very practical use . His experiences of this time are described vividly in his book ‘Man’s search for meaning; the research paper dissociative identity classic tribute to essays hope from the Holocaust’. This was first published in walmart, German in 1946 and later in on liberty, English as ‘From Death-Camp to Existentialism’.

When I was beginning to think about my research paper, I first read this book. It gave me such insight into the basis of his work and also of the power that it had to alter the course of an cover letters individual’s life. That he continued to on liberty in america find meaning during this time; despite losing his wife, brother, mother and father in the Holocaust; I think is a testament, both to his strength of character, and to the value of his work. The only surviving member of assay alcohol test, his family was his sister Stella, who had managed to immigrate to Australia. The major theme, I took from his book; was in essays, the struggle found by sales, individuals as they tried to survive prison camp life, both within the confines they found between each other (as fellow prisoners) and when facing the Capos (prisoners who were given special privileges), and finally the SS guards. What stood out to on liberty in america me was that Frankl found – despite the Capos being Jewish prisoners, that they were comparable to the SS guards and the camp wardens, on apa format for writing college papers a psychological basis. In America? (5). I took from the book that, the reality of apa format papers, prison life seemed, not only essays a war against the Nazi’s; but against individuals, and papers, about the resources that could be found within and essays on liberty, between each other to survive the environment. The situation crossed over thesis statement normal boundaries and meant that people were placed in situations that meant they were stretched three ways: emotionally, physically and psychologically. Those that survived, were those that managed to tackle all these: and yet remain.

It was within these confines, that Viktor Frankl managed, not only to survive, and to remain sane; but also to write down his experiences; operate as a doctor, and to bring together his therapeutic ideas- into essays on liberty in america ‘logotherapy.’ I want to bring into this paper a fundamental element of his experiences in the concentration camps- as to papers me it was such powerful reading; it spoke strongly of what Frankl followed on essays to focus his work on. It also has a clear message for anyone who faces suffering. The beginning of the book clearly says that it was not meant as an account of facts or events – but that it was an for writing attempt to make sense of the experiences that were faced by the prisoners that Frankl was a part of. (6). I translate this to mean that it is on liberty in america not important to look into the detail of the book, but to take from it the very essence of the reality of living in such extreme conditions as a German run concentration camp in the 1940’s. .Frankl describes the fight for survival when people are facing being taken to another camp- or facing the cover letters sales gas chambers. The first vivid description of trying to survive, was in the face of the decision between those who were considered as worthless (not fit to on liberty work; weak or ill) – who would be sent directly to major camps to the gas chambers) and those who tried to appear well and able to carry on.

In his book, Frankl explains that the fight was major, and that prisoners tried all sorts of methods to stay alive- even arranging for another person to take his place in the transport. Frankl concludes that the apa format papers best of the people did not remain alive. (7) Frankl tries to explain that he cannot place his story as an objective description of what happened; he also tries to explain that many people, who had experienced such awful, atrocious times in a death camp, would not want to relive them. He says that he wanted to publish the essays on liberty book anonymously, but realised that this would mean it lost most of its value- so he agreed to all of letters, it being published, even though he didn’t want any of the credit. (8) Existentialism and logotherapy. Frankl began to use the term ‘Existenzanalyse’ as early as the 1930’s. American papers translated this term as ‘existential analysis’ ; but they also translated the work of Ludwig Binswanger in the same way- in German his work was called ‘Daseinsanalyse’. The American Heritage Dictionary defines ‘existentialism’ as.

‘A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe, regards human existence as unexplainable, and essays on liberty in america, stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of one’s acts.’(8b) An alternative definition is. ‘Existentialism is statement a philosophical way of thinking that is very different from other philosophical ideas. It sees humans, with will and consciousness, as being in a world of objects which do not have those qualities. The fact that humans are conscious of essays on liberty, their mortality, and must make decisions about identity, their life is what existentialism is all about.’[8c] My own understanding of ‘existentialism’ is that as human beings, as individuals, we need to deal with life, and this results in the need to make choices.

It recognises the moral dynamic and the need to rationalise actions and their consequences. Because Frankl’s work embraced the concept of existentialism, initially the same definition was given. However Frankl did not feel that his theory was as such: he explains in on liberty, the introduction of his book ‘Psychotherapy and Existentialism’ (1967), why he uses the term ‘logotherapy’ rather than ‘existential analysis’. ‘Logotherapy represents one of the schools in apa format for writing college, the field of psychotherapy, and, more specifically, is considered by various authors to fall under the category of ‘existential psychiatry….they (American writers) used the same term to cover the teachings of the late Ludwig Binswanger…Thus existential analysis became an ambiguous notion. In order not to add to the confusion…I decided to use only the term ‘logotherapy’ and to refrain as much as possible from essays on liberty in america using its synonym, existential analysis, as a translation of Existenzanalyse.’(Foreword viii) What is the basis of apa format for writing, Logotherapy? In his paper ‘The Philosophical Foundations of Logotherapy’ (1963) (9) Frankl discusses the basis of Logotherapy. He explains that logotherapy goes further than existential analysis because it is not only concerned with being or reality (the Greek term- ‘ontos’), but also ‘logos’ or meaning. It is not just an on liberty analysis of a subject, but it also has an application as a therapeutic technique.

The roots of Logotherapy rely upon a particular philosophical look at life; Frankl describes this philosophy as having ‘three fundamental assumptions’ (10). • Freedom of will. • Will to meaning. • Meaning of life. Freedom of enzyme, Will. This assumption can be explained in terms that a person has the freedom to think or believe what they choose to.

One exception to this is the schizophrenic patient who experiences delusions and voices that can overcome their mind, and sense of reality. A person is free to think; but this is limited by essays, the conditions in alcohol test, which they live- whether this is biological, sociological or psychological. The freedom that is always available however is the choice a person is on liberty able to make about his attitude to the circumstances or situation he faces. (11) Will to meaning. Frankl distinguishes between ‘instinctual drives’ or ‘needs’ described in Freudian terms and ‘meaning’: the for writing desire of man to reach out to other people and attempt to find meaning. If meaning was a ‘need’ (as instincts are), then it will result in the individual trying to satisfy them.

The difference with ‘meaning’ to life is that it is achieved when a person finds a purpose through relationship with others. The distinction here is that the focus is on on liberty in america the other person and not on due date the individual seeking meaning. In simpler terms, the first one is in america selfish and the second is unselfish. Frankl considers self- actualisation as being a good thing, but only in that it can be achieved in terms of how much a person finds meaning and purpose in life. It is another ‘side-effect’. In ‘Psychotherapy and thesis system, Existentialism’ (1967), Frankl gives a valuable description of essays, human existence. Alcohol Test? After being given the gift of a boomerang, he realises the symbolic nature it held:

‘Generally, one assumes that a boomerang returns to the hunter; but actually I have been told in Australia, a boomerang only comes back to essays on liberty in america the hunter when it has missed its target, the prey. Well man also only returns to himself, to being concerned with his self, after he has missed his mission, has failed to find meaning in his life.’(p9) He explains further that man finds identity only research paper identity as long as he is working for some cause or purpose, which is beyond himself, or greater than himself. To highlight this point, he uses the Bible story of when the Israelites were travelling through the desert. God’s glory went before them as a cloud, and showed them the way to essays in america go. If the test cloud had been among the people, they would have been blinded and got lost.

In the on liberty same way, if meaning is sought after within a person, then it will be clouded; whereas if meaning is separate or greater than a person, then it can provide direction. (12) In logotherapy, a person is confronted with the meaning of their life, and as such, who or what they are responsible to/for. This can be society, God, his conscience, humanity. This is the next step in apa format papers, helping him to find meaning to life. The Meaning of Life.

What is meaning? Having considered ‘freedom of will’ and then ‘will to meaning’, this leads us to think about essays in america, ‘meaning’ and what it entails. Frankl describes life as meaningful in three ways. • In what we can give to life (our creativity) • In what we take from the world (experiencing value) • In the attitude we take in facing something we cannot change (such as a fatal disease, loss, in fact any suffering) All humanity faces pain, death and guilt, and Frankl believes that logotherapy can help us face these and letters sales, still find meaning. (13)

Following on from this, we can sometimes face what Frankl describes as ‘meaning frustration or existential frustration’ (14). He finds that this presents itself in people who feel that their life has no meaning, especially when they experience a void which he describes as an ‘existential vacuum’. This he finds present in many students who have committed suicide. At the end of his paper, Frankl referred to Goethe and stated that he was the sort of realist that agreed with the essays on liberty following statement: “If you treat an individual as he is, he will remain how he is.

But if you treat him as if he were what he ought to apa format college be and could be, he will become what he ought to be and could be.” ? Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. What is different about essays on liberty in america, Logotherapy to other theories? In his book ‘Man’s search for apa format for writing college papers, meaning’(2004) Frankl explains one of the main differences of logotherapy to psychoanalysis. ‘logotherapy in comparison to psychoanalysis, is a method which is on liberty in america less retrospective and apa format for writing college papers, less introspective.’(p104) In contrast to psychoanalysis, which deals with a person’s past and possible explanation for how they are; logotherapy concentrates a person on their future and seeks to find a sense of meaning or purpose for their life in the present.

Psychoanalysis is based on essays on liberty the principle that man will ‘seek pleasure’- that is thesis his fundamental drive in existing. Individual psychology (as described by in america, Alfred Adler) is based on the principle that man will strive for ‘power’ or a sense of walmart thesis statement, ‘superiority’ (as opposed to feeling inferior). Logotherapy focusses on a ‘will to meaning’; the belief that man’s main drive in existing is to find meaning and purpose. In the paper ‘Beyond self-actualisation and essays in america, self-expression’(1959)(15) Frankl discusses why human existence is much more than just trying to meet needs and achieve satisfaction/equilibrium. Enzyme Assay Test? He explains that if all humans were just trying to sustain their existence, then they would end up viewing everything in the world around them as just a means of essays in america, satisfying their needs. Frankl uses the term ‘monadologistic’(16) to describe this level of relationship. In this paper he considers two common issues- the seeking of pleasure, and seeking peace of mind. If a person were to strive purely for pleasure, Frankl sees that it is almost always going to fail. He considers that this is because pleasure is a side effect of achieving a task. It is almost as if the assignment due date pursuit of pleasure alone actually destroys it (the pleasure) in the process.

In the same way he sees that a person gains peace of mind as a side effect of in america, his lifestyle, and walmart thesis, not by making it a goal. ‘It is a tenet of logotherapy that the more one aims at pleasure, the more he misses it’(17) Logotherapy and my own ‘way of working’ The more I have studied logotherapy, the essays in america more I feel drawn to letters the concept of people needing to have a meaning for ‘being’. Having faced severe depression and suicidal thoughts; it has always been the desire for me to focus on why my life is essays on liberty in america worthwhile. Cover Sales? Even during times when I couldn’t ‘feel’ worthwhile, the essays in america knowledge that I was needed and mattered to others, always spurred me on to continue living. It is from this basis, that I feel the ideas behind logotherapy are very important.

The dilemma I am still facing is whether I include this perspective in my work as a counsellor. It then follows that if I do decide to; then how do I work it in, as an approach which sits comfortably with the core conditions. In one sense I think being aware of concept of ‘existential meaning’; it gives me awareness of the issues my clients may face. If this issue is raised then I could explore it in a very person centred way; always focussing on test what they find meaningful. To give an example; if a client was facing trauma from difficult relationship issues, I would work with them; this may or may not touch on their ‘meaning for living’, unless it linked into their ‘conditions of worth’, that they only felt worthwhile by remaining in the relationship at whatever cost to themselves. On Liberty? This might touch on walmart thesis statement their own feelings of essays on liberty, what they saw their purpose in life was- and so by staying focussed on what they were bringing into the room; it might lead into them exploring their feelings around what they felt they desired for research disorder, their own life , and what they felt was most important. I guess by essays in america, understanding Victor Frankl and his whole theory, it will forever help me to see the due date need in my clients to realise their meaning and sense of in america, purpose.

As a Christian, I very much sign up to this, as the identity disorder very nature of being a child of on liberty, God means that I am valued, not only because I am unique, but because He has created me to fulfil only those roles and situations that I am best designed to fulfil- this is what gives me meaning in my life. Logotherapy- an added meaning to psychoanalysis. In his book ‘The Will to Meaning’(18); Frankl describes in detail the different ways of looking at theories and ideas of well-known psycho-analysists and psychologists. Assignment Due Date? Throughout his work he is extremely respectful of the in america work of statement, Freud; of Adler and on liberty in america, of other well known theorists of his time. He uses very simple images of cover, a cylinder- (see figure 1) He explains that the on liberty image of the walmart statement cylinder can be seen in 1 2 dimensional way as either a rectangle or a circle.

Neither of these images gives a complete picture of the cylinder. This Frankl likens to our own concept of human existence. Essays On Liberty In America? We are made up of body, mind and soul. In Freuds terms we are seeking to find pleasure in our existence. In ‘Adlers terms we are seeking power. Frankl uses the illustrations to show that , yes we have these points of existence, but unless we look at the whole picture, we do not see humans in the whole sense. The missing sense for Viktor Frankl is assay test that as human beings , we need to feel a sense of meaning or purpose for being; this is different to other theories, because by seeking meaning, it almost gives the other purposes ‘life.’

He goes on to describe the essays importance of letters sales, being aware that man has different dimensions- especially when treating a person for a neurosis. He explains three different types of neurosis (which are likened to the three circles on the figure 2). The first being a neurosis caused by essays on liberty, a clinical disorder (brain chemistry); the second being caused by papers, a physical disorder, such as hyperthyroidism and finally the third he calls ‘noogenic neurosis’ caused by spiritual/moral dilemmas. Frankl likens these as being the result of ‘existential vacuum’ or life feeling meaningless. The main symptoms of this type of essays, vacuum are boredom and thesis on water system, apathy. Using the example of the three circles, Frankl explains that the essays on liberty in america reasons behind a neurosis, will not always be known- the due date important point is for the therapist/psychiatrist to be aware that there are other dimensions to essays a human.(19) University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 20 October 2016.

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The Liberty Of Freedom Essay - 1866 Words - brightkite com

A Clockwork Orange and in america Brave New World Essay Sample. Walmart Thesis Statement. Without loneliness, how could we appreciate love? Without war, how could we appreciate peace? Binary opposition underlies the essence of our world. It is because of this that the term Utopia, usually meaning a place of utmost perfection, is also used to mean an unrealistic ideal that is impossible to achieve. This has, in turn, spawned the concept of dystopia a negative utopia, being a totalitarian and repressive world where the state holds all power over nearly every aspect of public and private life.

A recurring theme in the Utopian genre is the resulting creation of a dystopia in an effort to reach Utopia. Two novels which clearly illustrate this convention are Aldous Huxleys Brave New World and Anthony Burgess A Clockwork Orange, later adapted by Stanley Kubrick as a film. Other conventions of the Utopian genre include lack of depth of characterization, and essays in america the texts ability to analyse the state of the society in which it was written and to provide an array of possibilities for the future. Brave New World presents a satiric dystopia as humanity lives in a carefree, healthy, and statement technologically advanced society. However, all forms of on liberty human expression have been sacrificed as, Mustapha Mond states, Youve got to thesis on water supply system choose between happiness and what people used to call high art. Weve sacrificed the high art.

We also find that Mond and the other World Controllers have a monopoly on historical knowledge, which ensures their positions of power. They eradicated history as it was seen as unneeded, because the people of the Brave New World are taught only things which are relevant to their place in society. Set in a dystopian near future, A Clockwork Orange shows Alex, a 15-year-old boy who roams the on liberty in america, streets at night with his gang members, committing violent crimes for fun. A Clockwork Orange follows the utopian convention of the research identity, state attempting to create a utopia by on liberty in america controlling the individual, as Alex is used as an cover letters example of the states power to #8220;rehabilitate#8221; criminals by conditioning them to associate violent acts with a sensation of severe physical illness. Through this, the government eliminates the very thing that constitutes Alexs humanity; as the novel says, A man who cannot choose ceases to be a man. Burgess suggests that a society in which the state has so much power, is one in which individual liberties are crushed. In the film adaptation, the on liberty, song Alex whistles on apa format for writing papers, his way home from his evening of violence is actually a modern adaptation of the Funeral March of Queen Mary II written by Henry Purcell in essays, 1694.

It is as though Alex is whistling an eulogy to the end of the world. As can be seen, it is assignment impossible to create a Utopia without suppressing individual liberties for the greater good of the state, which would create a most totalitarian and repressive society a dystopia. Texts of the Utopian genre often exist to analyse the context in which they were written, and offer warnings of what our society potentially could become. Essays. Written during the post World War I era, Brave New World takes a satirical look into on water system the future as it addresses the essays in america, struggle for peace, the development of science, and the extremes of totalitarianism. Assay. The World State#8217;s Motto, #8220;Community, Identity, Stability#8221;, mirror how the majority of the world craved peace and on liberty in america stability, following the turmoil of World War I. Alcohol. This struggle is realized in Huxley#8217;s Brave New World, but at a price; the essays on liberty in america, abandonment of individuality and cover letters sales the freedom of individual thought in a world kept together by extensive human conditioning. Burgess was inspired to write A Clockwork Orange during a visit to Russia, where he observed the repressive atmosphere of a communist nation. Burgess regarded communism as a fundamentally flawed system, as he could not accept a system that sacrifices individual freedom for the public good. This is reflected in A Clockwork Orange as it seems to attack communism through its extremely negative portrayal of a government that seeks to solve social problems by removing freedom of choice. Stanley Kubricks adaptation of A Clockwork Orange, made in on liberty in america, 1971, differs significantly from the novel as it excludes the entire 21st chapter of the novel.

The first American edition of the novel also excluded this chapter, where Alex begins to feel older grows weary of violence. Statement. Perhaps, given American traditions and morality, the publisher thought that having Alex become #8220;good#8221; by on liberty in america his own free will was not the right thing. This clearly illustrates how a Utopian text does, in fact, reflect upon the state of society during the time in which it was written. As in most works about Utopia, Brave New World lacks the complexity of characterization that marks other kinds of great novels as the characters mostly exist to voice ideas in words or to walmart thesis embody them in essays, their behaviour, rather than to represent actual people. It is almost as if the totalitarian Brave New World becomes the novels main character. Due Date. This lack of on liberty in america complexity of characterization can also be seen in A Clockwork Orange, as the only character given much depth is the protagonist, Alex. All other characters seem to exist in order to either personify ideas, or merely to move the assignment, story along. As can be seen through the conventions of the utopian genre which Brave New World and both the film adaptation and novel A Clockwork Orange present, it is impossible to create a Utopia without inevitably creating a dystopia where the on liberty in america, state holds all power over its citizens. #8216;Brave New World#8217; Aldous Huxley#8217;A Clockwork Orange#8217; (novel) Anthony Burgess#8217;A Clockwork Orange#8217; (film) Stanley Kubrick. Is this the enzyme, perfect essay for you?

Save time and order A Clockwork Orange and Brave New World. On Liberty In America. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for A Clockwork Orange and Brave New World. Thesis Statement. A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess occurs in a dystopian futuristic Britain and explores the idea of using psychological conditioning to eliminate crime. The protagonist, Alex, a 15-year old in#8230; #8220;A Clockwork Orange#8221; and essays on liberty in america #8220;Dog Day Afternoon#8221;: Left and right cycle films. I want to explore the concept of #8220;left cycle#8221; films using the assay alcohol test, article entitled #8220;The Left and on liberty Right Cycles#8221; by Robert Ray. To help me explore what makes up a#8230; A Clockwork Orange: A Critical View. By psychological definition, people affected with antisocial personality disorder (also known as #8220;sociopaths#8221; or #8220;psychopaths#8221;) have incredible manipulation skills.

They fail to due date conform to social norms, are deceitful and aggressive,#8230; Misogyny in Brave New World. On Liberty In America. I believe the way Huxley portrays and treats the female population reflects the inequalities in gender and misogyny in walmart thesis statement, the early 20th century society which the on liberty, novel was written in#8230;. Aldoux Huxley #8220;Brave New World#8221; Annotated Bibliography. Aeschliman, M.D. #8220;Why Shakespeare Was Not a Relativist and Why It Matters Now.#8221; _Journal of Education_ (Boston University) 180.3 (1998): 57-66. In #8220;Brave New World#8221;, Aldous Huxley#8217;s increasingly significant orgy#8230; #8220;Brave New World#8221; vs. Today#8217;s Society.

Aldous Huxley#8217;s #8220;Brave New World#8221; has several striking similarities to today#8217;s society. The World State and today#8217;s world utilize comparable methods of promoting consumption and they also experience some of#8230;

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The Limits of Liberty - The American SpectatorThe American Spectator

Donald Trump’s Ghostwriter Tells All. “I put lipstick on on liberty in america a pig,” Tony Schwartz, the ghostwriter, says. He feels “deep remorse.” Last June, as dusk fell outside Tony Schwartz’s sprawling house, on a leafy back road in Riverdale, New York, he pulled out his laptop and caught up with the day’s big news: Donald J. Trump had declared his candidacy for apa format for writing papers President. As Schwartz watched a video of the speech, he began to feel personally implicated. Trump, facing a crowd that had gathered in the lobby of Trump Tower, on Fifth Avenue, laid out his qualifications, saying, “We need a leader that wrote ‘The Art of the Deal.’ ” If that was so, Schwartz thought, then he, not Trump, should be running. Schwartz dashed off a tweet: “Many thanks Donald Trump for suggesting I run for President, based on essays on liberty the fact that I wrote ‘The Art of the Deal.’ ” Schwartz had ghostwritten Trump’s 1987 breakthrough memoir, earning a joint byline on the cover, half of the research dissociative identity, book’s five-hundred-thousand-dollar advance, and half of the royalties. The book was a phenomenal success, spending forty-eight weeks on the Times best-seller list, thirteen of them at No.

1. More than a million copies have been bought, generating several million dollars in royalties. Essays? The book expanded Trump’s renown far beyond New York City, making him an on water system emblem of the successful tycoon. Edward Kosner, the former editor and publisher of New York , where Schwartz worked as a writer at the time, says, “Tony created Trump. He’s Dr. In America? Frankenstein.” Starting in late 1985, Schwartz spent eighteen months with Trump—camping out in his office, joining him on his helicopter, tagging along at meetings, and spending weekends with him at his Manhattan apartment and his Florida estate. During that period, Schwartz felt, he had got to know him better than almost anyone else outside the Trump family. Until Schwartz posted the tweet, though, he had not spoken publicly about Trump for college decades. It had never been his ambition to be a ghostwriter, and he had been glad to move on. In America? But, as he watched a replay of the cover letters sales, new candidate holding forth for forty-five minutes, he noticed something strange: over the decades, Trump appeared to essays in america have convinced himself that he had written the book. Schwartz recalls thinking, “If he could lie about that on Day One—when it was so easily refuted—he is likely to supply system lie about anything.”

It seemed improbable that Trump’s campaign would succeed, so Schwartz told himself that he needn’t worry much. But, as Trump denounced Mexican immigrants as “rapists,” near the end of the speech, Schwartz felt anxious. Essays On Liberty In America? He had spent hundreds of walmart thesis statement hours observing Trump firsthand, and felt that he had an in america unusually deep understanding of what he regarded as Trump’s beguiling strengths and disqualifying weaknesses. Many Americans, however, saw Trump as a charmingly brash entrepreneur with an unfailing knack for business—a mythical image that Schwartz had helped create. “It pays to alcohol trust your instincts,” Trump says in the book, adding that he was set to essays make hundreds of research dissociative identity disorder millions of dollars after buying a hotel that he hadn’t even walked through. In the subsequent months, as Trump defied predictions by establishing himself as the on liberty in america, front-runner for the Republican nomination, Schwartz’s desire to set the record straight grew. Paper? He had long since left journalism to launch the essays on liberty, Energy Project, a consulting firm that promises to improve employees’ productivity by helping them boost their “physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual” morale. Assignment Due Date? It was a successful company, with clients such as Facebook, and Schwartz’s colleagues urged him to essays on liberty in america avoid the political fray. But the prospect of President Trump terrified him.

It wasn’t because of Trump’s ideology—Schwartz doubted that he had one. The problem was Trump’s personality, which he considered pathologically impulsive and walmart thesis statement, self-centered. Schwartz thought about publishing an article describing his reservations about essays on liberty Trump, but he hesitated, knowing that, since he’d cashed in on the flattering “Art of the thesis, Deal,” his credibility and his motives would be seen as suspect. Yet watching the campaign was excruciating. Schwartz decided that if he kept mum and Trump was elected he’d never forgive himself. In June, he agreed to break his silence and give his first candid interview about the Trump he got to know while acting as his Boswell. “I put lipstick on essays a pig,” he said. “I feel a deep sense of remorse that I contributed to presenting Trump in a way that brought him wider attention and made him more appealing than he is.” He went on, “I genuinely believe that if Trump wins and gets the nuclear codes there is an excellent possibility it will lead to the end of civilization.” If he were writing “The Art of the Deal” today, Schwartz said, it would be a very different book with a very different title.

Asked what he would call it, he answered, “The Sociopath.” The idea of paper dissociative identity disorder Trump writing an autobiography didn’t originate with either Trump or Schwartz. It began with Si Newhouse, the media magnate whose company, Advance Publications, owned Random House at essays in america, the time, and continues to own Conde Nast, the parent company of this magazine. “It was very definitely, and due date, almost uniquely, Si Newhouse’s idea,” Peter Osnos, who edited the book, recalls. GQ , which Conde Nast also owns, had published a cover story on Trump, and Newhouse noticed that newsstand sales had been unusually strong. Newhouse called Trump about the project, then visited him to discuss it.

Random House continued the pursuit with a series of meetings. Essays On Liberty In America? At one point, Howard Kaminsky, who ran Random House then, wrapped a thick Russian novel in a dummy cover that featured a photograph of Trump looking like a conquering hero; at the top was Trump’s name, in large gold block lettering. Kaminsky recalls that Trump was pleased by the mockup, but had one suggestion: “Please make my name much bigger.” After securing the half-million-dollar advance, Trump signed a contract. Around this time, Schwartz, who was one of the paper dissociative disorder, leading young magazine writers of the day, stopped by Trump’s office, in Trump Tower. Schwartz had written about essays on liberty Trump before. In 1985, he’d published a piece in New York called “A Different Kind of Donald Trump Story,” which portrayed him not as a brilliant mogul but as a ham-fisted thug who had unsuccessfully tried to evict rent-controlled and rent-stabilized tenants from a building that he had bought on cover letters Central Park South. Trump’s efforts—which included a plan to house homeless people in on liberty in america, the building in order to harass the tenants—became what Schwartz described as a “fugue of failure, a farce of dissociative disorder fumbling and bumbling.” An accompanying cover portrait depicted Trump as unshaven, unpleasant-looking, and shiny with sweat. Yet, to Schwartz’s amazement, Trump loved the article.

He hung the cover on a wall of his office, and sent a fan note to Schwartz, on his gold-embossed personal stationery. “Everybody seems to have read it,” Trump enthused in the note, which Schwartz has kept. “I was shocked,” Schwartz told me. “Trump didn’t fit any model of human being I’d ever met. He was obsessed with publicity, and he didn’t care what you wrote.” He went on, “Trump only takes two positions. On Liberty In America? Either you’re a scummy loser, liar, whatever, or you’re the greatest. I became the greatest. Thesis System? He wanted to essays in america be seen as a tough guy, and on water supply, he loved being on the cover.” Schwartz wrote him back, saying, “Of all the essays on liberty, people I’ve written about over the years, you are certainly the best sport.” And so Schwartz had returned for more, this time to conduct an interview for Playboy . But to papers his frustration Trump kept making cryptic, monosyllabic statements. “He mysteriously wouldn’t answer my questions,” Schwartz said. After twenty minutes, he said, Trump explained that he didn’t want to reveal anything new about himself—he had just signed a lucrative book deal and needed to save his best material. “What kind of book?” Schwartz said. “My autobiography,” Trump replied. “You’re only thirty-eight—you don’t have one yet!” Schwartz joked.

“Yeah, I know,” Trump said. “If I were you,” Schwartz recalls telling him, “I’d write a book called ‘The Art of the Deal.’ That’s something people would be interested in.” “You’re right,” Trump agreed. “Do you want to essays on liberty in america write it?” Schwartz thought it over for several weeks. Enzyme Alcohol? He knew that he would be making a Faustian bargain. A lifelong liberal, he was hardly an on liberty in america admirer of Trump’s ruthless and enzyme assay alcohol, single-minded pursuit of profit. “It was one of a number of times in my life when I was divided between the Devil and the higher side,” he told me.

He had grown up in in america, a bourgeois, intellectual family in Manhattan, and had attended elite private schools, but he was not as wealthy as some of cover his classmates—and, unlike many of them, he had no trust fund. “I grew up privileged,” he said. “But my parents made it clear: ‘You’re on essays your own.’ ” Around the time Trump made his offer, Schwartz’s wife, Deborah Pines, became pregnant with their second daughter, and he worried that the family wouldn’t fit into their Manhattan apartment, whose mortgage was already too high. “I was overly worried about walmart statement money,” Schwartz said. Essays On Liberty In America? “I thought money would keep me safe and secure—or that was my rationalization.” At the same time, he knew that if he took Trump’s money and adopted Trump’s voice his journalism career would be badly damaged. Research Paper? His heroes were such literary nonfiction writers as Tom Wolfe, John McPhee, and David Halberstam. Being a ghostwriter was hackwork. In the in america, end, though, Schwartz had his price. He told Trump that if he would give him half the advance and supply, half the book’s royalties he’d take the in america, job. Such terms are unusually generous for a ghostwriter. Walmart? Trump, despite having a reputation as a tough negotiator, agreed on the spot. On Liberty? “It was a huge windfall,” Schwartz recalls. “But I knew I was selling out.

Literally, the term was invented to enzyme assay test describe what I did.” Soon Spy was calling him “former journalist Tony Schwartz.” Schwartz thought that “The Art of the Deal” would be an essays easy project. The book’s structure would be simple: he’d chronicle half a dozen or so of Trump’s biggest real-estate deals, dispense some bromides about assignment due date how to succeed in business, and fill in Trump’s life story. For research, he planned to interview Trump on in america a series of thesis supply Saturday mornings. The first session didn’t go as planned, however. In America? After Trump gave him a tour of his marble-and-gilt apartment atop Trump Tower—which, to Schwartz, looked unlived-in, like the cover, lobby of a hotel—they began to talk.

But the essays, discussion was soon hobbled by what Schwartz regards as one of Trump’s most essential characteristics: “He has no attention span.” In those days, Schwartz recalls, Trump was generally affable with reporters, offering short, amusingly immodest quotes on demand. Trump had been forthcoming with him during the New York interview, but it hadn’t required much time or deep reflection. For the book, though, Trump needed to cover sales provide him with sustained, thoughtful recollections. Essays In America? He asked Trump to describe his childhood in detail. Sales? After sitting for only a few minutes in his suit and essays on liberty in america, tie, Trump became impatient and irritable. He looked fidgety, Schwartz recalls, “like a kindergartner who can’t sit still in a classroom.” Even when Schwartz pressed him, Trump seemed to remember almost nothing of his youth, and made it clear that he was bored. Far more quickly than Schwartz had expected, Trump ended the walmart thesis statement, meeting. Week after week, the pattern repeated itself.

Schwartz tried to limit the on liberty, sessions to cover letters sales smaller increments of time, but Trump’s contributions remained oddly truncated and essays in america, superficial. “Trump has been written about a thousand ways from assignment due date, Sunday, but this fundamental aspect of on liberty in america who he is doesn’t seem to be fully understood,” Schwartz told me. “It’s implicit in a lot of what people write, but it’s never explicit—or, at least, I haven’t seen it. And that is that it’s impossible to keep him focussed on any topic, other than his own self-aggrandizement, for college papers more than a few minutes, and even then . . In America? . ” Schwartz trailed off, shaking his head in amazement. He regards Trump’s inability to concentrate as alarming in a Presidential candidate. “If he had to be briefed on a crisis in the Situation Room, it’s impossible to imagine him paying attention over assignment a long period of time,” he said. In a recent phone interview, Trump told me that, to the contrary, he has the skill that matters most in a crisis: the ability to forge compromises. The reason he touted “The Art of the Deal” in his announcement, he explained, was that he believes that recent Presidents have lacked his toughness and finesse: “Look at the trade deficit with China.

Look at the Iran deal. I’ve made a fortune by making deals. Essays On Liberty In America? I do that. On Water System? I do that well. That’s what I do.” But Schwartz believes that Trump’s short attention span has left him with “a stunning level of superficial knowledge and plain ignorance.” He said, “That’s why he so prefers TV as his first news source—information comes in easily digestible sound bites.” He added, “I seriously doubt that Trump has ever read a book straight through in his adult life.” During the eighteen months that he observed Trump, Schwartz said, he never saw a book on Trump’s desk, or elsewhere in on liberty, his office, or in his apartment. Other journalists have noticed Trump’s apparent lack of interest in cover letters sales, reading. In May, Megyn Kelly, of Fox News, asked him to name his favorite book, other than the Bible or “The Art of the Deal.” Trump picked the 1929 novel “All Quiet on essays the Western Front.” Evidently suspecting that many years had elapsed since he’d read it, Kelly asked Trump to talk about the walmart thesis statement, most recent book he’d read. “I read passages, I read areas, I’ll read chapters—I don’t have the time,” Trump said. As The New Republic noted recently, this attitude is not shared by most U.S. Presidents, including Barack Obama, a habitual consumer of current books, and essays in america, George W. Bush, who reportedly engaged in a fiercely competitive book-reading contest with his political adviser Karl Rove.

Trump’s first wife, Ivana, famously claimed that Trump kept a copy of Adolf Hitler’s collected speeches, “My New Order,” in a cabinet beside his bed. In 1990, Trump’s friend Marty Davis, who was then an executive at Paramount, added credence to this story, telling Marie Brenner, of assignment Vanity Fair , that he had given Trump the essays on liberty, book. Due Date? “I thought he would find it interesting,” Davis told her. When Brenner asked Trump about on liberty in america it, however, he mistakenly identified the volume as a different work by Hitler: “Mein Kampf.” Apparently, he had not so much as read the title. “ If I had these speeches, and I am not saying that I do, I would never read them,” Trump told Brenner. Growing desperate, Schwartz devised a strategy for alcohol trapping Trump into giving more material. He made plans to spend the on liberty in america, weekend with Trump at cover, Mar-a-Lago, his mansion in Palm Beach, where there would be fewer distractions. As they chatted in the garden, Ivana icily walked by, clearly annoyed that Schwartz was competing for her husband’s limited free time.

Trump again grew impatient. On Liberty In America? Long before lunch on research dissociative identity disorder Saturday, Schwartz recalls, Trump “essentially threw a fit.” He stood up and announced that he couldn’t stand any more questions. Schwartz went to his room, called his literary agent, Kathy Robbins, and told her that he couldn’t do the book. In America? (Robbins confirms this.) As Schwartz headed back to New York, though, he came up with another plan. He would propose eavesdropping on Trump’s life by following him around on for writing the job and, more important, by listening in on his office phone calls. On Liberty In America? That way, extracting extended reflections from Trump would not be required. When Schwartz presented the idea to Trump, he loved it. Almost every day from then on, Schwartz sat about eight feet away from thesis, him in the Trump Tower office, listening on an extension of Trump’s phone line. Schwartz says that none of the in america, bankers, lawyers, brokers, and cover letters, reporters who called Trump realized that they were being monitored.

The calls usually didn’t last long, and Trump’s assistant facilitated the conversation-hopping. While he was talking with someone, she often came in in america, with a Post-it note informing him of the next caller on hold. “He was playing people,” Schwartz recalls. On the phone with business associates, Trump would flatter, bully, and occasionally get mad, but always in a calculated way. Before the discussion ended, Trump would “share the apa format for writing, news of his latest success,” Schwartz says. Instead of saying goodbye at the end of essays on liberty in america a call, Trump customarily signed off with “You’re the statement, greatest!” There was not a single call that Trump deemed too private for Schwartz to in america hear. “He loved the apa format papers, attention,” Schwartz recalls. “If he could have had three hundred thousand people listening in, he would have been even happier.” This year, Schwartz has heard some argue that there must be a more thoughtful and nuanced version of Donald Trump that he is keeping in on liberty, reserve for assignment due date after the on liberty, campaign. “There isn’t,” Schwartz insists. “There is no private Trump.” This is not a matter of hindsight. While working on “The Art of the Deal,” Schwartz kept a journal in which he expressed his amazement at Trump’s personality, writing that Trump seemed driven entirely by a need for public attention. “All he is assignment due date is ‘stomp, stomp, stomp’—recognition from outside, bigger, more, a whole series of things that go nowhere in particular,” he observed, on October 21, 1986. But, as he noted in the journal a few days later, “the book will be far more successful if Trump is a sympathetic character—even weirdly sympathetic—than if he is just hateful or, worse yet, a one-dimensional blowhard.” Eavesdropping solved the interview problem, but it presented a new one.

After hearing Trump’s discussions about business on the phone, Schwartz asked him brief follow-up questions. He then tried to amplify the material he got from Trump by in america, calling others involved in the deals. But their accounts often directly conflicted with Trump’s. “Lying is second nature to apa format college him,” Schwartz said. “More than anyone else I have ever met, Trump has the ability to convince himself that whatever he is saying at any given moment is true, or sort of true, or at least ought to be true.” Often, Schwartz said, the lies that Trump told him were about money—“how much he had paid for something, or what a building he owned was worth, or how much one of his casinos was earning when it was actually on its way to bankruptcy.” Trump bragged that he paid only eight million dollars for Mar-a-Lago, but omitted that he bought a nearby strip of beach for a record sum. Essays? After gossip columns reported, erroneously, that Prince Charles was considering buying several apartments in Trump Tower, Trump implied that he had no idea where the rumor had started. (“It certainly didn’t hurt us,” he says, in “The Art of the Deal.”) Wayne Barrett, a reporter for the Village Voice , later revealed that Trump himself had planted the story with journalists. Schwartz also suspected that Trump engaged in such media tricks, and asked him about a story making the rounds—that Trump often called up news outlets using a pseudonym.

Trump didn’t deny it. Walmart Thesis? As Schwartz recalls, he smirked and said, “You like that, do you?” Schwartz says of Trump, “He lied strategically. Essays On Liberty? He had a complete lack of due date conscience about it.” Since most people are “constrained by the truth,” Trump’s indifference to it “gave him a strange advantage.” When challenged about the facts, Schwartz says, Trump would often double down, repeat himself, and grow belligerent. This quality was recently on display after Trump posted on Twitter a derogatory image of Hillary Clinton that contained a six-pointed star lifted from a white-supremacist Web site. Campaign staffers took the image down, but two days later Trump angrily defended it, insisting that there was no anti-Semitic implication. Whenever “the thin veneer of Trump’s vanity is essays in america challenged,” Schwartz says, he overreacts—not an for writing ideal quality in a head of state. When Schwartz began writing “The Art of the in america, Deal,” he realized that he needed to put an acceptable face on Trump’s loose relationship with the truth. So he concocted an artful euphemism.

Writing in Trump’s voice, he explained to the reader, “I play to people’s fantasies. Thesis? . . . People want to believe that something is the biggest and the greatest and the most spectacular. I call it truthful hyperbole. In America? It’s an innocent form of exaggeration—and it’s a very effective form of promotion.” Schwartz now disavows the passage. “Deceit,” he told me, is never “innocent.” He added, “ ‘Truthful hyperbole’ is a contradiction in enzyme assay alcohol, terms. It’s a way of in america saying, ‘It’s a lie, but who cares?’ ” Trump, he said, loved the letters sales, phrase. In his journal, Schwartz describes the process of trying to make Trump’s voice palatable in the book.

It was kind of “a trick,” he writes, to mimic Trump’s blunt, staccato, no-apologies delivery while making him seem almost boyishly appealing. Essays On Liberty? One strategy was to make it appear that Trump was just having fun at the office. “I try not to take any of what’s happened too seriously,” Trump says in the book. “The real excitement is playing the game.” In his journal, Schwartz wrote, “Trump stands for many of the things I abhor: his willingness to assignment run over people, the gaudy, tacky, gigantic obsessions, the absolute lack of interest in essays, anything beyond power and money.” Looking back at the text now, Schwartz says, “I created a character far more winning than Trump actually is.” The first line of the book is an example. “I don’t do it for the money,” Trump declares. Cover Letters Sales? “I’ve got enough, much more than I’ll ever need. I do it to essays on liberty in america do it. Assignment? Deals are my art form. Other people paint beautifully on canvas or write wonderful poetry. In America? I like making deals, preferably big deals. That’s how I get my kicks.” Schwartz now laughs at this depiction of Trump as a devoted artisan. “ Of course he’s in it for the money,” he said. “One of the most deep and basic needs he has is to cover prove that ‘I’m richer than you.’ ” As for the idea that making deals is a form of poetry, Schwartz says, “He was incapable of saying something like that—it wouldn’t even be in his vocabulary.” He saw Trump as driven not by a pure love of dealmaking but by on liberty, an insatiable hunger for “money, praise, and celebrity.” Often, after spending the day with Trump, and assignment, watching him pile one hugely expensive project atop the on liberty in america, next, like a circus performer spinning plates, Schwartz would go home and tell his wife, “He’s a living black hole!” Schwartz reminded himself that he was being paid to tell Trump’s story, not his own, but the more he worked on the project the more disturbing he found it. In his journal, he describes the hours he spent with Trump as “draining” and “deadening.” Schwartz told me that Trump’s need for research paper dissociative identity attention is “completely compulsive,” and that his bid for the Presidency is part of a continuum. Essays On Liberty In America? “He’s managed to enzyme keep increasing the dose for forty years,” Schwartz said.

After he’d spent decades as a tabloid titan, “the only on liberty thing left was running for President. If he could run for emperor of the world, he would.” Rhetorically, Schwartz’s aim in “The Art of the statement, Deal” was to in america present Trump as the hero of every chapter, but, after looking into enzyme assay, some of his supposedly brilliant deals, Schwartz concluded that there were cases in which there was no way to make Trump look good. So he sidestepped unflattering incidents and details. “I didn’t consider it my job to investigate,” he says. Schwartz also tried to avoid the strong whiff of cronyism that hovered over some deals. In his 1986 journal, he describes what a challenge it was to on liberty “put his best foot forward” in writing about paper dissociative identity one of Trump’s first triumphs: his development, starting in 1975, of the essays, Grand Hyatt Hotel, on the site of the former Commodore Hotel, next to Grand Central Terminal.

In order to walmart thesis afford the hotel, Trump required an extremely large tax abatement. Essays? Richard Ravitch, who was then in charge of the agency that had the research paper disorder, authority to grant such tax breaks to in america developers, recalls that he declined to grant the abatement, and Trump got “so unpleasant I had to tell him to walmart thesis statement get out.” Trump got it anyway, largely because key city officials had received years of donations from his father, Fred Trump, who was a major real-estate developer in essays, Queens. Walmart Statement? Wayne Barrett, whose reporting for the Voice informed his definitive 1991 book, “Trump: The Deals and the Downfall,” says, “It was all Fred’s political connections that created the abatement.” In addition, Trump snookered rivals into believing that he had an exclusive option from the city on the project, when he didn’t. Trump also deceived his partner in on liberty in america, the deal, Jay Pritzker, the head of the Hyatt Hotel chain. Thesis On Water System? Pritzker had rejected an unfavorable term proposed by Trump, but at the closing Trump forced it through, knowing that Pritzker was on a mountain in Nepal and could not be reached. Schwartz wrote in his journal that “almost everything” about the hotel deal had “an immoral cast.” But as the ghostwriter he was “trying hard to find my way around” behavior that he considered “if not reprehensible, at least morally questionable.” Many tall tales that Trump told Schwartz contained a kernel of truth but made him out to be cleverer than he was. One of Trump’s favorite stories was about how he had tricked the company that owned Holiday Inn into becoming his partner in an Atlantic City casino. On Liberty? Trump claimed that he had quieted executives’ fears of construction delays by ordering his construction supervisor to make a vacant lot that he owned look like “the most active construction site in the history of the world.” As Trump tells it in “The Art of the Deal,” there were so many dump trucks and bulldozers pushing around dirt and filling holes that had just been dug that when Holiday Inn executives visited the site it “looked as if we were in the midst of building the Grand Coulee Dam.” The stunt, Trump claimed, pushed the deal through.

After the apa format papers, book came out, though, a consultant for on liberty Trump’s casinos, Al Glasgow, who is now deceased, told Schwartz, “It never happened.” There may have been one or two trucks, but not the fleet that made it a great story. Schwartz tamped down some of college papers Trump’s swagger, but plenty of on liberty it remained. The manuscript that Random House published was, depending on your perspective, either entertainingly insightful or shamelessly self-aggrandizing. Thesis On Water System? To borrow a title from Norman Mailer, who frequently attended prizefights at Trump’s Atlantic City hotels, the book could have been called “Advertisements for Myself.” In 2005, Timothy L. O’Brien, an award-winning journalist who is currently the executive editor of Bloomberg View, published “Trump Nation,” a meticulous investigative biography. (Trump unsuccessfully sued him for essays libel.) O’Brien has taken a close look at paper dissociative, “The Art of the Deal,” and he told me that it might be best characterized as a “nonfiction work of fiction.” Trump’s life story, as told by Schwartz, honestly chronicled a few setbacks, such as Trump’s disastrous 1983 purchase of the New Jersey Generals, a football team in the flailing United States Football League. But O’Brien believes that Trump used the book to turn almost every step of essays on liberty in america his life, both personal and professional, into a “glittering fable.” Some of the falsehoods in “The Art of the Deal” are minor. Research Dissociative Identity Disorder? Spy upended Trump’s claims that Ivana had been a “top model” and an alternate on the Czech Olympic ski team. Essays On Liberty? Barrett notes that in for writing college, “The Art of the Deal” Trump describes his father as having been born in on liberty in america, New Jersey to Swedish parents; in fact, he was born in the Bronx to dissociative German parents. In America? (Decades later, Trump spread falsehoods about Obama’s origins, claiming it was possible that the President was born in Africa.) In “The Art of the apa format for writing papers, Deal,” Trump portrays himself as a warm family man with endless admirers. He praises Ivana’s taste and business skill—“I said you can’t bet against Ivana, and in america, she proved me right.” But Schwartz noticed little warmth or communication between Trump and Ivana, and he later learned that while “The Art of the Deal” was being written Trump began an affair with Marla Maples, who became his second wife. (He divorced Ivana in disorder, 1992.) As far as Schwartz could tell, Trump spent very little time with his family and essays, had no close friends.

In “The Art of the Deal,” Trump describes Roy Cohn, his personal lawyer, in the warmest terms, calling him “the sort of guy who’d be there at your hospital bed . . Dissociative Identity Disorder? . literally standing by on liberty, you to the death.” Cohn, who in the fifties assisted Senator Joseph McCarthy in his vicious crusade against Communism, was closeted. He felt abandoned by Trump when he became fatally ill from AIDS , and said, “Donald pisses ice water.” Schwartz says of due date Trump, “He’d like people when they were helpful, and turn on them when they weren’t. Essays On Liberty In America? It wasn’t personal. Enzyme Assay Alcohol Test? He’s a transactional man—it was all about essays what you could do for him.” According to Barrett, among the most misleading aspects of “The Art of the Deal” was the assignment due date, idea that Trump made it largely on his own, with only minimal help from on liberty in america, his father, Fred. Cover Letters? Barrett, in his book, notes that Trump once declared, “The working man likes me because he knows I didn’t inherit what I’ve built,” and essays, that in “The Art of the Deal” he derides wealthy heirs as members of enzyme assay test “the Lucky Sperm Club.” Trump’s self-portrayal as a Horatio Alger figure has buttressed his populist appeal in 2016. But his origins were hardly humble.

Fred’s fortune, based on his ownership of essays on liberty in america middle-income properties, wasn’t glamorous, but it was sizable: in 2003, a few years after Fred died, Trump and his siblings reportedly sold some of their father’s real-estate holdings for half a billion dollars. In “The Art of the for writing papers, Deal,” Trump cites his father as “the most important influence on me,” but in essays on liberty, his telling his father’s main legacy was teaching him the importance of “toughness.” Beyond that, Schwartz says, Trump “barely talked about his father—he didn’t want his success to be seen as having anything to enzyme alcohol do with him.” But when Barrett investigated he found that Trump’s father was instrumental in essays on liberty, his son’s rise, financially and walmart thesis statement, politically. In the book, Trump says that “my energy and on liberty in america, my enthusiasm” explain how, as a twenty-nine-year-old with few accomplishments, he acquired the Grand Hyatt Hotel. Barrett reports, however, that Trump’s father had to co-sign the many contracts that the dissociative identity disorder, deal required. He also lent Trump seven and a half million dollars to get started as a casino owner in Atlantic City; at one point, when Trump couldn’t meet payments on other loans, his father tried to tide him over by sending a lawyer to buy some three million dollars’ worth of gambling chips. Barrett told me, “Donald did make some smart moves himself, particularly in assembling the site for the Trump Tower. That was a stroke of genius.” Nonetheless, he said, “The notion that he’s a self-made man is a joke. But I guess they couldn’t call the essays on liberty, book ‘The Art of My Father’s Deals.’ ” The other key myth perpetuated by “The Art of the Deal” was that Trump’s intuitions about business were almost flawless. “The book helped fuel the notion that he couldn’t fail,” Barrett said. But, unbeknown to Schwartz and the public, by late 1987, when the book came out, Trump was heading toward what Barrett calls “simultaneous personal and professional self-destruction.” O’Brien agrees that during the next several years Trump’s life unravelled. The divorce from Ivana reportedly cost him twenty-five million dollars.

Meanwhile, he was in the midst of what O’Brien calls “a crazy shopping spree that resulted in cover, unmanageable debt.” He was buying the Plaza Hotel and also planning to erect “the tallest building in the world,” on the former rail yards that he had bought on the West Side. In 1987, the city denied him permission to construct such a tall skyscraper, but in “The Art of the Deal” he brushed off this failure with a one-liner: “I can afford to wait.” O’Brien says, “The reality is that he couldn’t afford to wait. He was telling the essays on liberty, media that the assignment due date, carrying costs were three million dollars, when in essays on liberty, fact they were more like twenty million.” Trump was also building a third casino in thesis, Atlantic City, the in america, Taj, which he promised would be “the biggest casino in history.” He bought the Eastern Air Lines shuttle that operated out of New York, Boston, and Washington, rechristening it the Trump Shuttle, and acquired a giant yacht, the Trump Princess. “He was on on water supply a total run of complete and utter self-absorption,” Barrett says, adding, “It’s kind of like now.” Schwartz said that when he was writing the book “the greatest percentage of Trump’s assets was in casinos, and he made it sound like each casino was more successful than the last. But every one of on liberty them was failing.” He went on, “I think he was just spinning.

I don’t think he could have believed it at the time. He was losing millions of dollars a day. He had to cover letters sales have been terrified.” In 1992, the essays in america, journalist David Cay Johnston published a book about casinos, “Temples of thesis Chance,” and cited a net-worth statement from 1990 that assessed Trump’s personal wealth. It showed that Trump owed nearly three hundred million dollars more to his creditors than his assets were worth. The next year, his company was forced into essays on liberty, bankruptcy—the first of six such instances.

The Trump meteor had crashed. But in enzyme assay alcohol, “The Art of the Deal,” O’Brien told me, “Trump shrewdly and unabashedly promoted an image of in america himself as a dealmaker nonpareil who could always get the assignment, best out of essays on liberty in america every situation—and who can now deliver America from its malaise.” This idealized version was presented to an exponentially larger audience, O’Brien noted, when Mark Burnett, the reality-television producer, read “The Art of the walmart statement, Deal” and decided to essays on liberty in america base a new show on assignment due date it, “The Apprentice,” with Trump as the essays in america, star. The first season of the show, which premiered in assay alcohol test, 2004, opens with Trump in the back of a limousine, boasting, “I’ve mastered the on liberty, art of the deal, and I’ve turned the name Trump into the highest-quality brand.” An image of the paper dissociative disorder, book’s cover flashes onscreen as Trump explains that, as the “master,” he is now seeking an apprentice. O’Brien said, “ ‘The Apprentice’ is mythmaking on on liberty steroids. There’s a straight line from the book to letters sales the show to the 2016 campaign.” It took Schwartz a little more than a year to write “The Art of the on liberty, Deal.” In the spring of supply 1987, he sent the manuscript to Trump, who returned it to him shortly afterward. There were a few red marks made with a fat-tipped Magic Marker, most of which deleted criticisms that Trump had made of essays in america powerful individuals he no longer wanted to on water system offend, such as Lee Iacocca. Otherwise, Schwartz says, Trump changed almost nothing. In my phone interview with Trump, he initially said of Schwartz, “Tony was very good. On Liberty? He was the co-author.” But he dismissed Schwartz’s account of the writing process. “He didn’t write the book,” Trump told me. “ I wrote the book. I wrote the book.

It was my book. Apa Format For Writing College? And it was a No. 1 best-seller, and one of the best-selling business books of all time. Some say it was the best-selling business book ever.” (It is not.) Howard Kaminsky, the former Random House head, laughed and essays in america, said, “Trump didn’t write a postcard for us!” Trump was far more involved in the book’s promotion. Identity Disorder? He wooed booksellers and made one television appearance after another. He publicly promised to donate his cut of the book’s royalties to charity. He even made a surprise trip to New Hampshire, where he stirred additional publicity by essays in america, floating the possibility that he might run for President. In December of 1987, a month after the book was published, Trump hosted an extravagant book party in the pink marble atrium of Trump Tower.

Klieg lights lit a red carpet outside the building. Inside, nearly a thousand guests, in black tie, were served champagne and fed slices of papers a giant cake replica of essays Trump Tower, which was wheeled in by a parade of college women waving red sparklers. In America? The boxing promoter Don King greeted the system, crowd in a floor-length mink coat, and essays, the comedian Jackie Mason introduced Donald and cover sales, Ivana with the words “Here comes the essays on liberty in america, king and queen!” Trump toasted Schwartz, saying teasingly that he had at least tried to teach him how to make money. Schwartz got more of an education the next day, when he and enzyme assay, Trump spoke on the phone. After chatting briefly about the essays on liberty, party, Trump informed Schwartz that, as his ghostwriter, he owed him for half the event’s cost, which was in the six figures. Schwartz was dumbfounded. “He wanted me to college papers split the essays in america, cost of apa format college entertaining his list of nine hundred second-rate celebrities?” Schwartz had, in fact, learned a few things from watching Trump. Essays On Liberty? He drastically negotiated down the amount that he agreed to pay, to a few thousand dollars, and then wrote Trump a letter promising to write a check not to thesis on water supply system Trump but to a charity of Schwartz’s choosing. It was a page out of essays on liberty Trump’s playbook.

In the past seven years, Trump has promised to give millions of dollars to charity, but reporters for the Washington Post found that they could document only ten thousand dollars in donations—and they uncovered no direct evidence that Trump made charitable contributions from due date, money earned by “The Art of the Deal.” Not long after the in america, discussion of the thesis on water system, party bills, Trump approached Schwartz about writing a sequel, for which Trump had been offered a seven-figure advance. This time, however, he offered Schwartz only a third of the profits. He pointed out that, because the advance was much bigger, the payout would be, too. But Schwartz said no. Feeling deeply alienated, he instead wrote a book called “What Really Matters,” about the essays, search for meaning in life. After working with Trump, Schwartz writes, he felt a “gnawing emptiness” and became a “seeker,” longing to apa format papers “be connected to something timeless and on liberty in america, essential, more real.” Schwartz told me that he has decided to pledge all royalties from sales of “The Art of the Deal” in 2016 to pointedly chosen charities: the National Immigration Law Center, Human Rights Watch, the dissociative identity, Center for essays the Victims of Torture, the National Immigration Forum, and the Tahirih Justice Center.

He doesn’t feel that the gesture absolves him. “I’ll carry this until the end of my life,” he said. “There’s no righting it. But I like the idea that, the more copies that ‘The Art of the Deal’ sells, the more money I can donate to the people whose rights Trump seeks to abridge.” Schwartz expected Trump to attack him for speaking out, and due date, he was correct. Essays? Informed that Schwartz had made critical remarks about him, and wouldn’t be voting for him, Trump said, “He’s probably just doing it for the publicity.” He also said, “Wow. That’s great disloyalty, because I made Tony rich.

He owes a lot to enzyme assay alcohol me. I helped him when he didn’t have two cents in his pocket. It’s great disloyalty. I guess he thinks it’s good for him—but he’ll find out it’s not good for him.” Minutes after Trump got off the phone with me, Schwartz’s cell phone rang. “I hear you’re not voting for me,” Trump said. In America? “I just talked to assay alcohol The New Yorker —which, by in america, the way, is a failing magazine that no one reads—and I heard you were critical of papers me.” “You’re running for President,” Schwartz said. “I disagree with a lot of what you’re saying.” “That’s your right, but then you should have just remained silent. In America? I just want to tell you that I think you’re very disloyal. Enzyme Assay? Without me, you wouldn’t be where you are now. Essays In America? I had a lot of research dissociative choice of who to have write the essays on liberty in america, book, and assay alcohol test, I chose you, and I was very generous with you. Essays On Liberty? I know that you gave a lot of paper dissociative speeches and lectures using ‘The Art of the essays, Deal.’ I could have sued you, but I didn’t.” “My business has nothing to do with ‘The Art of the walmart, Deal.’ ” “That’s not what I’ve been told.” “You’re running for President of the United States. Essays In America? The stakes here are high.” “Yeah, they are,” he said. “Have a nice life.” Trump hung up. Schwartz can understand why Trump feels stung, but he felt that he had to assay test speak up before it was too late.

As for Trump’s anger toward him, he said, “I don’t take it personally, because the essays on liberty in america, truth is he didn’t mean it personally. People are dispensable and disposable in Trump’s world.” If Trump is elected President, he warned, “the millions of people who voted for assignment him and in america, believe that he represents their interests will learn what anyone who deals closely with him already knows—that he couldn’t care less about them.” ¦ Jane Mayer has been a New Yorker staff writer since 1995.