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Pointer Concepts-Part1 (PLDC Assignment)


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Pointer assignment

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brulee vive resume Visites : 11 591 (depuis Novembre 2007) Jusqu#039;ou va se nicher l#039;honneur des hommes ? Souad est la survivante d'un monde lointain , sauvage , d'une barbarie inimaginable pour nous Occidentaux petris de feminisme et de Droits de l'Homme .Jugez plutot avec cet extrait : Une femme la-bas , ( en Cisjordanie) n'a pas de vie . Pointer. Beaucoup de filles sont battues , maltraitees , etranglees , brulees , tuees . Essay. Pour nous , la-bas , c'est tout a fait normal . Assignment. Ma mere a voulu m'empoisonner pour finir le travail de mon beau-frere , et pour elle c'etait normal .(. Phd Thesis Dedication. ) La vache et les moutons , comme mon pere disait , sont mieux consideres que les femmes . Assignment. Si on mba thesis proposal ne veut pas mourir , il faut se taire , obeir , ramper , se marier vierge et faire des fils . Pointer Assignment. Si je n'avais pas rencontre un homme sur mon chemin , c'est la vie que j'aurais eue . Quotations On Essay Iqbal. Mes enfants seraient devenus comme moi . Pointer Assignment. (..) J'aurais peut-etre tue ma fille . Essay About Friendship For Students. J'aurais pu la laisser bruler . Pointer Assignment. Souad n'a eu que le malheur de tomber amoureuse d'un homme qui lui avait promis le mariage mais qui s'est defile alors qu'il l'avait mise enceinte . French Statement. Alors c'est le deshonneur , la honte pour toute la famille qui decide de la tuer . Pointer. C'est le beau-frere qui est charge de la tache par les parents . War Thesis Statement. Il l'arrose d'essence et y met le feu . Pointer. Elle est brulee vive , mais , par miracle , elle ne meurt pas . Iqbal. Des voisins l'amenent a l'hopital du coin ou on pointer assignment la laisse sans soins et ou elle accouche sans s'en rendre compte tant ses souffrances sont atroces . French And Indian War Thesis. Heureusement Jacqueline une volontaire de Terre des Hommes la rencontre et arrive a la sortir du pays avec son enfant pour la faire soigner decemment en Suisse . Assignment. Je n'ai pas lache ce livre car j'ai ete pris de compassion pour cette malheureuse et ai voulu savoir si , enfin , elle arrivait a sortir de tout ce malheur . Quotations. Pour un temoignage , c'est bien ecrit . Assignment. Souad etait illettree , elle a beneficie de l'aide d'une journaliste qui a retranscrit ses paroles . Essay About Friendship For Students. On ne trouve ni jugements , ni imprecations , ni haine , mais des faits , rien que des faits , dans un style depouille , sans fioritures . Assignment. Et c'est accablant de monstruosite . Essays. Tout ce que cette femme a subi , c'est le degre zero de la condition feminine et cela se passe de nos jours en Cisjordanie , mais aussi au Pakistan , au Soudan , au Tchad , en Afghanistan ( meme chez nous ou la mort d'une jeune fille brulee vive a defraye la chronique et a ete a l'origine du mouvement Ni putes ni soumises . Pointer Assignment. ) Plus de 6000 cas sont repertories chaque annee dans le monde! Il fallait briser le tabou . On Essay Allama. Souad l'a fait . Assignment. Bravo pour son courage . For Students Tagalog. Brulee vive [Texte imprime], [document] Souad avec la collab. Pointer Assignment. de Marie-Therese Cuny. ISBN : 9782915056099 ; EUR 18,90 ; 17/04/2003 ; 246 p. Phd Thesis Latex Dedication. ; Broche. Assignment. Brulee vive [Texte imprime] Souad avec la collab. Proposal. de Marie-Therese Cuny. Assignment. Pocket / Presses pocket (Paris) ISBN : 9782266137928 ; EUR 6,20 ; 03/06/2004 ; 219 p. Allama. ; Broche. Pointer Assignment. Pas de série ou de livres liés. Gatsby Essays. Enregistrez-vous pour créer ou modifier une série. Enregistrez-vous pour publier une critique éclair! Critique de Monocle (tournai, Inscrit le 19 fevrier 2010, 57 ans) - 16 janvier 2016.

Khaled Hosseini avait ecrit des pages inoubliables sur la condition de la femme dans des regions musulmanes (Mille soleils splendides). Assignment. Ici Souad y rajoute la barbarie. Phd Thesis Dedication. J'ai beaucoup moins aime la seconde partie du livre (la reconstruction de Souad). Assignment. J'aurai aussi prefere un style un peu plus harmonieux mais je suppose que la belle litterature n'etait pas vraiment le but recherche. Survivante de la barbarie des hommes. Bend. Critique de Monde imaginaire (Bourg La Reine, Inscrite le 6 octobre 2011, 44 ans) - 9 septembre 2015. Pointer. Critique de Yasem (Strasbourg, Inscrite le 30 juin 2008, 26 ans) - 6 mai 2014. French And Indian Statement. C'est impensable pour nous, femmes occidentales, d'etre soumises a ce point, pire qu'un animal.

Dans ces pays ou la femme est consideree comme une malediction, il vaut mieux naitre mouton, vache ou agneau. Pointer. Critique de Sarazohra (, Inscrite le 3 mars 2012, 29 ans) - 14 septembre 2012. Essay About. Critique de Elya (, Inscrite le 22 fevrier 2009, 27 ans) - 20 aout 2012. Assignment. J’ai donc telecharge un peu par hasard Brulee vive de Souad, et je ne le regrette absolument pas. It Like. Il s’agit d’un temoignage edifiant d’une femme native d’un hameau recule (mais pas tant que ca) de Cisjordanie. Elle nous livre son « enfance », son quotidien sans surprises et sans espoirs, si ce n’est que la torture physique et psychique du jour, octroyee par sa famille, soit moins forte. Pointer. Il ne me vient aucun mot pour qualifier la vie de ces femmes, mais aussi de ces hommes, enfermes dans des coutumes plus ou moins ancestrales abjectes, qui les conduisent a commettre des actes inhumains.

La personne qui a permis a Souad d’echapper a la mort temoigne aussi. Beckham Essays. Elle nous apprend que ce dont Souad a ete victime, a savoir un « crime d’honneur », existe toujours de nos jours dans de nombreux pays, y compris en Europe. Pointer Assignment. Difficile de relater leurs nombres tant le sujet est tabou a toutes les echelles de la societe : habitants ruraux, medecins chefs des hopitaux ou les victimes sont recueillies, dirigeants, policiers … Critique de Sevimsi (, Inscrite le 13 janvier 2011, 24 ans) - 25 novembre 2011. Statement. L'ouvrage se base sur des sujets tabous de certaines religions et traditions. Assignment. Elle se deroule dans un pays ou les droits de la femme sont bafoues. Bend It Like Beckham. Un univers ou elles possedent des valeurs inferieures a ceux des animaux. Pointer Assignment. Nous decouvrons aussi dans cette oeuvre jusqu'ou peut aller l’inegalite entre homme et femme. La seule faute de Souad a ete d'etre ?naive et de tomber amoureuse. French And Indian War Thesis. Ainsi nous pouvons voir ou peuvent nous entrainer nos mauvais choix et decisions. Pointer Assignment. Voici un recit a vous tenir eveille pendant des heures.

Impossible a relacher sans voir l'achever. Essays. Critique de KAROLE (, Inscrite le 9 fevrier 2010, 41 ans) - 25 juillet 2011. Ce temoignage est bouleversant et poignant. Pointer. Comment peut-on faire des choses pareilles? comment cela peut-il encore exister? Cette jeune fille a certes ete victime de barbares, sa famille, pour avoir commis l'irreparable, et sali l'honneur . Allama. Souad en a paye le prix fort , une femme tres courageuse. Assignment. Une grande lecon de courage. Dedication. Critique de Lolo (, Inscrit le 2 juillet 2011, 35 ans) - 2 juillet 2011. Pointer Assignment. Ces crimes « d’honneur » ne sont pas punis, consideres comme normaux. Writing Mba Thesis. Combien de femmes vivent encore comme cela aujourd’hui, et combien meurent encore dans des souffrances atroces ?! Je vous le conseille vivement ! Critique de Bernard2 (ARAMITS, Inscrit le 13 mai 2004, 68 ans) - 24 juin 2010. Pointer Assignment. J’ajouterai une chose aux commentaires, nombreux, figurant ici.

Souad dit que si elle etait restee en Cisjordanie, elle aurait probablement fait de meme. Jusqu’a etouffer ses propres filles a la naissance. Essays. Ce qui montre l’ampleur du mal. Pointer Assignment. Car une femme n’est rien, moins qu’une vache ou qu’un mouton. Writing Mba Thesis Proposal. Elle n’est la que pour faire des fils. Assignment. Ce livre est courageux.

Mais helas, il ne pourra certainement pas sauver des vies, celles de femmes bafouees, battues, humiliees, tuees. Phd Thesis. Sans aucune explication autre que le droit a la barbarie. Pointer Assignment. Critique de Lys2000 (, Inscrite le 6 mars 2010, 33 ans) - 9 mars 2010. Critique de Aquarelle (Paris, Inscrite le 29 mai 2006, 43 ans) - 1 septembre 2009. Gatsby. J'ai lu ce livre il y a maintenant plusieurs annees alors je n'ai plus trop le souvenir des details mais ce que je peux dire de ce temoignage, c'est que je l'ai lu tres rapidement tant j'etais captivee et touchee par le destin de Souad.

Comment rester insensible a un telle souffrance gratuite ? En lisant ces pages, j'espere que beaucoup de jeunes filles d'aujourd'hui se rendront compte de la chance qu'elles ont de pouvoir s'epanouir librement, de pouvoir tout simplement EXISTER. Assignment. Bravo a Souad pour son courage ! Critique de Roswell (, Inscrite le 23 fevrier 2006, 35 ans) - 23 fevrier 2006. Critical Essays. Critique de Sandra12 (Geneve, Inscrite le 5 fevrier 2006, 32 ans) - 5 fevrier 2006. Pointer. Critique de TildaMath (, Inscrite le 26 decembre 2005, 25 ans) - 26 decembre 2005. Writing. J'ai lu ce livre l'annee derniere (14 ans dans 1 mois, j'avais donc 13 ans ^^), j'etais consciente que de telles pratiques etaient presentes, mais j'ai enfin pu realiser, avec ce livre.. Assignment. tant la situation est vraiment effroyable.

Chose faite, elle non plus n'a pas ete decue. Latex. On ne realise pas assez le degre d'horreurs present dans ce monde.. Pointer Assignment. J'encourage vivement ce genre de livres, allant droit au but .. Latex Dedication. il n'y a pas assez de temoignage comme ceux-la. Pointer. Bref, en deux mots : lisez-le. Essay About. Critique de Clop (, Inscrite le 15 juillet 2005, 33 ans) - 15 juillet 2005. Pointer. Il vaut vraiment la peine d'etre lu ! Critique de Mukhlah (, Inscrite le 19 mars 2005, 32 ans) - 19 mars 2005. Writing. Critique de Aktiana (, Inscrite le 13 mars 2005, 31 ans) - 13 mars 2005.

Changer les mentalites, les moeurs, un travail enorme reste a faire. Pour Souad, c'etait normal d'etre traitee ainsi, moins que rien, c'etait normal car c'est tout ce qu'elle avait toujours vecu. Pointer Assignment. C'est ce que les femmes vivent dans son village. Writing Proposal. Normal. Pointer. Quand elle allait en ville et voyait des femmes plus libres, on phd thesis lui disait que c'etaient des putes. Pointer. Et elle le croyait.

Parce qu'elle ne connaissait rien d'autre que ce que ses parents lui disaient. Phd Thesis. Il faut de l'information, pour ces femmes, ici et ailleurs, victimes de comportements qui ne devraient plus exister de nos jours, pour qu'elles sachent, non, ce n'est pas normal, il faut faire respecter les droits de l'homme, on assignment est plus au moyen-age. Gatsby. Vous avez le droit d'etre considere comme des etres humains. Assignment. :( et bravo, bravo a toutes les jacqueline qui luttent avec courage contre ces crimes. Un livre lire pour se rendre compte. Bend. Critique de Giallion (, Inscrite le 27 fevrier 2005, 34 ans) - 27 fevrier 2005. Pointer. Critique de Saint Jean-Baptiste (Ottignies, Inscrit le 23 juillet 2003, 81 ans) - 28 janvier 2005. On Essay Allama Iqbal. Ce recit nous livre un autre temoignage, celui de Jacqueline, une benevole de l'Association Terre Des Hommes. Pointer Assignment. Et ce second temoignage est edifiant a vous couper le souffle ! Il nous montre qu'il existe aujourd'hui des etres prets a tout sacrifier et a prendre tous les risques pour venir en aide a leurs semblables.

On est saisi d'admiration devant ce temoignage de tant de grandeur humaine, raconte en toute simplicite, comme si tout ca allait de soi. Friendship Tagalog. Apres le premier recit, celui de la brulee vive, on assignment desespere du genre humain. Bend. Et apres le second, on assignment se dit que tant qu'il y aura des Jacqueline sur la terre le monde sera sauve. French And Indian Statement. Je crois que c'est la moindre des choses que de chercher a savoir ce qui se passe dans le monde ; et meme si ces recits sont tres difficiles, nous devons nous efforcer a les lire, a defaut de pouvoir faire mieux. Pointer Assignment. Critique de Kreen78 (Massy, Inscrite le 11 septembre 2004, 39 ans) - 9 decembre 2004.

Critique de Rosenblum Petit (Marcinelle, Inscrite le 22 novembre 2001, 43 ans) - 20 janvier 2004. En achetant chez nos partenaires, vous aurons une commission ! Mais faire vivre les libraires independants est important aussi.

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How to write a CV | The Ultimate Guide. Whether you are writing a CV for pointer the first time or updating an old CV; the task of writing your CV can be confusing and overwhelming. With lots of conflicting information on the web and few quality examples of latex, CVs available to the public – how exactly are you supposed to know how to write a CV ? You probably have lots of questions… Don't worry … You are not alone in asking these questions and assignment this guide will address them all, from the basics of structure and format, right through to advanced interview-winning techniques. There is also a handy professional CV template that you can download. Of course everyone’s CV will be unique, but my years of experience in recruitment and CV writing have taught me that there are certain guidelines you should stick to, if you want to create an effective CV. Throughout this guide, I will take you through the exact CV writing process that I have used over the past few years to help my candidates and customers land the jobs they want. Here is a breakdown of what I will cover in the guide. It’s a very in-depth guide and essays will take some time to read in pointer, full, so you may want to bookmark this page in your browser and bend download our free CV template to assignment give yourself a head start.

How to write a CV | Guide Contents. 1. What to know before you start writing your CV. If you follow each step in this guide you will greatly increase the number of calls and responses you get from your job applications. Everything written here is it like beckham essays, based on my personal recruitment and CV writing experience, so I’ve seen it work. Before we delve into the details; take a look at the infographic below which gives a quick summary of what will be covered in this guide.

Share this Infographic On Your Site. 1. Assignment? Before you start writing your CV. Solid preparation is the key to success in writing mba thesis proposal, most areas of pointer assignment, life and CV writing is no different. Your CV is one of the most important documents you will ever create and statement it will shape the future of assignment, your career, so it pays to put in some prep time to get yourself on the right track. Before you start crafting your CV, you will need to understand a few things if you want to be successful; What your CV is actually supposed to achieve What employers want to quotations see in your CV Who will be reading your CV (Recruiters Hiring Managers) What is your CV actually supposed to achieve? A good CV is supposed to get you lots of job interviews for the jobs you want – it’s that simple.

That’s obviously easier said than done, but try to remember that point throughout your CV writing process. The way which a CV wins job interviews for you, is by quickly demonstrating to pointer employers that you are the right person for their job. In order to war thesis statement achieve this, you need to understand what employers want to see and how they want to see it – which I will cover in the next 2 sections of pointer assignment, this chapter. What do employers want to phd thesis latex dedication see in your CV? 99% of candidates ruin their chances of job hunt success before they have even typed one word on their CV. Because they don’t take the time to find out what their target employers are looking for. Assignment? They simply write their CV based on the qualities that they think are important.

If you don’t research the on essay, needs of the companies that you are hoping to work for, then you don’t actually know what you should be including in assignment, your CV. You will be using guess work as the foundation of gatsby critical essays, your CV, which will set you up to fail in your job search. The very first thing you need to assignment do, is find out what your target employers are looking for in candidates' CVs, so that you can then fill your CV with content that matches their needs – and therefore impress them. You can actually find out what these needs are quite easily with some simple online research – looking at relevant job adverts is a good place to start. Hit the job websites and bend beckham run a search for pointer the main type of job you are interested in. Head over to one of the essays, major job websites like Monster or Reed and do it now if you can. Make the search as specific as you can by filtering on assignment, salary, location, sector etc. as much as you can - this way you will narrow the search down to include only the writing proposal, types of job you are really interested in. As an example below – I have run a search for Admin Assistant jobs in London paying ?20k - ?25k. Here is one of the pointer assignment, job adverts my search has produced… As you can see it gives us a great insight into what these employers want to see in applicants' CVs. Go through as many adverts as you can and gatsby gather us much information about your target employers as you can.

As you go through the adverts, make a list of the pointer assignment, things that repeatedly appear… they will be the most sought after requirements. After going through a few job Admin Assistant j ob adverts I have made a list of the it like, things that most of the advertisers were looking for pointer assignment here. Obviously your list may be very different depending on your industry but this should give you an gatsby critical idea of the types of things you should be writing down. So before you start writing your CV, make your very own list just like this one. Once you have your list of requirements that your target employers are looking for in applicants, then you have a huge advantage over most other candidates in the job market – because now you know exactly what you need to put in your CV to make it successful – you are not guessing like most other people who simply write a CV, send it out and hope for the best. Some of the requirements in your list will be easy for you to include in your CV – especially the pointer assignment, things that you already have a lot of experience in. However some things may be a bit trickier – particularly when the gatsby critical, adverts are asking for things that you have little or no experience of. But this is OK – you just have to pointer be a bit more creative – often you will find that you have a lot of transferable skills that you can draw from french statement, your experiences in and outside of assignment, work such as education projects, freelance work, volunteering etc. I will cover this in more detail when we start writing your CV, but first we need to understand a little bit more about the people who will be reading your CV… Recruiters and essays Hiring Managers. Who reads your CV? (Recruiters Hiring Managers)

In order to pointer assignment land your next job – you are going to need to impress two types of people; hiring managers and mba thesis recruiters … there’s no way around that fact. If you want to pointer make a really good impression on them, then let’s try to writing proposal look at things from their perspective – it will really help you get the pointer assignment, best results from your CV and your overall job hunt. So who are hiring managers and recruiters? You may already have a rough idea but let’s dig a bit deeper to see what really makes them tick – and bend beckham most importantly, how we can use what we know about them to create a CV that will make them stand up and pay attention to you. Having worked as a recruiter for several years and dealt with lots of hiring managers in my career, I can share 3 things about them both that will help you to assignment write a CV that appeals to both of them. 1. They are both extremely busy with little time to spare. Recruiters and hiring managers have packed days; both working to constant deadlines with a million and proposal one tasks to complete.

For this reason, they don’t like wasting time. If you want to impress them, make sure your CV takes up as little of pointer assignment, their time as possible. You need to ensure that your CV is french, short, sharp and pointer gets your message across quickly. I will show you how to do this in the following chapters, but for now you just need to french know that this is a very important factor in the recruitment process. 2. Pointer? They have lots of bend it like beckham, people competing for pointer their attention. As a recruiter my inbox would sometimes have over 100 unread emails in it and I know that hiring managers are swamped with important calls and emails throughout the about tagalog, working week.

So if you get their attention, you need to make it count. Once you get a recruiter or hiring manager to assignment open your CV, you need to essays make sure you hold their attention by making an instant impact. By making the top part of your CV extremely relevant to pointer assignment them. Again, I will cover how to proposal do this this in more detail in the format, structure and assignment content sections of this guide, but for gatsby essays now you just need to understand importance of making an instant impact with your CV. I can tell you from personal experience that if a recruiter does not see what they need to pointer see as soon they open your CV, then they will usually close it down and move straight on to the next CV – so you need to make sure your CV can hold people’s attention if you want to see the interviews roll in. Recruiters and hiring managers have a reputations to maintain with their peers and clients – there’s a lot of pressure on them to make the right decisions… Especially when it comes to hiring staff. If a hiring manager hires a bad candidate, it can literally ruin their business.

There is a lot at stake when it comes to hiring people. When writing your CV, you need to make sure that you don’t give anybody a single reason to doubt you. In a recent survey of recruitment firms that we ran at StandOut CV; we found that it only takes one grammar mistake for a recruiter to latex dedication start seriously doubting your credibility. So when writing your CV, you need to assignment ensure that your language is flawless and persuasive, the formatting and allama iqbal structure is perfect and you have a proper process in place to run final checks before getting the pointer assignment, CV out to market. Again, I will cover how you actually do this in gatsby critical essays, greater detail during the pointer, following chapters. Before you start writing your CV – Conclusion. OK, now you already have a huge advantage over most other candidates.

You know what your target employers want to see and you know a bit about the french war thesis statement, people who will be reviewing your CV. So in summary, if your CV is going to win interviews it needs to do the 2 following things. It needs to show readers that you have the pointer, skills experience that they need It needs to communicate your value quickly and professionally. If you can do both of these things, you will land a lot of job interviews. If you quickly show a recruiter or hiring manager that you have the skills needed for their job. For Students Tagalog? They will look at the CV and pointer assignment instantly say, “T his person can do the job, let’s get them in for an interview ”. So over the next few chapters I will explain exactly how you can do this with a structure that highlights the important information and it like beckham content that will have your desired employers desperate to interview you. 2. How to format and structure your CV.

Now that you know what to pointer include in writing mba thesis, your CV and who will be reading it, you need to assignment format and structure your CV in friendship for students, a way that will do the following things; Make your CV look impeccably professional Make your CV easy for assignment readers to navigate and essay friendship find the information they need Make the information easily digestible and quick-to-read. The infographic below gives a high level of overview of the best way to structure your CV. I’ll run through each section to give a bit more detail on each. As I mentioned earlier, recruiters and hiring managers tend to pointer assignment be very busy, so it’s best to keep your CV short and sharp to ensure it gets read. Ideally your CV should be around 2 pages in phd thesis latex, length , but if you go a little over or under, don’t worry - there is no set-in-stone rule about around how long your CV should be.

If you have lots of experience then you may find that you stray on to the pointer, third page slightly, and conversely if you don’t have much experience, then you may struggle to fill the on essay allama, second page completely. Just to try to keep as close to 2 pages as you can. Quick tip: If you find your CV is coming in pointer, too long – cut down some of the detail in your older roles as recruiters will be focusing more on your recent roles. When formatting your CV, simplicity and readability are essential if you want to keep your CV readers happy. Microsoft Word is the gatsby critical essays, most widely used and liked format for CVs across the UK, so always send your CV in Word if you want to pointer ensure it gets opened.

Avoid sending your CV in PDF because it is non-editable and on essay allama iqbal sometimes recruiters will need to make slight edits to your CV before they can send it on to hiring managers and clients. The font you use just needs to be easy to read, professional looking and pointer assignment used consistently throughout the CV. At StandOut CV we use fonts like Arial, Tahoma and french and indian war thesis statement Calibri in pointer assignment, our customer CVs. Gatsby Critical? Avoid using overly complex fonts as they can be difficult to read and may discourage recruiters from pointer assignment, reading your CV in full. Unless you’re applying for an acting or modelling job, a photograph is not necessary in your CV. Photos take up a lot of the limited space available on your CV and it’s better to fill that space with compelling reasons for an employer to hire you. To keep your CV looking professional, it’s best to stick to black text on gatsby essays, a white background for the body of pointer, your sections. It’s OK to add a splash of colour to headings when applying to modern trendy firms (like tech startups for example) but don’t go crazy and proposal ensure it still looks professional. This an example of a typical that CV structure we have livened up with a bit of colour. Before I delve into the nuts and bolts of each CV section, here is a brief overview of the way your CV should be divided and sub-headed. The images also show how much space each section should take up on pointer, a typical 2 page CV.

Start the top of your CV with your name and contact details so that the writing, reader knows who you are and how they can reach you if they want to assignment invite you in for an interview. Telephone number – mobile is best so you can respond to recruiters whilst on the move. Email address – use an address that looks professional – no nicknames etc. French And Indian? Location – State your general location such as London – there’s no need to put your full address. Also if you are willing to relocate then state where you are willing to assignment move to. Location is very important as you can be quickly rejected from a role if the recruiter thinks you live too far away to commute. You can also add your LinkedIn profile address and even Twitter handle if you have a work-based Twitter profile. Your CV profile is phd thesis dedication, like an introduction that sits just under your contact details. The aim of your profile is to draw the reader in assignment, by summarising all of your skills and knowledge in a few punchy sentences that leaves them wanting to latex read more. After your profile, you need to detail your current and previous employment to showcase the work that you’ve done and how you’ve helped your employers. Generally your roles should be listed in reverse chronological order (from most recent to oldest) but there are some occasions where you can make exceptions to pointer that rule.

Near the bottom of your CV you should list your education and qualifications. Quotations? Generally speaking school leavers and recent graduates should include a lot of detail here to make up for the lack of work experience – whereas experienced candidates can afford to have a shorter education section, as their role descriptions will be more important to assignment recruiters. Interests are an optional section and should only really be included where they can add value to allama iqbal an application e.g. Pointer Assignment? work related interests, volunteering, impressive achievements etc. Now I will run through how to structure and write all of these sections; 3. Gatsby? Writing your CV Profile/Personal Statement. Your Profile (or Personal Statement as it is often referred to in academic fields) is the very first thing a recruiter or hiring manager will read, so you need to pointer ensure that it is packed with the requirements that your target employers are looking for. Here are a couple of example CV profiles to give you an idea of phd thesis dedication, how they should look and assignment read.

Sitting at the top of your CV, the purpose of your profile is to give a rounded summary of your talents and show what you have to offer an employer, in phd thesis dedication, a few punchy yet professional sentences. Focus on including hard factual skills such as industry specific skills, experience, languages, software knowledge etc. And really try to pointer avoid using CV cliches and buzzwords . What are cliches and buzzwords? Cliches and buzzwords are vague phrases that are often used to describe soft skills such as: You’ve probably seen them and you may have even been tempted to use them in your CV. The problem with cliches and buzzwords is that they tend to statement be very generic and assignment don’t tell the reader much about you in reality, so it’s best to keep them out of your CV or at least keep them to a minimum. If you want to prove you’re a hard-working team-player, then give examples of team based results you’ve achieved in essay, your role descriptions. This way the assignment, reader can see relevant examples of how you apply your skills in your work rather than just being told that you are a “hard worker”. The difference between a good and bad CV profile.

Here is an example of a bad profile section. Read it and see if you can tell what the phd thesis latex, candidate actually does… “Hard working professional who works well in a team or individually, quick to grasp new ideas skills. Pointer Assignment? I take pride in my work and phd thesis latex dedication strive for excellence and always meet deadlines” What job would this person be suitable for? Although it may sound impressive, it’s impossible to tell what this candidate has to offer because the profile is full of assignment, cliches and contains no facts – this is quotations on essay allama, what you should avoid at pointer, all costs.

Some of the gatsby critical, points may be important but they are totally meaningless without facts and context so recruiters won’t learn anything about assignment you with a profile like this. Here is essay about friendship, how we re-wrote this section of the candidate’s profile… “Accomplished Project Support Assistant with a proven track record in assignment, the support of large construction teams on the delivery of quotations allama, complex housing builds within strict budgets and deadlines” If you make your profile more factual like this, it will give recruiters a greater understanding of what you have to offer. Add a Core Skills section to boost your profile. A core skills section is a very simple but effective section you can add to the bottom of your profile. It’s essentially a bullet pointed list of attributes which ideally should relate directly to the requirements that your employers are looking for. Here is an pointer example from a candidate applying for a customer service role in writing mba thesis proposal, retail banking. The effect is pointer assignment, that each point jumps out essay for students tagalog of the page at the reader and shows them that you are a good fit for the role, just from glancing at your CV. This helps you to pointer create that big instant impression that you need to get a response from your job applications.

You can include anything that will be relevant from IT skills and industry knowledge, to education results and it like achievements. Assignment? Just make sure they are important to the roles you are applying for french war thesis by checking with relevant job adverts. 4. Your Work Experience | What to include in your CV and pointer assignment how to structure your roles. Your work experience gives you an excellent opportunity to showcase your abilities and really delve into the details of what you can offer an employer. Your role descriptions need to convey that your experience equips you with the skills and bend it like beckham essays knowledge needed to assignment carry out the jobs you are applying for.

First I will give you an overview of essay for students tagalog, which roles to include and pointer assignment how to list them – then I will demonstrate how to structure each role for quotations on essay iqbal maximum effect. Roles should be written in pointer assignment, reverse chronological order starting with your current or most recent role and working your way down to on essay your oldest role. This generally works very well for those with experience in the field they are applying to – but candidates with limited experience or those making a career change can break this rule slightly if they need to (I will cover this more in assignment, the next section). You will mainly want to include your paid jobs but you can also add voluntary positions or even university/college work placements if they are relevant to the roles you are applying to. Your current role and recent roles should contain lots of detail because recruiters are most interested in what you are capable of right now. Older roles can be summarised as you go down the CV, as recruiters will be less interested in your roles from and indian war thesis, several years ago.

Breaking the chronological order rule (If you have little or no experience) If you've got plenty of experience in the field you are applying to assignment – you may want to bend it like beckham essays skip this section. Click here to pointer skip. You don’t always have to start your CV roles with your most recent paid role - especially if you fall in to and indian one of the pointer, 2 following categories . If you fall into one of quotations, these brackets then it’s likely that your most recent paid role will not be entirely relevant to the firms you are applying for. If your most recent role won’t appeal to your target employers, then you can use a bit of assignment, creative licence and writing mba thesis insert a more relevant past role at the top of your CV such as: Let’s take a look at pointer assignment, the example candidates above and see how they can break the chronological order role slightly, to make their CVs appear more suitable for and indian war thesis statement the jobs they are applying to. 1. Recent graduate or school leaver.

If you are a recent graduate or school leaver, you can often use older work placements and other non-paid roles to replace your current role at the top of assignment, your CV, if it makes your CV appear more relevant. Take a look at bend it like beckham, the example below. Laura has recently graduated with a degree in aerospace engineering and is looking for an entry level job with an pointer assignment aerospace design firm. Laura’s current job as a waitress in a local restaurant is not hugely relevant to the aerospace firms she is applying to, so she shouldn't put the essays, waitress role at the top of her CV if she can avoid it. However, Laura did complete a one month work placement for an aerospace research firm in 2012 as part of her University degree. In this case, Laura should list the aerospace work placement at the top of her work experience section – she shouldn't keep it hidden in her education section at the bottom of her CV.

Now recruiters will instantly be able to see that Laura has relevant work experience as soon as they open her CV and pointer she will seem much more suitable for the role. Although it bends the rules slightly, it will make a much better first impression on her target employers. 2. Somebody looking to make a career change. Also if you're looking to make a career change then your current role will probably not be relevant to essays the roles you are applying for. For example, David has got lots of experience in pointer, IT support, which is great – but now that he is looking to move into a care worker position, his current IT support manager role will not be relevant to the employers he is phd thesis latex, hoping to impress.

David has however done a few weeks of voluntary care work at pointer, a local nursing home a few months ago. In this case, David just needs to friendship for students slot the voluntary care role above his current IT role to instantly show recruiters that he has some relevant experience and make his CV stand out assignment . Being creative with your first listed role in this manner does technically bend the quotations iqbal, CV writing rules slightly, but it gives you a much greater chance of impressing employers and landing interviews. If you don’t have any experience at all that you can add in this fashion, then the simple solution is to go out and pointer assignment get some. Look for bend it like beckham essays voluntary work, sign up to freelancing websites, take a training course or even offer to help businesses for free. Even if you only get a few weeks experience, it can be a huge boost to assignment your CV, so it’s worth doing. Structuring your CV role descriptions. If you want your role descriptions to be easily readable and beckham essays really highlight the value in hiring you, then they need to be well structured and written. The annotated example here shows how to assignment structure your roles for maximum results. As with your entire CV, you should try to highlight the skills and experience that your audience will be looking for. Prioritise the quotations on essay allama, responsibilities by ensuring that the most relevant information for assignment your target employers is at the top of each role in great detail. Long periods of unemployment can be off-putting for employers because it simply appears as though you haven’t been doing anything during that period – unless you state otherwise.

So if you have any periods of unemployment that lasted over a month or so, then try to fill them with constructive activities to quotations allama make yourself look pro-active and positive e.g. Studying – with details of qualifications gained or working towards Travel – great to pointer demonstrate planning, organisation and people skills Volunteer roles or personal projects – e.g. caring for a family member, working for about friendship tagalog a community initiative. If you've had time out for personal reasons such as a serious illness, then don't be worried about including it on your CV - employers should not discriminate against pointer assignment, you for it. French Statement? Just keep the detail light and focus on highlighting your value throughout the rest of your CV. The language used in assignment, your CV should be professional, persuasive, descriptive and grammatically perfect throughout. It should read like a sales brochure for a luxury product; leaving the proposal, reader desperate to call you, just in case they miss out on the opportunity.

The language used in pointer, your CV gives recruiters an insight into your written communication skills and latex your professionalism, so make it count. Avoid using basic language because it makes you look like a basic candidate, when you need to look outstanding. By basic language, I mean writing in a plain and non-descriptive fashion like this… “I was working for the manager and pointer assignment helping out statement with various tasks across the business” That looks dull, uninspiring and a not too impressive. However, you can reword the exact same responsibilities to be more descriptive and sound much more impressive, like this: “Reporting directly to the manager, supporting a number of business critical functions” Even something like; Can be improved to something like; “Managing and analysing stock levels throughout the store to ensure that customers always have access to assignment high demand products at peak times”

Although that’s an iqbal extreme example, it displays a better style of written communication and shows that you have an understanding of how the task affects the business at a higher level. When writing your CV, ensure that you are using professional language at all times and fully describing your impact on employers. If you struggle to write professionally or English isn't your first language, I would recommend using a free grammar checking tool like Grammarly - It highlights your mistakes and provides suggestions for corrections. You can also head over to LinkedIn and run a search for pointer assignment similar professionals to yourself. Browse through a few profiles and look at the language being used for writing proposal some inspiration.

Although you can mention your education and qualifications in your CV profile, their full details should be listed near to pointer assignment the bottom of your CV. The amount of information that you include in this section will largely depend on your experience level. Generally speaking, if you have lots of essay about tagalog, work experience, you won’t need to write about your education in assignment, great detail, as recruiters will be more interested in your work history. If you are relatively inexperienced, such as recent graduate or school leaver, then you should write about your education in more detail because that’s where most of your skills and experience will lie. To counter your lack of work experience, you can include dissertations, school/university projects, exam modules etc. and endeavour to highlight the points that are relevant to the roles you are applying to. The following examples show how to french list your education at different stages in pointer, your career. Entry level CV – Graduate/School Leaver. Candidates often ask whether or not they need to include their interests on their CV and if they will actually make a difference in mba thesis, an application. The answer depends on two aspects – the role that you are applying for and if your interests bear any relevance to pointer the role. On one hand, if you are an experienced and writing mba thesis proposal qualified doctor applying for a GP role, then adding your interests of going to the cinema or watching football will have little impact on your application – they just don’t add any value. However, if you are a recent graduate applying for a management Grad scheme with little work experience, then a hobby such as captaining a football team, can actually be a great way to demonstrate leadership and assignment organisation.

Interests are optional and in phd thesis latex, many cases, they won’t make a huge difference – but if you feel that they could impact your application then you should include them. Sports teams or interest societies and clubs – competing in sports or other pursuits can show determination, team work and a competitive nature. Travel – travelling can be of interest to employers as it can show independence, organisation and pointer an outgoing personality. Volunteering – volunteering for charities or community projects shows pro-activity and a willingness to help others, which are both desirable traits in tagalog, an employee. Interests to leave out of your CV. “Socialising with friends” – a lot of people write this phrase on their CV, but nearly everybody on the planet socialises with their friends, so it’s not something worth mentioning on your CV. Political/Religious views – politics and assignment religion are probably a bit heavy for essay a CV and won’t really add much to the strength of an application. Anything that could be considered controversial or slightly weird - if you are into witchcraft or hamster grooming then that’s fine… but best not to add it to your CV to avoid being pre-judged by recruiters. Download our basic Microsoft Word CV template here to get a head start with your own CV.

Using the pointer assignment, CV template in about friendship tagalog, conjunction with this guide should put you on the right track to creating an impressive CV and kick starting your job hunt. Once you've finished writing your CV then make sure that you triple check it for errors before sending it out to anybody. Nothing will put a recruiter off you more quickly than spelling errors, typos and grammatical mistakes . Perhaps even ask a friend or family member to pointer run through it to and indian get a different perspective and pointer assignment ensure it all makes sense. Also ensure that the mba thesis proposal, CV sits at pointer assignment, around 2 pages in length and that all the information is nicely broken up for ease of reading. Now you are ready to start job hunting. Once you’ve started your job hunt, you can still make changes to dedication your CV if you need to. For example you may want to tailor your CV when applying for different roles to further ensure that your CV matches each job advert. You may find that certain areas of pointer assignment, your CV are prompting negative feedback and will need to be modified in order to improve your chances. Any adaptions you can make that lead to more interview requests, are worth making. Hopefully this guide will help you to create your own CV and start to land quality job interviews in your chosen field.

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an exhibition essay Writing the Exhibition Essay. “Many of us were taught to pointer, gather our thoughts, organize them, and then write them down. The truth is it like that writing is a process that generates thought. Only when we try to write something down do we discover what we really think.” - Leon Botstein, Jefferson’s Children. A few words about writing your Exhibition essay. We recognize that the way you write your essays will vary from person to person. And in the end we are less concerned with how you generate your ideas and write your essay than with the quality of your hypothesis, the clarity of your prose, and the persuasiveness of your argument. For this reason we will collect but not grade your Exhibition essay “process.” Nonetheless, it is essential that in these early stages you conceive of this essay as a “process” and approach it accordingly. Pointer. Below, by the way of review, are some of my thoughts on how you might go about writing this essay. There are many ways to phd thesis dedication, begin an essay and develop a topic. You might begin with a clear interest – Hamlet’s opening encounter with his mother in Act I, scene ii – and generalize this into a larger issue: Hamlet’s relationship to women, for instance, or his relationship to parental authority.

Or you might begin with a more general interest (Hamlet’s relationship to pointer, women) and work your way back into the text. That is, you can move from the specific (Hamlet berating his mother before the court) to bend beckham essays, the general (Hamlet and women), or from the general (Hamlet and women) to the specific (Hamlet berating his mother, Hamlet soliloquizing on the iniquity of women, Hamlet berating Ophelia). Pointer Assignment. But you must attend carefully to the details of the text. That is, you must work inductively : Accumulate details and move from them outward toward more general claims. (My students will recognize that this is how I ask them to write journals.) If you have no idea at all what to write on, you might begin broadly by beckham writing a journal describing your reactions to the book—the characters, the story, the style, the conclusion, anything at all. Pointer. What was most interesting, most satisfying, most frustrating about about, your book?

What characters, scenes, or images most interest you? Why? Attend carefully to your own reactions—anger, sorrow, laughter—and try to build a topic around them. Pointer Assignment. Once you have decided on a topic you need to decide which moments, which scenes, which material is most relevant to gatsby, it. Make connections.

If you are interested in pointer Hamlet’s relationship to women you might want to think about—and begin planning journals on—Hamlet’s encounters with Ophelia, the play within the essay about friendship for students tagalog, play, Hamlet in his mother’s bedchamber, etc. A strong topic is nothing more than a tool that will allow you to think more deeply and in a more focused way about assignment, your book. At this point, think about your essay as a series of short 2 page exploratory journals of the sort you have been writing throughout your career here at phd thesis latex, St. Andrew’s. The quality of your final essay will depend upon the thoroughness, depth, and detail of these journals, so plan and execute them carefully. After you finish these journals, you will need to reread them critically, assessing their strengths and assignment, weaknesses.

Consider questions you can ask yourself in order to develop your analysis. Which ideas, for and indian war thesis instance, need to be developed? Which ideas are most important? Can you describe how they connect? You might at this point sit down and pointer assignment, try to write a tentative hypothesis . Remember: your hypothesis may not – probably will not – come easily. Latex Dedication. I have often noticed in essays that the hypothesis does not emerge until the last page, the last paragraph, sometimes the very last sentence of an essay – which is not surprising.

Often – and I know that this is true of my own work – you need to write your way toward a hypothesis. (This is pointer what Botstein means when he says that writing generates thought). This period of gatsby critical essays, germination – as you begin to develop and then refine your hypothesis – is at once the most exciting and potentially the most frustrating stage of the entire process. The quality of your final essay will depend upon the thinking you do here. So be patient. You may need to pointer, read a little bit more. You may discover that you need to look at some additional material.

You may have to rethink your topic or subject your hypothesis to further testing and analysis. (“Oops, I forgot about Hamlet and his mother in Act V.”) An essay about one thing may – and probably should – transform into another. It is quotations allama critical that you begin writing early so that you can allow your hypothesis to pointer assignment, develop. On Essay. Once you have developed a hypothesis and pointer, tested it with further journals and questions, you will have your thesis. When does a hypothesis become a thesis? you ask. Quotations Iqbal. There are no easy answers here, so I will quote someone else, the sociologist C. Wright Mills: “Thinking is pointer a struggle for order and at the same time for comprehensives. You must not stop thinking too soon – or you will fail to know all that you should; you cannot leave it to latex, go on forever, or you yourself will burst. It is this dilemma, I suppose, that makes reflection…the most passionate endeavor of which the human being is capable.” Whatever your thesis, it should be adequate to the complexity, scope, and beauty of your book. Pointer. Now you are ready to draft your essay.

Organize your argument around your thesis. But beware: an essay is quotations allama not a journal. Your journals can be probing, tentative, exploratory. Essays must be forceful, organized, persuasive . (Your essay, therefore, should be more than a series of journals loosely strung together; it should be an argument . Assignment. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence; this topic sentence should, in turn, connect, in some way to writing, your thesis.) A good essay instructs and persuades; it shows me something new and allows me to see things more clearly. Pointer. Your final essay should not only quotations on essay, present the results of pointer, your research and thinking but explain, through careful and tagalog, close analysis of the text, how you got there. Pointer Assignment. All that now remains is for you to revise, edit, and proofread. One suggestion; read your essay aloud to yourself. Mills again: “Any writing – perhaps apart from that of certain truly great stylists – that is not imaginable as human speech is bad writing.” Articulate a problem, issue, or question of interest – that is develop a topic. Writing Mba Thesis. Locate moments, passages, scenes relevant to your topic. Generate a working hypothesis (that is, a tentative proposition) through the pointer, writing of journals.

Test this hypothesis, if necessary, with further questions and and indian, journals. Refine and elaborate your hypothesis into a thesis. Draft a clear, persuasive, and carefully paragraphed essay whose thesis is pointer supported by critical essays the appropriate evidence.

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Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The Federal Emergency Management Agency: Floods, Failures, and Federalism. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the lead federal agency for assignment, disaster preparedness, response, and proposal relief. FEMA’s budget fluctuates from year to year, but spending has trended sharply upwards in recent decades.

The agency spent $22 billion in fiscal 2013 and assignment $10 billion in statement, fiscal 2014. The main activity of FEMA is distributing aid to individuals and state and local governments after natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and pointer assignment earthquakes. In addition, the critical, agency provides ongoing grants to the states for disaster preparedness, and pointer it operates the writing mba thesis, National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA’s response to some major disasters has been slow, disorganized, and profligate. Assignment. The agency’s actions have sometimes been harmful, such as when it has blocked the relief efforts of other organizations.

FEMA’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina in quotations, 2005 dramatized the agency’s bureaucratic dysfunction. FEMA’s grants for disaster preparedness are known for wastefulness. As for the NFIP, its insurance subsidies are spurring development in flood-prone areas, which in turn is increasing the damage caused by floods. The NFIP also encourages an expansion of pointer, federal regulatory control over local land-use planning. Federalism is supposed to undergird America’s system of handling disasters, particularly natural disasters. State, local, and private organizations should play the dominant role. Looking at American history, many disasters have generated large outpourings of aid by essays individuals, businesses, and charitable groups.

Today, however, growing federal intervention is undermining the role of private institutions and the states in pointer, handling disasters. Phd Thesis Latex Dedication. Policymakers should reverse course and begin cutting FEMA. Pointer. Ultimately, the bend it like beckham essays, agency should be closed down by ending aid programs for disaster preparedness and relief and privatizing flood insurance. President Jimmy Carter created the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by pointer executive order in 1979 to coordinate the government’s growing involvement in disasters. Among federal agencies, FEMA has the lead role in helping communities respond to both natural and french and indian war thesis statement man-made disasters. However, the great bulk of FEMA spending is for pointer, natural disasters, which are the main focus of this essay.

Aside from disaster relief, FEMA provides ongoing aid to the states for emergency preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program. FEMA employees are generally not first responders. Instead, their main role is writing mba thesis proposal, providing financial aid to state and local governments and pointer individuals. FEMA spent $10 billion in fiscal 2014, but annual expenditures fluctuate depending on and indian war thesis the occurrence of disasters. 1 Spending has trended upwards in recent decades as federal aid packages have become larger and pointer assignment more frequent. About Tagalog. Annual average FEMA spending was $0.7 billion in the 1980s, $2.8 billion in the 1990s, $13 billion in assignment, the 2000s, and $13 billion so far in the 2010s. Since 2000, 61 percent of FEMA spending has been for disaster relief, 20 percent has been for ongoing grants to state and local governments, and 12 percent has gone to the NFIP. French War Thesis. 2 The remaining 7 percent has gone to other programs and administrative costs.

Prior to the mid-20th century, federal involvement in disasters was generally limited to the activities of the U.S. military, which provided relief after some major disasters. There was very little civilian federal involvement in disasters, which were the responsibility of state and local governments and the private sector. But since the 1950s, federal intervention has grown as numerous laws have expanded the scope of federal authority and as policymakers have increased spending. Nonetheless, the federal role is still supposed to be very limited under current law. Under the 1988 Stafford Act, the federal government is supposed to get involved in disasters only if they are of “such severity and pointer magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments.” 3 A very limited federal role is appropriate under the American system of federalism. State and local governments and the private sector should fund disaster preparedness and relief for disasters by themselves, unless it is truly beyond their capabilities. And even then, states hit by disasters can rely on aid from other states. Federal involvement is it like beckham essays, appropriate when it has unique capabilities to offer. The Coast Guard’s search and rescue operations are often vital after hurricanes.

And the National Guard under state command can provide a crucial resource after major disasters, both for law enforcement purposes and relief operations. Other federal agencies have unique resources to deal with threats such as terrorism, pandemics, and chemical and biological attacks. However, the great majority of what FEMA does is not unique. Rather, FEMA’s main role is simply to transfer money from federal taxpayers to state and local governments and individuals for pointer assignment, disaster-related costs. But there are few, if any, advantages in funding these costs from the federal level, and there are many disadvantages, as this study discusses. The first section provides a brief history of disaster response in the United States. The next section discusses the dedication, threat posed by the rising federalization of disaster preparedness, response, and relief. Federal policymakers are increasingly ignoring the Stafford Act limit, which could undermine the effectiveness of the nation’s disaster response system. Then the study examines FEMA’s performance in disaster response. The agency’s efforts have often been plagued by poor decisionmaking, wasteful spending, and excessive bureaucracy.

Some of its actions have been counterproductive and harmful. FEMA’s confused response to Hurricane Katrina was a prime example of the dysfunction that the agency has become known for. Next, the study looks at FEMA’s ongoing grants to state and local governments for disaster preparedness, which are mainly grants for local emergency services. These grants have often wasted money on assignment low-value activities. It is war thesis statement, more efficient to fund local emergency services—such as fire and police—locally. Lastly, the study examines the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).

For decades, the NFIP has been subsidizing development in flood-prone areas, which has ended up putting more property at risk and exacerbating the assignment, damage from gatsby critical essays, floods. Assignment. The NFIP has also undermined federalism by critical essays increasing federal regulation of local land-use planning. The essay concludes that policymakers should end FEMA aid for pointer assignment, disaster preparedness, response, and relief. They should repeal the NFIP and move flood insurance to the private sector. Those reforms would reduce FEMA spending by more than 90 percent. French War Thesis Statement. Remaining activities that may fulfill a unique role—such as flood mapping, planning for the continuity of government, and preparedness for technological and radiological hazards—should be moved to other federal agencies. With these reforms, FEMA should be closed down. Since the 19th century, the pointer, federal government through the U.S. military has occasionally provided aid after major disasters. 4 Until the mid-20th century, however, civilian federal aid for disasters was rare. After some disasters, Congress passed specific relief legislation, but many times it did not.

Relief bills were often blocked because policymakers did not believe that aid was a proper role for the federal government. 5 Between 1803 and 1947, Congress passed legislation just 128 times to either express sympathy for bend essays, victims of particular disasters or to provide some modest aid. Pointer Assignment. 6. In 1802 Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was destroyed by gatsby a fire. Fortunately, a large number of private donations totaling more than $45,000 poured in from around the country to help rebuild the town. 7 Congress provided aid in the form of temporarily suspending duties owed to the federal government by merchants in the town. 8 Duties on Portsmouth trade were an important source of federal revenues, so the government had an interest in allowing the merchants to get back on their feet. In 1812 Congress provided $50,000 for pointer assignment, aid to victims of an earthquake in the new republic of Venezuela, apparently for foreign policy reasons. 9. In 1815 Congress passed the bend it like beckham essays, New Madrid Relief Act, which provided aid to pointer assignment rural Missourians after a series of earthquakes.

The aid bill led to dissention and french and indian statement scandal. The act allowed victims in Missouri to exchange their damaged properties for pointer assignment, certificates to acquire land elsewhere. And Indian. But outside speculators descended on the area to buy land at bargain prices from owners who had not yet heard about the federal relief. At the same time, some owners who knew about the assignment, relief sold title to it like beckham their land to multiple different speculators. The resulting unfairness of the assignment, process led to large amounts of litigation, which took decades to resolve. 10. In 1827 Congress gave $20,000 in aid to Alexandria, Virginia, after a major fire. About Friendship. Even though the assignment, town was part of the District of Columbia at the time, many members of writing, Congress questioned the pointer assignment, constitutionality of quotations iqbal, providing public money to aid private individuals. 11.

In 1835 the pointer assignment, Great Fire of Manhattan razed 674 buildings over 50 acres in New York City. Congress passed legislation temporarily suspending payments owed to the federal government by the city’s affected merchants. 12. In 1871 the Great Chicago Fire left about 300 people dead and 90,000 homeless. The U.S.

Army helped to restore order and provide security until the city got back on its feet. 13 Within days of the disaster, huge amounts of aid from individuals, charitable groups, businesses, and other cities poured in from around the nation and latex dedication abroad. 14 Chicago rebuilt very quickly. The private organization Chicago Relief and Aid Society played the dominant role in coordinating the pointer, huge relief efforts. 15 The effective efforts of the it like, Society were based on the organization’s deep roots in the local community and its skilled leadership by pointer experienced business people. In 1878 Congress passed the Posse Comitatus Act, which has had important implications for the federal role in disasters. The Act generally bars military forces under federal command from critical, being used for civilian law enforcement purposes. 16 Under current law, federal military personnel may be used for pointer, disaster relief operations at the request of a state, but not for phd thesis, law enforcement. 17 By contrast, National Guard units under the pointer assignment, command of state governors are available to aid in law enforcement in disaster situations, as they were after Hurricane Katrina when the bend beckham essays, New Orleans police force collapsed.

In 1887 President Grover Cleveland famously vetoed a bill that would have provided $10,000 in aid to drought-stricken Texas farmers because of his concerns about constitutional federalism. In his veto message, Cleveland said, I can find no warrant for pointer, such an appropriation in the Constitution; and I do not believe that the power and duty of the General Government ought to french be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in no manner properly related to the public service or benefit. A prevalent tendency to disregard the limited mission of this power and pointer assignment duty should, I think, be steadily resisted, to and indian war thesis the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the assignment, Government, the Government should not support the people.” 18. In 1906 San Francisco was struck by a massive earthquake and fire that destroyed 80 percent of the city and killed about 3,000 people. 19 At least 225,000 people out of about 400,000 in the city were left homeless, and 28,000 buildings were wrecked. 20.

The San Francisco earthquake is remembered not just for the terrible destruction it caused, but also for the remarkably rapid rebuilding of the city. More than 200,000 residents initially left the city, but the population recovered to pre-quake levels within just three years, and residents quickly rebuilt about 20,000 buildings. 21. The private sector response to the disaster was extremely impressive. Voluntary aid poured in iqbal, from around the country. John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and W.W. Astor, for example, each donated $100,000.

22 Charitable groups, including the Salvation Army and the Red Cross, played a large role in relief efforts. Assignment. The health care and home-products company Johnson and Johnson quickly loaded rail cars full of donated medical supplies and sent them to San Francisco. 23. The insurance industry was crucial to the rebuilding. About 90 percent of San Francisco residents had fire insurance from more than 100 different companies. Essay About. 24 The companies ended up paying out a massive $225 million in claims, which was equal to what the entire U.S. insurance industry had earned in profits in the prior four decades.

25 Insurance payouts totaled about 90 percent of what was owed, as only a relatively small number of companies failed. 26. The banking system was devastated, with nearly all of San Francisco’s bank buildings destroyed. The small bank owned by Amadeo Giannini, which he had opened just two years earlier, was also ruined. But Giannini was able to rescue his gold and pointer securities, and quotations iqbal the next day he opened for business on a wharf on pointer San Francisco Bay. His rapid response and willingness to provide loans to all types of people after the disaster helped him gain the war thesis, respect of the city.

His bank would eventually grow to assignment be the second-largest in the nation, the Bank of about friendship for students, America. Another impressive story is that of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which immediately swung into action and pointer assignment provided free evacuation for more than 200,000 city residents to anywhere in the country. 27 Within five days of the earthquake, the company had filled 5,783 rail cars with passengers leaving the city. Bend It Like Beckham. 28 Southern Pacific president Edward Harriman made disaster response the highest priority of his rail network. 29 Only one day after the earthquake, the first of his rail cars full of emergency supplies left Omaha for San Francisco. 30 Harriman personally donated $200,000 to relief efforts.

31. What about the government response to the San Francisco conflagration? The city had unfortunately suffered for years from a corrupt local government. Assignment. The good news was that in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, leading citizens formed essentially a new city government called the “Committee of 50,” which was credited with a very organized and effective disaster response. 32 For its part, Congress appropriated just $2.5 million for relief to San Francisco, or about $50 million in critical, today’s dollars. Pointer Assignment. 33. The main federal organization that responded was the U.S. Army, which moved quickly to take control of the city and provide water, food, tents, and other relief items. Within five hours of the earthquake hitting, the Army had 1,500 troops in the city. 34 Some of the actions of the critical essays, Army were controversial, but the swift response by pointer the commander of the nearby Presidio base is an about friendship for students tagalog example of how local resources and local decisionmaking are crucial in the aftermath of disasters. 35.

In 1913 the Great Easter Flood ravaged a huge area in pointer assignment, one of the most widespread and damaging disasters to ever strike the United States. 36 High winds and massive flooding caused destruction and more than 1,000 deaths across 14 states from Vermont to Alabama. Essay For Students Tagalog. The U.S. military aided with relief operations, and assignment the National Guard was mobilized in bend it like essays, numerous states. Americans responded with huge contributions to the Red Cross and other charitable organizations aiding victims. 37. Ohio was the hardest hit state, and Dayton probably the hardest hit city.

It was built on a flood plain, so when the city’s levee system collapsed it resulted in disastrous flooding. Fortunately for Dayton, it was home to the National Cash Register Company (NCR) under President John Patterson. Seeing the flood disaster that was about to assignment happen, Patterson seized the initiative and NCR become the critical essays, central funder and organizer of relief in the city. NCR built 300 boats to rescue flood victims, organized search teams, and provided meals and shelter for thousands of assignment, people. On its peak day, NCR’s kitchens provided meals for 83,000 flood victims. 38 NCR headquarters also became the essay about friendship for students, base of operations for the Red Cross and Ohio National Guard. 39. John Patterson was an pointer interesting leader.

He instituted innovative and enlightened management practices, such as providing a wide range of recreation and medical amenities for workers. But he was also an beckham essays aggressive businessman, and he and assignment other NCR executives were found guilty of violating federal antitrust laws just weeks before the about, flood, although this was reversed on appeal. Pointer. 40 NCR’s leaders apparently saw a chance to redeem themselves in the eyes of the community, and their remarkable efforts to save their city during the flood gained them national praise. Historian Trudy Bell writes in detail about the 1913 disaster. Essays. 41 One of her interesting findings is that there were widespread refusals of aid by affected individuals and pointer communities, apparently because of on essay iqbal, cultural norms at the time regarding personal pride and the belief in standing on one’s own feet. 42 In 1913 some people and communities even gave back unused amounts of aid that they had received.

These days, sadly, the situation is the reverse: there is pointer assignment, a large amount of fraud in relief programs in the wake of disasters. In 1917 War Department regulations established precedents that guided the writing proposal, federal role in disaster relief in subsequent decades. 43 The rules specified that state governments have primary responsibility for disaster response, federal resources should supplement not supplant state efforts, and federal aid is appropriate only when state governments are truly overwhelmed. In 1927 one of the most damaging floods in pointer, U.S. history occurred when the proposal, Mississippi River and tributaries broke out of pointer, levee systems in and indian, many places. The Great Mississippi Flood highlighted failures of the Army Corps of Engineers’ approach to flood control.

44 In annual reports before the flood, the Corps told Congress that the Mississippi was safe from serious flooding. Assignment. 45. In the flood’s aftermath, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Herbert Hoover to dedication lead the federal disaster response, which mainly involved helping to coordinate private relief efforts. 46 Those private efforts included the Red Cross’s huge achievement in providing hundreds of thousands of people food and pointer shelter in temporary camps. 47 Hoover made appeals to the public for on essay allama, donations and was impressed by the generosity of so many people: “No other Main Street in the world could have done what the American Main Street did in pointer, the Mississippi flood… . Essays. The safety of the United States is its multitudinous mass leadership.” 48. Despite Hoover’s prominent role in the 1927 flood, federal relief spending for natural disasters remained modest and assignment sporadic. It was the Disaster Relief Act of 1950 that started to change that by french war thesis creating a permanent, civilian structure for pointer, federal disaster relief. The Act authorized only a small amount of latex dedication, funding, but it gave the president continuing authority to respond to hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other events with various types of aid. 49. The 1950 law reaffirmed that the federal role was to provide supplementary aid to state and local governments only in the severest of emergencies.

In 1953 President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 10427, which said that federal disaster relief should be “supplementary to relief afforded by state, local, or private agencies and not in pointer, substitution.” 50. In the phd thesis dedication, decades after the 1950 law, Congress expanded the scope of federal aid in more than a dozen laws. As an example, federal aid was initially only pointer provided to local governments, and generally not individuals. Essay Tagalog. But Congress added aid for individuals in assignment, the Disaster Relief Act of 1970. 51. In 1968 the National Flood Insurance Act offered federal insurance to properties at risk for bend beckham essays, flooding. A key justification by supporters of federal flood insurance was that it would alleviate the need to pass special aid legislation after each flood disaster. As it has turned out, however, taxpayers are now both subsidizing flood insurance and paying for special relief bills passed after floods.

The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 created the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. This administration was the main forerunner of FEMA. The 1974 Act also created the current system of presidential “emergency” and “major disaster” declarations for adverse events. The main purpose of the declarations is to authorize a flow of federal dollars to aid state and local governments and individuals. The number of presidential declarations has soared since the 1970s, as discussed below. In 1979 President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Orders 12127 and 12148 to create and structure the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Carter was prompted to pointer create the phd thesis latex, new agency after the confused and ineffective federal responses to Hurricane Agnes in 1972 and pointer the Three Mile Island incident of 1979. 52 His administration patched FEMA together from existing agencies located in gatsby essays, various departments.

FEMA’s main responsibilities are to hand out pointer, aid and to coordinate the federal response to major disasters that overwhelm state and local governments. In 1988 the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act updated the framework for presidential disaster declarations and the coordination of FEMA’s response. Latex Dedication. 53 The governor of pointer, a state may request the president to declare an “emergency” or a “major disaster” if an event “is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments and essay about for students that federal assistance is necessary.” 54 “Emergency” declarations are usually made before disasters such as hurricanes hit, while “major disaster” declarations come after disasters hit and create broad authority for federal agencies to aid state and local governments and individuals. In recent years, 86 percent of major disaster declarations requested by governors have been approved by the president. 55.

Aid authorized under the pointer, Stafford Act is disbursed from french, FEMA’s Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). DRF spending fluctuates from year to year depending on events, but since 2000 has averaged $8.3 billion annually. 56 Spending peaked at $24 billion in 2006 after Hurricane Katrina. In recent years, 50 percent of DRF spending has gone to state and local governments for damaged public facilities and debris removal, 29 percent was spent on individual aid, and the rest was spent on administration and other costs. 57 For public facilities and debris removal, the federal government generally pays 75 percent of the assignment, costs and state and local governments pay the other 25 percent. But the essay for students tagalog, president can increase the federal share of these costs, and pointer he has done so about three-quarters of the time that governors have asked him to.

58. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) finds that the share of DRF funding spent on administration doubled between 1989 and 2011 from 9 percent to 18 percent. 59 Thus, almost a fifth of federal disaster aid is consumed by the paperwork costs. The GAO notes that the cost to administer some small disaster declarations actually exceeds the amount of federal aid provided. 60. On paper, the Stafford Act reaffirms principles of federalism in gatsby, disaster response, but in practice it has spurred increased federal intervention in smaller-scale disasters.

Few of the assignment, “major disasters” declared in recent decades have actually been major enough to meet the plain language of the statute. 61 Heritage Foundation FEMA expert Matt Mayer notes, “it is clear that the current definition used by FEMA to issue declarations is routinely ignored.” 62 He observes that some declarations are made months after disasters occur, which indicates that the writing, purpose is assignment, simply for critical, states to get a federal bailout. In 2002 President George W. Bush signed into law the assignment, Homeland Security Act creating the massive Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which merged 22 existing federal agencies including FEMA. President Bush promised that the iqbal, new DHS would “improve efficiency without growing government,” create “future savings,” and cut out “duplicative and pointer redundant activities that drain critical homeland security resources.” 63. It has not turned out phd thesis dedication, that way. Pointer. DHS’s budget tripled from $18 billion in 2002 to $57 billion by 2013. 64 And, like other federal departments, DHS has become known for mismanagement and wasteful spending. For example, the department’s gigantic new headquarters being planned in Washington, D.C., is writing mba thesis proposal, over-budget by $1.5 billion. 65. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina caused massive damage to the Gulf Coast, flooded New Orleans, and killed more than 1,800 people.

The storm damage was greatly exacerbated by the failures of FEMA, Congress, the assignment, Army Corps of Engineers, and state and mba thesis proposal local governments. 66 The fact that FEMA had been buried inside of the new DHS bureaucracy was one factor that may have contributed to the agency’s failed response. Congress appropriated more than $100 billion for FEMA and pointer other federal agencies for the Katrina response and rebuilding, much of which was spent years after the disaster. 67. FEMA appears to have done a better job in essay about friendship for students tagalog, responding to Hurricane Sandy in 2012, although there was still plenty of criticism. 68 With a presidential election only a week away, the Obama administration seemed determined not to be tarred with failure, as was the pointer assignment, Bush administration with Katrina. The storm caused an estimated 159 deaths and tens of billions of dollars in damage in New York, New Jersey, and other states. Latex Dedication. Congress passed a $60 billion relief bill after Sandy, but most the pointer assignment, funds were for rebuilding years down the road and other purposes, not for immediate relief. 69 Such spending should be a state, local, and private responsibility, not a federal one. One interesting aspect of the federal Sandy response was that the allama iqbal, president pushed aside FEMA as the lead agency for assignment, disaster recovery and french and indian war thesis created a new Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force chaired by the secretary of Housing and pointer assignment Urban Development (HUD). A larger share of the $60 billion Sandy aid money was channeled through HUD than FEMA.

70 These developments suggest an unfortunate broadening of federal subsidy efforts in response to major disasters. Federalization of Disaster Relief. In the U.S. About For Students Tagalog. disaster response system, the assignment, primary government responsibility is supposed to lie with the states. The federal government is it like beckham, only supposed to play a supporting role in the largest of disasters. Pointer. Here’s how the Congressional Research Service describes the writing proposal, system: The United States takes a “bottom up” approach to both managing and providing assistance during a disaster.

The responsibility for responding to disasters begins at the local level with elected officials and emergency service personnel. Pointer Assignment. If the allama, local governmental resources are overwhelmed, non-governmental organizations in the community and neighboring governmental jurisdictions may be called upon to provide assistance. If those become exhausted, the state and tribal governments may supplement the pointer assignment, local government’s resources, and the governor may make a state disaster declaration. Essay About Friendship For Students Tagalog. Only after both local and state/tribal government resources have been overwhelmed, and the governor of the state has requested assistance, does the pointer assignment, federal government begin to “supplement the efforts and available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the phd thesis latex dedication, damage, loss, hardship, or suffering. Under this principle, except in assignment, the most extraordinary circumstances, the local and state/tribal governments are in charge of the disaster response. FEMA, or any other federal agency, is there to phd thesis latex dedication aid the disaster response process through the National Response Framework and pointer assignment programs it administers, and to phd thesis latex coordinate federal resources in response to pointer assignment state requests—not to be in the lead or take command. 71.

A decentralized approach to disasters makes sense. Under the U.S. Constitution, the powers delegated to the federal government are “few and defined,” as James Madison observed in Federalist 45, while state powers “will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and essay about friendship tagalog properties of the people, and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the pointer assignment, State.” Constitutionally, the states should generally handle their own disasters. From a practical perspective, it is state, local, and private organizations and critical essays resources that are on the scene and available to pointer immediately assist in emergencies. State and local governments employ 1.3 million people in police forces and fire departments, and it like those first responders are spread out across our huge nation. 72 State governors have wideranging responsibilities during disasters, and they typically have access to special powers, such as being able to order evacuations. As for the private sector, the 9/11 Commission report noted that “because 85 percent of pointer assignment, our nation’s critical infrastructure is phd thesis latex dedication, controlled not by pointer governments but by the private sector, private-sector civilians are likely to be the first responders in any future catastrophes.” 73. Nonetheless, the federal government’s role in disasters has been growing steadily in recent decades. This is a troubling development. Essays. Excessive federal intervention threatens to pointer assignment undermine and crowd out essay friendship for students tagalog, more efficient state, local, and private disaster response efforts.

Also, federal interventions usually come with top-down rules that stifle innovation and assignment reduce the efficiency of state and local government services. What is the cause of rising federal intervention in disasters? Partly it was the response to 9/11, and partly it is the result of today’s media environment. News reports often imply that the federal government should come to the rescue in response to local emergencies. Presidents often visit disaster sites hoping to phd thesis latex make it look like they are in charge.

Television coverage shows officials from FEMA and other federal agencies on the scene. However, such images give a misleading impression since state governments are actually in charge of assignment, disaster situations, and local and private organizations carry out the bulk of response and relief. Homeland security expert James Miskel notes that FEMA leaders in disaster areas have “no directive authority and gatsby critical can only request or suggest actions by pointer the state.” 74. The bipartisan House report on Katrina in 2006 noted that “many Americans—and perhaps even some state and local officials—falsely viewed FEMA as some sort of national fire and rescue team” but “FEMA is not a first responder agency.” 75 Instead, for essay tagalog, most disasters, the assignment, purpose of federal intervention is simply to pay for writing mba thesis proposal, state, local, and private costs with federal taxpayer dollars. The only federal role for pointer assignment, the “vast majority” of declared major disasters is financial.

76. In his book, Disaster Response and Homeland Security , James Miskel writes: In all but a handful of quotations allama, instances, federal disaster relief amounts to a book-keeping exercise in which costs are shifted from the assignment, state’s ledger to the federal government’s and bend the federal action consists of little more than writing a check to the affected state and/or local government and assignment subsequently auditing the expenditure. Thus for dedication, the typical disaster, the on-the-ground response action is really confined to two of the three system elements: the pointer assignment, private sector and the state/local government agencies. In the typical disaster—even the typical federally declared disaster—the federal government plays no operational role at all. Even in major disasters the coordination function is led by the affected state or states. When a federal coordinator is appointed, his or her job is to orchestrate the response efforts of federal agencies, not to ‘take over’ the entire response. 77. The large amount of federal disaster aid that is french war thesis statement, potentially available to the states has created a political dynamic that has pushed up federal costs. After even small, localized disasters, governors, state politicians, and state congressional delegations often lobby the White House to assignment declare the event a “major disaster” so that the state can access federal aid. As a consequence, the number of disaster declarations has soared in recent decades.

The annual average number was 51 in the 1970s, 29 in the 1980s, 74 in quotations on essay allama iqbal, the 1990s, 127 in pointer, the 2000s, and 139 so far in the 2010s. Gatsby Critical Essays. 78 There has been more than one disaster declaration every three days, on average, in assignment, recent years. Politics infuses the process. Studies find states that are politically important to the president have a better chance of receiving a disaster declaration, and also that states with a member of Congress serving on the House committee overseeing FEMA typically receive more funding. 79. Recent presidents have tended to proposal declare the most major disasters in pointer assignment, the year that they were up for reelection. That was true for Ronald Reagan in bend essays, 1984, George H. W. Pointer. Bush in 1992, and Bill Clinton in 1996. George W. Bush declared the most disasters of his first term in his reelection year of quotations, 2004. Aside from politics, another cause of increasing federal intervention is that the threshold that FEMA uses to pointer assignment determine whether federal aid is appropriate is “artificially low,” says the GAO. 80 FEMA mainly relies on a per capita damage threshold to determine if federal aid is needed. In 2012 the threshold for gatsby critical essays, damage to assignment public facilities was $1.35 per capita, so that a state with 10 million people would receive federal aid to pay for all disasters causing $13.5 million or more in damage.

81. GAO finds that FEMA’s dollar thresholds have not kept pace with inflation and growth, so that over time a larger share of disasters are meeting the threshold for aid. Quotations Allama. Occasional efforts to pointer assignment impose stricter limits have been rebuffed by Congress. 82 Yet the french statement, thresholds for federal intervention are absurdly low. GAO finds that in recent years 60 percent of federally declared disasters had a cost of pointer, less than $25 million. 83 Even the smallest state could easily find the money to pay for a disaster of phd thesis dedication, that size. What are the assignment, problems created by rising federal intervention?

As noted, it goes against gatsby critical essays the grain of constitutional federalism. And, practically, the pointer assignment, great majority of on essay allama, first responder resources are owned and managed locally. Matt Mayer notes, “almost all disasters are indeed local, which is why the vast majority of them should be responded to, run by, and funded by state and pointer assignment local governments and their taxpayers.” 84. Federal intervention impedes disaster response and statement rebuilding because of all the extra paperwork involved. James Fossett of the Rockefeller Institute of Government notes that FEMA’s program for assignment, aiding state and local governments, “requires local governments to obtain advance approval for each project and pay for bend beckham essays, each project up front before getting federal reimbursement for their costs, which must be exhaustively documented. Pointer. These lengthy, complex processes inevitably delay the essays, recovery process and make it difficult to spend money in a timely fashion.” 85 Fossett notes that FEMA does not have sufficient staff to review in a timely fashion the thousands of assignment, state and essay about friendship for students local projects submitted to it for approval after a large storm.

86. Another problem with federal intervention is that it creates inequities between the states. Federal disaster aid means that the costs of living in more dangerous places, such as on the Florida seacoast, are partly imposed on the residents of other states. Pointer. Some states, such as Michigan, have very few federally declared disasters, but have to foot the bill for the states where disasters are more costly 87. People should balance the full costs and benefits of living in different places in an unsubsidized manner. Florida has more costly natural disasters than Michigan, but people should trade that off against the extra sun and warmth. The federal government should not incentivize people to live in Florida, but that is what federal disaster aid does. Perhaps the writing mba thesis proposal, main problem with federal aid is that it reduces the incentive for state and local governments to prepare for disasters themselves. In his book, Disasters and Democracy , Professor Rutherford Platt concludes that it is “good politics for state and local governments to neglect their own disaster response capabilities in order to make it easier to qualify for pointer, a presidential declaration.” 88.

A Heritage Foundation study finds that the states have cut their preparedness budgets and rainy day funds in recent years, apparently because they assume that Uncle Sam will pay for critical essays, disasters. 89 As federal subsidies expand, it may cause a “ratcheting down” of state disaster response capabilities. 90 Adding to the problem, FEMA may have a bias toward turning down disaster aid for states that have strong emergency capabilities because such states do not “need” federal aid. 91. Experts have long been concerned about these negative incentive effects of federal aid. Pointer. A White House study under Richard Nixon warned against federal disaster aid that was “so generous that individuals, businesses, and communities have little incentive to take initiatives to reduce personal and local hazards.” 92 Vice President Al Gore’s “reinventing government” initiative looked at America’s disaster relief system in the 1990s, and about for students concluded that it “encourages state and local elected officials to assignment ask for maximum federal disaster assistance.” 93 The report warned that “the ready availability of allama iqbal, federal funds may actually contribute to disaster losses by reducing incentives for hazard mitigation and preparedness.” 94 Similarly, House and pointer assignment Senate reports after the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake concluded that the availability of mba thesis proposal, federal aid had encouraged state and pointer local governments to neglect disaster preparation and mitigation. 95. In the wake of FEMA’s failures during Hurricane Katrina, Florida governor Jeb Bush warned against proposals that would strengthen federal powers at the expense of the states. He said, “As the governor of a state that has been hit by seven hurricanes and dedication two tropical storms in the past 13 months, I can say with certainty that federalizing emergency response to catastrophic events would be a disaster as bad as Hurricane Katrina.” 96 And, he said, “if you federalize, all the pointer, innovation, creativity and knowledge at the local level would subside.” 97. The upshot is essays, that increased federal intervention would backfire. As Matt Mayer says, the pointer assignment, “states should not be rewarded for being underprepared,” which they are under the current system.

98 Indeed, federal disaster aid in recent years is almost treated as if a state has won the lottery. Phd Thesis. After Hurricane Sandy, politicians in the affected states announced grand ideas about pointer assignment how they wanted to spend the tens of billions of dollars of federal relief money. A Bloomberg headline captured the essence: “Sandy Seen as Stimulus, Thanks to Rebuilding.” 99. A federal response is, of course, crucial for terrorism and other threats where federal agencies have unique capabilities that states do not have. Federal agencies, for example, have specialized resources to handle chemical and biological attacks, pandemics, and and indian war thesis nuclear threats.

And, as discussed in this essay, the Coast Guard plays a crucial role in hurricane disasters, while the U.S. military is sometimes called into service for relief in truly major disasters. But nearly all of FEMA’s spending is for natural disaster preparedness, response, and relief that should be funded at the state, local, and private levels. After numerous disasters, FEMA has been criticized for assignment, its slow response, wasteful spending, red tape, and phd thesis dedication poor coordination. FEMA’s response to Hurricane Katrina exemplified those problems, but it was only one “in a series of major hurricanes in which the overall system performed poorly,” according to pointer security expert James Miskel. Latex Dedication. 100 He notes that “an objective examination of FEMA’s history suggests that bureaucratic weakness is the assignment, rule rather than the exception for the agency.” 101. FEMA’s poor response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992 illustrated some of the agency’s shortcomings.

Andrew, which struck southern Florida, caused 61 deaths and was the essay for students tagalog, third most costly hurricane in U.S. Assignment. history, after Katrina and Sandy. Mba Thesis Proposal. 102 “The federal response … was fraught with delays and major problems,” notes Platt. 103 It took a long time for FEMA to get a detailed assessment of pointer assignment, damage and to determine the needs of the victims. 104 The agency made poor decisions, such as setting up telephone banks for victims to call in for aid—even though 150,000 people had lost phone service. Mba Thesis. 105. Another blunder was that FEMA did not arrange for pre-positioned supplies at locations close to the coming hurricane because of its misunderstanding of pointer assignment, actions allowed before a presidential disaster declaration. 106 In the days leading up to Andrew’s landfall, the Department of Defense readied supplies to be shipped to South Florida, but because of FEMA’s flawed understanding of proper procedures, it did not authorize the shipments. One official report on Hurricane Andrew concluded that too many senior federal officials were political appointees without adequate experience in disaster response. 107 There were also many reports of fraud and french and indian war thesis waste in FEMA’s relief efforts. Overseeing a hearing on Andrew in 1992, Sen.

Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) said, “I am outraged by the federal government’s pathetically sluggish response and ill-planned response to the devastating disaster wrought by Hurricane Andrew … Time and again the federal government has failed to respond quickly and effectively to major disasters.” 108. Meanwhile, the U.S. military, the National Guard, and the private sector played large and pointer effective roles in responding to Hurricane Andrew. 109 The military provided supplies such as meals and medical care. National Guardsmen under state command aided local law enforcement. 110 And the private sector response was exemplified by about for students tagalog the impressive efforts of electric utilities to restore power. Hundreds of crews of utility workers from across Florida and numerous other states worked tirelessly to fix the huge number of outages. 111. FEMA’s shortcomings, which were apparent during Andrew, were magnified during the agency’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina. Katrina resulted in the flooding of New Orleans, massive destruction along the Gulf Coast, $100 billion in property damage, and about 1,800 deaths. Weather forecasters warned the public and policymakers about the hurricane’s approach, and so governments should have been ready for it. But they were not, and Katrina exposed major failures in disaster preparedness and pointer assignment response by FEMA and other federal, state, and local agencies.

Here are a few of the federal failures in the Katrina response: Confusion . Key officials in FEMA and DHS were not proactive, they gave faulty information to and indian war thesis the public, and they were not adequately trained to pointer assignment carry out their roles. Essay Friendship For Students. The 2006 bipartisan House report on the disaster, A Failure of Initiative , says, “federal agencies, including DHS, had varying degrees of unfamiliarity with their roles and responsibilities under the National Response Plan and National Incident Management System.” 112 The report says there was “general confusion over mission assignments, deployments, and command structure.” 113 One reason that FEMA was confused was that its executive suites were full of political appointees with little disaster experience. 114 That has been the rule, not the exception with FEMA, which “has often been staffed with executives who were not highly regarded in the field of disaster relief.” 115 Failure to pointer assignment Learn . Mba Thesis. The government was unprepared for Katrina even though it was widely known that such a hurricane was probable, and weather forecasters had been accurate in predicting the advance of Katrina before landfall. Pointer Assignment. 116 A year prior to Katrina, government agencies had performed a simulation exercise—“Hurricane Pam”—for a hurricane of similar strength hitting New Orleans, but governments “failed to learn important lessons” from the phd thesis latex, exercise. 117 Communications Breakdown . The House report found that there was “a complete breakdown in communications that paralyzed command and pointer assignment control and bend made situational awareness murky at best.” 118 Agencies could not communicate with each other due to equipment failures and a lack of system interoperability. 119 These problems occurred despite the fact that FEMA and predecessor agencies have been giving grants to state and local governments for pointer assignment, emergency communication systems since the beginning of the quotations allama, Cold War.

120 Supply Failures . Some emergency supplies were prepositioned before the storm, but there was nowhere near enough. 121 In places that desperately needed help, such as the New Orleans Superdome, it took days to assignment deliver medical supplies. 122 And FEMA wasted huge amounts of supplies. It delivered millions of pounds of ice to holding centers in cities far away from the Gulf Coast. FEMA sent truckers carrying ice on latex dedication wild goose chases across the country. 123 Two years later, the agency ended up throwing out $100 million of ice unused. 124 FEMA similarly gave away $85 million worth of household goods purchased for victims that sat unused in warehouses for two years.

125 The agency paid for 25,000 mobile homes costing $900 million, but these went almost totally unused due to pointer assignment FEMA’s own regulations that such homes cannot be used on flood plains, which is where most Katrina victims lived. 126 Indecision . Indecision plagued government leaders in numerous areas, such as the friendship for students tagalog, deployment of supplies, medical personnel, and assignment other items. 127 Even the grisly task of body recovery after Katrina was slow and phd thesis latex dedication confused. Bodies went uncollected for days “as state and federal officials remained indecisive on a body recovery plan.” 128 FEMA waited for Louisiana to make decisions about bodies, but the governor of Louisiana blamed FEMA’s tardiness in making a deal with a contractor. Pointer Assignment. Similar problems of and indian, too many bureaucratic cooks in the kitchen hampered decisionmaking in areas such as organizing evacuations and providing law enforcement resources to Louisiana. Pointer Assignment. And before the gatsby, storm, too many agencies were responsible for New Orleans’ levees, so nobody took responsibility for the deficiencies. Assignment. Fraud and Abuse . Free-flowing Katrina aid unleased a torrent of fraud and abuse. GAO estimated that $1 billion or more in aid payments for individuals were invalid or fraudulent. 129 Other estimates put the latex dedication, total waste at up to $2 billion.

130 An Associated Press analysis found that “people claiming to pointer live in as many as 162,750 homes that did not exist before the writing mba thesis proposal, storms may have improperly received as much as $1 billion in tax money.” 131 A New York Times investigation concluded: “Among the many superlatives associated with Hurricane Katrina can now be added this one: it produced one of the most extraordinary displays of scams, schemes and pointer stupefying bureaucratic bungles in modern history, costing taxpayers up to $2 billion.” 132. Perhaps the most appalling aspect of the federal response was that FEMA frequently obstructed the proposal, relief efforts of other organizations. Here are some examples: FEMA repeatedly blocked the delivery of emergency supplies ordered by the Methodist Hospital in New Orleans from its out-of-state headquarters. 133 FEMA turned away doctors volunteering their services at emergency facilities. Assignment. Methodist’s sister hospital, Chalmette, for example, sent doctors to the emergency facility set up at New Orleans Airport to offer their services, but were turned away because their names were not in a government database. 134 Private medical air transport companies played an important role in evacuations after Katrina. But FEMA officials provided no help in coordinating these services, and they actively blocked some of the flights.

135 FEMA “refused Amtrak’s offer to evacuate victims, and wouldn’t return calls from the American Bus Association.” 136 Indeed, both the gatsby critical essays, Motorcoach Association and pointer assignment the American Bus Association could not get through to writing mba thesis anyone at FEMA to offer help for pointer, evacuations. 137 The Red Cross was denied access to the Superdome in New Orleans to deliver emergency supplies. 138 FEMA turned away trucks from Walmart loaded with water for New Orleans, and it prevented the Coast Guard from delivering diesel fuel. Friendship Tagalog. 139 Offers of emergency supplies, vehicles, and specialized equipment from other nations were caught in federal red tape and shipments were delayed. 140. A New York Times article during the disaster said there was “uncertainty over who was in charge” and “incomprehensible red tape.” 141 A key problem that Katrina made clear is that the government’s emergency response system has become far too complex. The system “fractionates responsibilities” across multiple layers of governments and multiple agencies. 142 There are 29 different federal agencies that have a role in disaster relief under the National Response Framework. 143 These agencies are involved in 15 different cross-agency “Emergency Support Functions.” There is also a National Incident Management System, a National Disaster Recovery Framework, and numerous other “national” structures that are supposed to coordinate action. In 2006 the head of the bipartisan Senate committee that investigated Katrina, Sen.Susan Collins (R-ME), concluded that FEMA was a “shambles and beyond repair.” 144 But her committee proposed replacing it with a larger and more powerful agency, which is pointer, exactly the wrong way to go.

It is the intense bureaucracy that helped to cause the indecision and mismanagement we saw with Katrina, and so we do not need more of that. Disaster expert Rutherford Platt noted in his 1999 book that “during the phd thesis, past 50 years, Congress has created a legal edifice of byzantine complexity to cope with natural disasters.” 145 We have arrived at a point where “the numbers of and pointer variety of federal agencies involved in on essay, disaster-related activities are breathtaking.” 146 The complexity has become worse over the past 15 years. Here is one example: in an 84-page memo describing a single FEMA program, I counted 113 different acronyms, each referring to pointer assignment different homeland security structures, laws, and procedures. 147 The federal government’s official response framework is so complicated that it is for students tagalog, has been partly ignored during some disasters. 148. That said, some government agencies performed very well, even heroically, during Katrina. The Coast Guard’s performance, for pointer assignment, example, was widely lauded. It rapidly deployed 4,000 service members, 37 aircraft, and 78 boats to the area. 149 The agency rescued more than 30,000 people in the days following the storm. 150.

Why did the allama iqbal, Coast Guard succeed? Unlike FEMA, it has decentralized operations and relies much more on local decisionmaking. Coast Guard employees live in local communities and are familiar with local leaders and institutions, so they were able to make decisions rapidly during Katrina based on the best information. 151 One expert writing about the Coast Guard’s culture says, “the Coast Guard has always emphasized decentralization with much decisionmaking authority vested in the commander on the scene.” 152. Coast Guard officers have an assignment “ethos of quotations on essay, independent action,” which was crucial in pointer assignment, the first days after Katrina when communications with higher authorities were down. French War Thesis Statement. 153 Indeed, some people in the Coast Guard viewed it as a “blessing” that communications were down because that allowed them to swing into action quickly, rather than having to wait for instructions and fill out paperwork. 154 The Coast Guard also has a fairly precise set of pointer, missions, while FEMA has more amorphous functions. A final factor is that the Coast Guard is more insulated from iqbal, politics than is pointer, FEMA.

The National Guard under state command also played a crucial role during Katrina, as it has during other disasters. The Guard helped to reestablish law and quotations order in pointer assignment, New Orleans after the local police force was devastated. A key strength of the National Guard is the cross-state agreements in place for Guard units to share personnel and assets when disaster strikes. The 50,000 National Guardsmen providing relief after Katrina were from quotations on essay, 49 states of the union. They “participated in every aspect of emergency response, from medical care to law enforcement and debris removal, and pointer assignment were considered invaluable by french statement Louisiana and Mississippi officials.” 155. The private sector also played a huge and effective role during Katrina. Within the first four months after Katrina, private donations had topped $3 billion. 156 The Red Cross, which swelled to assignment a 220,000-person operation, had 239 shelters ready to house 40,000 evacuees on the day Katrina made landfall.

In subsequent days, the shelters expanded to a peak of 146,000 evacuees and the organization served 52 million meals and snacks to phd thesis hurricane survivors. 157 The Salvation Army housed a peak of 30,000 evacuees in 225 shelters. During Katrina and other disasters, for-profit businesses have also been very important. Assignment. Insurance companies send teams to affected areas that accelerate pay-outs to covered homeowners and offer quick loans to help people cover costs while their claims are being processed. 158 Electric utilities rush extra crews to disaster areas. They usually have standing agreements with nearby utilities for mutual aid. Utility companies have a strong financial incentive to return power rapidly, and that incentive works in their customers’ favor. Walmart’s rapid, organized, and proactive response bringing life-saving supplies into damaged areas after Katrina was remarkable and widely lauded. Walmart had a war room in place days ahead of Katrina’s landfall and supplies stationed and ready for the storm’s immediate aftermath.

Electric utility Southern Company was also well-prepared for bend essays, Katrina based on assignment its detailed disaster plans and a large-scale prepositioning of people and assets. 159. Walmart employees distinguished themselves with independent decisionmaking based on local information. Employees on the front lines knew that their on-the-spot decisions would be backed by higher management. 160 The Washington Post reported that within days, Walmart delivered “an unrivaled $20 million in cash donations, 1,500 truckloads of free merchandise, food for writing proposal, 100,000 meals and the promise of a job for every one of its displaced workers.” 161.

Economist Steven Horowitz studied the performance of FEMA, the Coast Guard, and Walmart during Katrina. Pointer Assignment. 162 He concluded that a government bureaucracy in Washington, such as FEMA, cannot operate effectively in response to local disasters. It does not have the right incentives, is on essay allama iqbal, too risk-averse, and tends not to learn lessons. Pointer Assignment. The bipartisan House report on Katrina noted that the “government failed because it did not learn from past experiences” and because of the on essay allama, “risk-averse culture that pervades big government.” 163. Home Depot also earned wide respect for its rapid and efficient relief efforts during Katrina. Such companies acted with charity, providing many supplies free to needy people in the affected region.

Horowitz notes that businesses also have strong incentives to aid the public when disasters strike because in assignment, the long run they gain respect and essay about friendship tagalog loyal customers in the communities that they serve. When Hurricane Sandy hit the pointer assignment, East Coast in 2012, it was once again institutions other than FEMA that put in french, the best performance. The Coast Guard and the National Guard performed admirably, with the latter performing a wide variety of relief and civil order functions. 164 The Red Cross had hundreds of shelters ready for thousands of people on the day Sandy hit, and the Salvation Army supplied a huge amount of meals to pointer assignment victims in the days after the storm. 165 The United Way, faith-based groups, and essay about friendship tagalog corporations also made large efforts in subsequent months during rebuilding. FEMA appeared to do a better job responding to Hurricane Sandy than Katrina. Former mayor Rudy Giuliani (R-NY) claimed that FEMA’s response to Sandy was “as bad as Katrina,” but that does not seem to be the pointer, case. 166 However, FEMA is still a troubled agency. A recent study by the Partnership for Public Service, for example, ranked it one the worst places to on essay allama iqbal work in the federal government. 167. A September 2014 report by the Inspector General (IG) of DHS reviewed FEMA’s new logistics system—a system that Congress required FEMA to build after the many supply failures of Katrina.

The new FEMA system is pointer, expected to cost $556 million, up from the original estimate of quotations allama iqbal, $325 million, and it is far behind schedule. Assignment. 168 After DHS spending of $247 million on the system so far, the IG concluded that the system “may not be effective during a catastrophic disaster” and “may not ever meet critical performance requirements.” 169 The IG said that it attributes the deficiencies to “inadequate program management and oversight.” 170. A June 2013 Associated Press poll of the gatsby essays, region affected by Sandy found that “families and assignment communities—not the government—were the most helpful source of assistance and support.” 171 Only 19 percent of critical, those who sought help from the government said that it was helpful, and almost 40 percent said that FEMA was of no help. 172. FEMA spends roughly $2.5 billion a year on a dozen grant programs that provide ongoing funding for state and local first responders. Nine of these programs are “preparedness” grants, which the DHS says “strengthen our nation’s ability to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies.” 173.

Most of the preparedness grants were either created or expanded after the September 11, 2001, attacks, and they have distributed almost $40 billion to state and local governments since then. 174 The grants are mainly for local governments to assignment pay for such things as vehicles, equipment, planning, conferences, training, and public awareness campaigns. Here is a list of the essays, preparedness grants with the 2014 spending amounts: 175. Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI)—$587 million for urban preparedness against pointer terrorism. State Homeland Security Program (SHSP)—$401 million for preparedness in urban and rural areas. Writing. Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG)—$350 million for all-hazards emergency management. Operation Stonegarden—$55 million to enhance coordination between government agencies for border security. Tribal Homeland Security—$10 million to tribal governments for security enhancements. Nonprofit Security—$13 million to nonprofit groups for security enhancements. Port Security—$100 million for seaport security. Transit Security—$90 million for transit system security.

Intercity Passenger Rail—$10 million for Amtrak security. A fundamental problem with such grants is that federal funding of local activities is less efficient than local funding of local activities. In part, that is because federal politicians focus on maximizing spending in pointer assignment, their states, not on program effectiveness. In a 2012 report on FEMA grants, Senator Tom Coburn of Oklahoma said that Congress is preoccupied with the quotations on essay, amount of money spent, not “how the assignment, money is quotations on essay, spent, or whether it is needed in pointer, the first place.” 176. The expansion of the UASI program illustrates the importance of politics.

UASI originally provided funds to mba thesis the 7 U.S. cities with the assignment, highest terrorism risks. But cities that did not receive funds—and their members of Congress—immediately started lobbying for inclusion, and over time Congress added more cities. Iqbal. 177 In due course, Congress expanded the program to 64 cities, although it has recently been cut back to 37. 178. The political pressure to spread spending widely is pointer assignment, also evident with SHSP funding. It is about friendship for students tagalog, distributed by a formula that takes disaster risks into account, but that is undermined because a minimum amount must be spent on every state. 179 Wyoming, for example, has just one-fifth of one percent of the U.S. population and a low risk of terrorism, but it receives almost 1 percent of SHSP funding.

180 Similarly, for assignment, the EMPG program, spending does not depend on terrorism risk, and small states receive a disproportionate share. Looking at the big picture, there are two types of FEMA grant, but neither makes sense. Coburn’s report says that some grants “subsidize expenditures that would otherwise have been made by state and about local governments.” 181 His report finds that FEMA aid often pays for pointer, such things as office supplies, camera systems, athletic equipment for fire and police departments, and wages for local first responders. Funding such items federally rather than locally just creates unneeded paperwork. Alternately, federal aid can induce local governments to purchase low-value items that they would not otherwise purchase. FEMA money is “free” to local governments, so they tend to squander it.

Coburn’s report provides examples of cities using preparedness grants to buy hovercrafts, underwater robots, and other fancy equipment that is little used. Knox County, Ohio—population 54,000—spent a $100,000 FEMA grant on a hazardous materials truck. The truck sat unused, and and indian war thesis statement a local official admitted that it had been “a total waste of taxpayer dollars from the federal government on down.” 182. FEMA’s aid has raised civil liberties concerns. Pointer Assignment. Numerous cities have purchased license plate reader systems and video surveillance systems with FEMA grants, for example. 183 And many cities have used FEMA grants to purchase military-style equipment for their police forces, such as militarized vehicles, aerial drones, and sound cannons. 184.

The Wall Street Journal noted that “six-figure grants from the Department of Homeland Security have been funding BearCats and other heavily fortified vehicles in towns and french and indian statement cities nationwide.” 185 A BearCat is an pointer assignment armored personnel carrier. Concord, New Hampshire, received a $258,000 FEMA grant to buy a BearCat, and other small cities, such as Fargo, North Dakota, have received similar grants. 186 It makes no sense for the federal government to pay for such controversial items. If the leaders of a town think that they face a major threat and need new security equipment, they should make the case to their own taxpayers for the funding. Aside from the grants listed above, FEMA also provides firefighter assistance grants of about $600 million a year.

187 These grants aid local fire departments in paying salaries and french statement buying trucks, protective gear, and other items. Having well-funded fire departments is important, but local governments have traditionally paid these costs without federal aid. Indeed, firefighting is the archetypal local service that traces back to at least the pointer, Union Fire Company organized by Benjamin Franklin in and indian statement, Philadelphia in 1736. 188 Cities and towns have long been proud of their local firefighters, who are either paid employees or volunteers. It is a service that citizens everywhere demand from their local governments, and they are supportive of the local taxes needed to fund it.

So there is no reason for the federal government to intervene in this activity. Currently, local governments in America spend more than $42 billion annually on firefighting. 189 FEMA firefighting grants amount to just 1.5 percent of assignment, this total, so it is a small share. The problem is phd thesis dedication, that along with federal grants come top-down regulations from Washington. Pointer Assignment. Few people would want federal politicians controlling their local fire departments, but that will be a growing problem if the money keeps flowing. A 2010 news article in phd thesis latex, San Antonio on pointer assignment a FEMA grant illustrates the problem:

The city was poised to spend its own money to gatsby critical essays build two new fire stations and assignment already had hired a contractor, Bartlett Cocke. Then the Federal Emergency Management Agency awarded the city $7.3 million from the stimulus program in September 2009 to pay for the stations and speed up response times by firefighters to keep residents safe. It Like. But San Antonio hit a bureaucratic snag at FEMA that could delay the project by a year. Meeting the pointer, federally mandated environmental standards could increase the project’s cost by $2.2 million. And the city decided to rebid the for students, construction contract to make sure it met FEMA’s requirements, which meant Bartlett Cocke was out of a job. In San Antonio, Councilman Reed Williams, whose district includes the assignment, site for writing mba thesis, fire station 51, complained at Thursday’s City Council meeting that the stations are getting more expensive. The council approved a motion to increase the design costs of both stations by nearly $200,000 so the structures will be certified under standards set by the U.S. Green Building Council. “This thing’s going to be a year late, and it’s going to cost us more money,” Williams said. Williams asked how much more the stations were going to cost in the stimulus program, compared to the original costs when the city planned to build the stations without federal assistance. City staffers didn’t have an answer at the ready, but Walsh said in an interview that federal requirements could add an estimated $2.2 million to the price tag.

190. Federal aid programs not only impose costly regulations, they also consume state and local time on paperwork. You can see some of the firefighter paperwork at www.fema.gov/firegrants. There are three different grants, each with different rules. Local officials must fill out federal grant paperwork explaining why they need the pointer assignment, money and essay about how they will spend it. Recipients have to fill out regular financial reports, “Investment Justifications,” “Biannual Implementation Reports,” and other reports. The FEMA funding announcement for the firefighter grants is 75 pages long, and a workshop presentation is 94 pages.

FEMA has a “Get Ready Guide,” a “Self Evaluation Sheet,” and a “Vehicle Acquisition Guide” for the firefighter grants. Even after all the paperwork, there is no guarantee that a local government will receive funding. Pointer. The key is to have a skilled representative on your side. Here is essay about for students tagalog, a 2013 press release from Rep. Patrick Maloney (D-NY)indicating how the process works: Earlier this year, Rep.

Maloney secured an investment for $2,400,000 to hire fifteen new firefighters through the assignment, Assistance to phd thesis latex Firefighters Grant Program— Staffing for pointer assignment, Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER). Although their grant application was initially denied, Rep. Maloney worked closely with the Newburgh Fire Department and DHS personnel to ensure the Department received this SAFER award. 191. The SAFER grant pays for firefighter salaries for a fixed period of french war thesis, time.

After the assignment, grant money runs out, the town of writing mba thesis, Newburgh will have to find another funding source to pointer assignment keep its 15 new firefighters. So the bend it like essays, federal aid did not really solve any problem, it simply delayed the assignment, town from finding a stable long-term funding source. America would be better off without FEMA grants for firefighters and other local emergency services. Ending FEMA aid would cut paperwork, regulations, and pork barrel politics. It Like Beckham. Decisionmaking about local emergency services would be more efficient if the pointer, services were funded locally.

Americans know that police and firefighter services are vital to their communities—and that is exactly why we do not need federal intervention. Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in dedication, 1968 to help property owners in flood-prone areas purchase government-backed insurance. The NFIP provides coverage against assignment flooding from overflowing rivers and from storms on the seacoasts. Writing Mba Thesis. Flooding is “the most frequent and pointer costly natural hazard in the United States. More than 90 percent of dedication, all natural disasters in the nation involve flooding.” 192. The NFIP was supposed to pointer save taxpayers money by alleviating the need for Congress to pass emergency aid packages after floods. Taxpayers were also not supposed to writing mba thesis proposal be burdened by pointer assignment the program itself because insurance premiums were to french war thesis cover the system’s costs.

Also, the NFIP included floodplain regulations that are imposed on assignment communities adopting the program. These regulations were supposed to mitigate the harm from floods. None of the gatsby essays, promises panned out. Congress continues to pass large disaster aid bills after floods. The NFIP has become hugely indebted, and will probably need a taxpayer bailout as payouts have far exceeded premiums in recent years.

Most importantly, rather than reducing the nation’s flooding problems, the NFIP has likely made flood damage worse by encouraging more development in pointer, hazardous areas. Since 1970, the estimated number of Americans living in gatsby critical, coastal areas designated as Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs) by FEMA has increased from 10 million to more than 16 million. Assignment. 193 Subsidized flood insurance has backfired by helping to quotations allama draw more people and development into assignment, flood zones. Flood insurance is bend it like essays, available to homeowners and businesses in the roughly 20,000 jurisdictions across the nation that have decided to pointer participate in the NFIP. 194 In return for proposal, the benefit of subsidized insurance, communities become subject to federal floodplain regulations. People who live in SFHAs and assignment have a federally backed mortgage are required to have flood insurance. However, compliance with this mandate is phd thesis, very low. 195. There are currently 5.6 million flood insurance policies in place with a combined insured value of $1.2 trillion.

196 Policies are serviced by private insurance companies, but the insurance risks fall on federal taxpayers. 197 Many insurance companies do not participate in the NFIP, apparently because of the political instability that surrounds the assignment, system. 198. FEMA has trouble administering the NFIP. The GAO has had the NFIP on its “high-risk” list of critical essays, troubled programs for years. One problem is that flood claims are handled by an outdated computer system, and FEMA has had major problems installing a new one called NextGen. The GAO reported in 2010 that “despite having invested roughly $40 million over 7 years, FEMA has yet to implement NextGen … as a result, use of NextGen was halted.” 199. FEMA collects about $3.5 billion in annual NFIP premiums. 200 When the premiums are insufficient to pay claims, FEMA borrows from the U.S. Assignment. Treasury. In recent years, the program has accumulated more than $24 billion in debt because payouts have far exceeded premiums.

201 Today, the program is in financial crisis and taxpayers will likely bear the burden of its large debt. The NFIP’s financial shortcomings are typical of government-run businesses. Unlike private insurance, the NFIP charges artificially low rates, does not build capital surpluses, and does not purchase reinsurance to cover catastrophic losses. On Essay Allama Iqbal. 202 Furthermore, the NFIP cannot reject applicants in order to manage the system’s risk, and it is legally constrained in its ability to pointer assignment raise rates. The GAO says that “by design, NFIP is not an essay friendship tagalog actuarially sound program.” 203. About one-fifth of pointer, NFIP policyholders pay “subsidized rates,” while the other four-fifths pay “full-risk” rates. And Indian War Thesis Statement. 204 But even the pointer, full-risk rates are below what market rates would be.

A 2011 insurance industry study found that overall NFIP premiums are only half the level needed to dedication cover the assignment, system’s full costs, and property owners in high-risk areas pay just one-third of full market rates. 205 These artificially low rates subsidize people to live in high-risk flood areas. One problem is on essay, that “FEMA generally lacks information needed to establish full-risk rates.” 206 Rates are based on Flood Insurance Rate Maps, but FEMA’s maps have long been criticized as not being up to date. FEMA maps often do not reflect changes in the landscape caused by factors such as ongoing development and erosion. 207. Another problem with the assignment, NFIP is that it undermines federalism. Latex. If a jurisdiction is in the NFIP, it must comply with FEMA-approved building standards, land-use controls, and pointer other regulations. The NFIP runs essentially a top-down local planning system called the Community Rating System (CRS). Under the CRS, communities receive discounts on flood insurance rates based on mba thesis proposal how many of 19 “creditable activities” or federal mandates they comply with.

208. The Congressional Research Service says that with the NFIP, the assignment, federal “government became a de facto regulator of certain economic activity in flood-prone areas.” 209 However, local governments have been hesitant to enforce the tougher zoning rules and on essay building standards because they are eager to receive the higher tax revenues that stem from new development. The broader policy issue is that the NFIP undermines federalism by pointer extending Washington’s regulatory power into what should be local decisionmaking. The most serious problem with NFIP is that it has encouraged development in hazardous areas. As Duke University coastal geologist Orrin Pilkey puts it, “we are subsidizing, even encouraging, very dangerous development.” 210 Federal flood insurance has incentivized individuals and developers to build in hazardous areas they would otherwise not build in. Local governments have an incentive to proposal approve development in hazardous areas because they are eager to increase their property tax bases. As more of the pointer, U.S. population has moved to flood-prone areas, more lives and property are put in harm’s way.

211 As development expands in seacoast areas it shrinks wetlands. Wetlands provide habitats for wildlife and form a defense against hurricanes along the seacoast. Phd Thesis Latex. “The financial costs of the NFIP are considerable,” one study observed, “but they are likely dwarfed by the ecological damages that the program encourages.” 212 That is why cutting the NFIP is one policy area where environmentalists and pro-market economists see eye to eye. The NFIP creates “moral hazard,” which is when people take risks that they would not otherwise take because they do not bear the full costs of failure. Government subsidies reduce individual costs and thus induce excessive risk-taking. The Congressional Research Service noted of the NFIP: “the assurance of federal assistance in the event or repeated disaster-related losses may create a ‘moral hazard’ by lowering the incentives to take appropriate steps to assignment mitigate loss.” 213. The moral hazard problem is clear when you consider the essay, NFIP’s large payouts to pointer assignment property owners who have made multiple claims.

The NFIP cannot charge market rates, must accept all applicants, and is not allowed to cut off properties that suffer repeated damage. 214 Furthermore, unlike with private insurance, FEMA does not increase insurance rates after claims. Not surprisingly then, some property owners repeatedly rebuild in hazardous locations knowing that the government will bail them out after each flood. Gatsby Critical Essays. Repetitive loss properties account for only about 1 percent of all policies, but are responsible for pointer, about one-third of all NFIP claims. 215.

USA Today reviewed FEMA records in 2010 and found thousands of homes that had collected multiple insurance payouts that added up to much more than what the properties were worth. One Mississippi home valued at $69,900 has flooded 34 times since 1978, and the owner has received $663,000 in NFIP payments over the years. 216 Any private insurance company would cancel coverage on individuals like this who are taking high risks, but the NFIP does not. Fox News anchor John Stossel has discussed his personal experience with flood insurance. 217 He built a beach house in a risky location along the ocean on Long Island in 1980. His architect told him that the government would pay for essay about friendship tagalog, a new one if a disaster struck, so he went ahead. Sure enough, the ocean destroyed his house, and Stossel received the government-funded bailout. As Stossel has noted, the NFIP is welfare for the well-to-do. A 2010 study looked at claims data over a 10-year period and pointer assignment concluded that “the benefits of the on essay, NFIP appear to accrue largely to wealthy households concentrated in a few highly-exposed states.” 218 One reason is that many properties along U.S. seacoasts are vacation residences for well-heeled individuals. The NFIP is not the only federal program encouraging Americans to live in assignment, flood-prone areas.

Since the 19th century, the Army Corps of Engineers has built levees, flood walls, and other flood protection structures. These projects are supposed to create an engineering solution to flooding. But, to an extent, the gatsby essays, huge investment in these projects has backfired because they have encouraged more Americans to live in flood-prone areas, believing that they are protected. The increase in perceived safety created by assignment the Corps’ projects has also created a disincentive for individuals to buy flood insurance and thus undermined the development of a private flood insurance market. 219. Rutherford Platt observed that “structural flood control and shore protection projects often induce a false sense of security leading to new investment in the area thought to be protected by the project.” 220 The result is that areas ostensibly protected by writing mba thesis flood control projects “experienced greater losses when floods exceeded the design capacity of dams, levees, and sea walls than would have occurred without the projects.” 221. These days, there are many federal agencies involved variously in subsidizing and regulating flood-prone areas, and pointer the interventions often work at cross purposes. 222 The Army Corps of Engineers builds flood-control structures and subsidizes seacoast beach replenishment.

Those activities encourage more seaside development. A FEMA study after Hurricane Frederic in 1979 on the Gulf Coast found that “the federal government had originally encouraged development on such coastal barriers through flood insurance, sewer and water grants, beach nourishment, and other development incentives.” 223. In the 1990s, Topsail Island, North Carolina, was repeatedly hit by war thesis statement hurricanes, and each time FEMA came in to rebuild infrastructure, which encouraged more development. 224 And then there is New Orleans, where for decades massive flood control infrastructure built by assignment the Corps encouraged development in dangerous, low-lying areas around the city. That greatly magnified the damage caused by friendship for students tagalog Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In his book, Platt discusses the tension between some government agencies subsidizing people to live in pointer, risky places and other agencies imposing regulations to prevent people living in those places. He looks at Fire Island along the coast of Long Island, New York, which is vulnerable to hurricanes. Local activist groups “have each lobbied intensely to win government benefits for Fire Island while opposing any limits on the freedom of private owners to about for students build or rebuild along the pointer assignment, oceanfront.” 225. People want to live on this dangerous island, but they also want subsidized beach nourishment projects, flood insurance, and disaster aid. Platt concludes that the current patchwork of regulations and phd thesis latex subsidies from federal programs has “proved futile in achieving a safe and sensible balance of pointer, human presence and nature.” 226 But part of the solution is straightforward: governments should repeal programs that subsidize development in hazardous places.

People who choose to live in flood-prone areas should purchase insurance from mba thesis, private insurance carriers, which would charge premiums based on the actual risk. If companies will not offer flood coverage, that is a market signal that it is not a safe place to live. It is not a “market failure” if private flood insurance is not available for dangerous locations, as some commentators have suggested. 227. Before the pointer, creation of the NFIP in mba thesis proposal, 1968, little private flood insurance existed. Assignment. There were marketplace reasons for that, but government interventions also created a hurdle for private flood insurance.

228 Today, however, numerous experts think that flood insurance could be privatized. Essays. For one thing, private insurers today have more sophisticated computer models than in the past, and much more is known about flood risks on pointer a detailed basis throughout the nation. There is currently a very small but growing market for essay friendship for students tagalog, private flood insurance. 229. Federal and pointer assignment state governments can encourage the gatsby essays, development of private flood insurance by getting out of the assignment, way. Cutting disaster aid would increase individual and business demand for bend beckham essays, insurance.

Eliminating federal and pointer state regulations that interfere with insurance pricing would increase the supply of insurance, as would reforming income taxes, which are biased against iqbal insurance companies holding capital to pointer assignment cover large but infrequent losses. 230 GAO has discussed steps toward partial privatization of flood insurance. 231 And a report by Deloitte noted that “flood insurance theoretically presents a tremendous growth opportunity for private carriers,” but only if reforms are made to federal policies. Beckham Essays. 232. Congress enacted modest NFIP reforms in 2012, but then took steps backward in 2014. Pointer Assignment. Under the 2012 Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act, FEMA was to gradually increase premiums to better reflect actual risk for mba thesis proposal, more of NFIP’s policyholders. Assignment. 233 Then in response to complaints about premium increases from writing mba thesis, constituents, Congress in 2014 passed changes to cap premium increases and to assignment reverse other reforms.

234. Congress should revisit this issue. The NFIP should be phased out gatsby, as barriers to assignment private insurance are repealed. Rep. Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) calls the NFIP “ineffective, inefficient and indisputably costly to hardworking American taxpayers.” 235 He says that he is considering “legislation to transition to a private, innovative, competitive, sustainable flood insurance market. 236. Rep. Latex Dedication. Candice Miller (R-MI) has introduced legislation to pointer assignment end the NFIP.

237 She summarizes some of the reasons for repeal: It is ridiculous that the federal government remains in the flood insurance business. With no end in sight for the NFIP in racking up new debt, continuing subsidized rates for those who live in flood prone areas, skyrocketing rates for many who live in areas that never flood and 40 years of history showing clearly that the federal government is french and indian statement, a very bad insurance company; it is assignment, time to take decisive action to wind down the NFIP instead of offering up more bailouts… . I believe in the 10th Amendment and critical essays our nation must stop centralizing power in Washington on pointer assignment a wide variety of issues… . It is time to stop looking to Washington for one size fits all solutions and allow states to provide real and affordable solutions to residents who require flood insurance protection. It is time to beckham remove the assignment, federal government from the it like, flood insurance business, end the unfair debt liability being placed upon all taxpayers by this unsound federal program, stop the practice of forcing unjustly high rates on pointer assignment those living in about for students tagalog, areas under little risk of flooding, stop the politically motivated subsidizing of people who live in highly flood prone areas and restore power to the states. Pointer Assignment. 238. One of the phd thesis latex dedication, rules that every doctor learns is “first, do no harm.” That rule should be applied to pointer assignment policymaking on natural disasters.

This essay focuses mainly on floods and hurricanes, which are the nation’s most costly and prevalent natural disasters. The number of Americans living in mba thesis proposal, risky locations on floodplains and seacoasts has grown in assignment, recent decades, and phd thesis dedication numerous federal policies have encouraged that trend. 239. Those policies should be repealed, starting with subsidized flood insurance. The NFIP has fallen deep into debt, and the program amounts to pointer assignment welfare for the well-to-do. Congress created the NFIP in writing mba thesis proposal, 1968 partly in the belief that private sector could not provide flood coverage. Today, however, the insurance industry is more sophisticated and in a better to position to provide private coverage. Congress should phase out the NFIP in combination with regulatory and tax reforms encouraging private participation in the flood insurance market. Congress should repeal Army Corps spending—such as beach replenishment and new flood control structures—that encourages development of flood-prone areas.

240 Army Corps spending is supposed to protect communities, but as we have seen in New Orleans and elsewhere, the agency’s projects can encourage development in pointer assignment, dangerous, low-lying areas. Gatsby Critical. 241 The Corps’ infrastructure has also depleted coastal wetlands, which are a natural defense against hurricanes. “First, do no harm” also applies to growing federal intervention in disaster preparedness, response, and relief. That intervention will backfire if it reduces the efforts of state and local governments and the private sector. If federal efforts continue to expand, “the result will be the displacement of the pointer, very things that make the system work most of the time—state, local, and private sector preparedness and on essay initiative.” 242. Unfortunately, the federal urge to spend has triumphed in pointer, recent years.

Most of the huge $60 billion Sandy aid package passed in proposal, 2013, for example, was for long-term infrastructure projects, not for short-term emergency relief. Assignment. 243 There is no reason why state and local governments could not issue bonds and build rainy day funds to finance disaster response and rebuilding. Indeed, an advantage in tagalog, ending federal aid would be to create a strong incentive for pointer, states to prepare in advance for disasters, both by about for students tagalog putting resources aside and by pursuing mitigation projects to pointer reduce the harm of disasters. State and local governments and the private sector are in a much better position to handle most disaster response. Federal bureaucracies are typically poor at trying to centrally manage large and complex problems. FEMA is no exception: it is slow, risk averse, subservient to politics, and it does not have the local knowledge needed to effectively handle many disasters. First responders and their assets are mainly owned and managed locally, and so a bottom-up structure makes sense. As noted, FEMA intervention can slow state and local relief and rebuilding after disasters because of all the extra paperwork required on each project. By reducing the federal role, we would reduce ambiguity in on essay allama iqbal, the system.

As we saw with Katrina, decisionmaking was hampered by the uncertainly over bureaucratic rules and responsibilities. Our disaster relief system has become “too complex for its own good.” 244 The federal government has made it that way. When you read FEMA and DHS reports, it is striking the huge number of pointer, goals, plans, strategies, frameworks, agencies, systems, directives, offices, and other structures that are supposed to proposal come together during disasters. A better approach than such top-down planning would be to pointer greatly cut the federal role and let state, local, and private institutions perform their specialized functions and coordinate among themselves. The disaster response systems in Canada and mba thesis proposal Australia are more decentralized than ours. 245 The federal emergency management agencies in those countries do not have operational roles. Pointer. They do provide disaster aid to lower governments, but the thresholds for aid are more objective than in the United States. Miskel argues that a similar more decentralized approach in the United States would “give a stronger incentive for gatsby essays, states to take emergency preparedness seriously because that helps reduce costs and to manage their disaster relief expenditures carefully.” 246. One encouraging U.S. development is the expansion of pointer assignment, horizontal relationships between the states in disaster response.

All the writing mba thesis, state governments have joined the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), which was created in 1996. 247 EMAC expedites the legal process of states aiding other states with manpower and resources during a disaster. During Hurricane Katrina, for example, Florida provided stockpiled commodities to Mississippi under EMAC procedures. 248. Over the past two decades, there has also been an expansion in assignment, mutual aid agreements between local governments to writing share police and fire assets during emergencies. 249 And, as discussed, private electric utilities across the country routinely aid each other with crews and equipment to assignment speed repairs after storms. Such horizontal relationships make more sense than officials trying to vertically plan everything from Washington. Miskel argues, “the very last thing that the federal government should do is crowd initiative at nonfederal levels out of the about friendship for students tagalog, system in the name of improving the pointer assignment, federal response to catastrophic disasters.” 250. There are other ideas to help improve state disaster response. One is to reform Good Samaritan laws to ensure that emergency workers do not stay away from disasters in other states for fear of civil liability.

251 Another is to expand State Defense Forces (SDFs). 252 Currently, 22 states have SDFs, which are voluntary, part-time militaries under state command. SDFs often consist of retired military service members and and indian war thesis professionals such as doctors and engineers, who have disaster-relevant skills. During the pointer assignment, Sandy recovery, SDFs from New York, Maryland, and other states played important roles. FEMA disaster aid to individuals and state and local governments should be eliminated. FEMA aid has often been wasteful, and the federal government has no unique skill in gatsby essays, providing aid. Assignment. Ending federal aid would have the positive effect of increasing the demand for private insurance and in stimulating greater state, local, and private disaster preparation. Also, removing FEMA intervention would prevent the it like, damaging situation that occurred during Katrina of FEMA repeatedly blocking private aid efforts. Since the 19th century, private donations have poured into American cities hit by pointer disasters.

In recent decades, charitable groups such as the Red Cross and Salvation Army have channeled donations to victims. Historically, businesses have also played a large role in relief, such as after the friendship for students, San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and the Dayton Flood of 1913. More recently, the efforts of Walmart and other companies after hurricanes show that businesses are ready to use their logistical skills to aid communities when calamities strike. If private donations are not sufficient for assignment, the largest of disasters, state governments using their own funds are likely to provide more efficient disaster aid than the federal government. Besides, all federal aid ultimately comes from the quotations on essay iqbal, taxpayers who live in the 50 states.

So it makes more sense for pointer, the states to raise their own funding and to plan ahead for the financial demands of future emergencies and disasters. In sum, FEMA funding for disaster aid to states and individuals should be ended and flood insurance privatized. Those activities represent more than 90 percent of phd thesis latex, FEMA’s current budget. Some of the pointer assignment, remaining activities include flood mapping, continuity of operations, the public alert system, training programs, and technological and radiological hazards preparedness. Those activities should be moved to quotations iqbal other agencies, and FEMA closed down. Outside of assignment, FEMA, numerous federal agencies would continue to gatsby essays play crucial roles in disaster response. Those include the Coast Guard, the active duty military, the agencies that prepare for pointer assignment, pandemics and other health threats, and the agencies that handle such threats as terrorism, cyber attacks, and biological and chemical agents. The problem with federal disaster activities is a common one: the government tries to do too much, and it ends up doing little well. In government, less is bend it like, nearly always more. The federal government should be tasked with only those roles for which it can provide added value not provided by state and local governments or the private sector. Assignment. But FEMA’s large and gatsby critical essays growing budget consists mainly of counterproductive and inefficient aid programs that should be eliminated.

1 Budget of the pointer, U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2015, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), Table 4.1. Updated to the final 2014 figure. 2 Calculated from the Office of Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 3 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see Francis X. McCarthy, “FEMA’s Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer,” Congressional Research Service, May 18, 2011. 4 James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008), chap. 3.

5 Henry Hogue and Keith Bea, “Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options,” Congressional Research Service, June 1, 2006, pp. 4–5. 6 Rutherford H. Platt, Disasters and Democracy (Washington: Island Press, 1999), p. War Thesis Statement. 1. Platt is citing research by Peter May. 8 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” November 2010, p. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf. 9 Janet Sharp Hermann, “Disaster Relief Then and Now,” The Freeman , May 1, 2000. 11 Patrick S. Roberts, Disasters and pointer the American State: How Politicians, Bureaucrats, and the Public Prepare for quotations allama, the Unexpected (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 24–25. And see Judy G. Russell, “A Matter of Debate,”August 20, 2012, www.legalgeneologist.com. 12 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf.

14 Emily C. Sharbek, “The Chicago Fire of 1871: A Bottom-Up Approach to pointer Disaster Relief,” Public Choice 160 (2014): 155–80. 16 For a discussion, see Miskel, p. 49. 17 Jennifer K. Elsea and R. Chuck Mason, “The Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues,” Congressional Research Service, November 28, 2008. 18 Quoted in Robert Higgs, “Why Grover Cleveland Vetoed the Texas Seed Bill,” Independent Institute, July 1, 2003. 19 Christoph Strupp, “Dealing with Disaster: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906,” German Historical Institute, (Washington), March 22, 2006, p. 8. 20 Morgan O’Rourke, “The Big Shake Up: Revisiting the Great San Francisco Earthquake,” Risk Management , April 2006. 21 Douglas Coate, “Disaster and Recovery: The Public and Private Sectors in the Aftermath of the 1906 Earthquake in gatsby critical essays, San Francisco,” Working Paper, Rutgers University, July 2010. 23 Margaret Gurowitz, “The Origins of assignment, Our Disaster Relief: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906,” Kilmer House, Johnson and Johnson, August 20, 2008. 24 O’Rourke. Generally, the policies covered fire, not earthquakes. 26 Dalit Baranoff, “Fire Insurance in war thesis, the United States,” EH.net, March 16, 2008.

27 The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, “The Great 1906 Earthquake and Fire,” www.sfmuseum.org/1906/06.html. 33 Edward Epstein, “The Great Quake: 1906-2006,” San Francisco Chronicle , April 18, 2006. 35 The actions of Gen. Frederick Funston were controversial for numerous reasons. First, he acted without checking with his superiors in Washington. Second, he acted to send regular troops into the city for policing purposes. Third, his command of the city was very aggressive, and pointer apparently led to the deaths of numerous people. 36 Christopher Klein, “The Superstorm That Flooded America 100 Years Ago,” www.history.com, March 25, 2013. 37 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence,” 2009, http://trudyebell.com/1913flood.php.

Bell is a former editor of Scientific American and her website is devoted to the 1913 disaster. 38 Trudy E. Bell, “Our National Calamity: The Great Easter 1913 Flood,” December 9, 2012, http://www.trudyebell.com/1913flood.php. 42 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence.” 43 Miskel, pp. 8, 9, 41,and 45. 44 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of phd thesis dedication, Engineers,” Cato Institute, March 2012, www.downsizinggovernment.org/usace. 45 Arthur E. Morgan, Dams and Other Disasters: A Century of the Army Corps of Engineers in Civil Works (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971), p. Pointer Assignment. 233.

46 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 5. 48 Jim Sam, “Herbert Hoover and the Great Mississippi Flood,” Behind the Scenes blog, Hoover Institution, May 19, 2011. 49 Platt, pp. 12–18. 51 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 6. 53 The law’s full title is the Robert T. Critical. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. Pointer. 93-288.

See Bruce R. Bend. Lindsay and Justin Murray, “Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations,” Congressional Research Service, April 2011 , p. 4. And see Francis X. McCarthy and Jared T. Pointer Assignment. Brown, “Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies,” Congressional Research Service, May 2013. 54 Robert T. Gatsby Critical. Stafford Disaster Relief and pointer Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. Writing Mba Thesis Proposal. 93-288. For a discussion, see McCarthy. 55 This figure is for 2004–2011. See Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and pointer Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012.

56 Calculated from the Office of Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 57 These figures are for phd thesis, DRF spending 2004–2011. See GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 19. 58 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance,”: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 34. 61 Matt Mayer, “New York Times: A Big Storm Requires a Big Government,” Heritage Foundation, October 30, 2012. 62 Matt Mayer, “States: Stop Subsidizing FEMA Waste and pointer Manage Your Own Local Disasters,” Heritage Foundation, September 29, 2009, p. 7. 63 President George W. Bush, “The Department of Homeland Security,” June 2002, www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/book.pdf, pp. Phd Thesis. 1, 7, 16. 64 Budget of the U.S.

Government, Fiscal Year 2014, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2013), Table 4.1. 65 Jerry Markon, “DHS Headquarters Funding in Jeopardy,” Washington Post , July 4, 2014. 66 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.” And see Thomas Birkland and assignment Sarah Waterman, “Is Federalism the Reason for Policy Failure in tagalog, Hurricane Katrina?” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 38, no. Assignment. 4 (2008): 692–714. 67 Daniel Hoople, “The Budgetary Impact of the Federal Government’s Response to Disasters,” Congressional Budget Office, September 23, 2013. 68 FEMA’s Sandy response is discussed in Steven P. Bucci, et al., “After Hurricane Sandy: Time to bend it like Learn and Implement the Lessons in pointer assignment, Preparedness, Response, and Resilience,” Heritage Foundation, October 24, 2013. 69 Ibid., p. 10.

About $10 billion of the spending was for the NFIP. 70 James W. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery,” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, July 2013. 71 McCarthy and Brown, p. 5. 72 Bureau of the Census, Government Employment and Payroll, www.census.gov/govs/apes. 73 Quoted in Bucci, et al., p. 6. 75 House of writing mba thesis proposal, Representatives, Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Katrina, “A Failure of Initiative,” February 15, 2006, p. 13.

78 FEMA keeps a count at www.fema.gov/disasters/grid/year. Pointer. I am including “major disasters,” “emergencies,” and “fire management assistance declarations.” 79 Thomas A. Garrett and Russell S. Sobel, “The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments,” Economic Inquiry 41, no. 3 (July 2003): 496–509. See also Russell S. Sobel and Peter T. Leeson, “Flirting with Disaster: The Inherent Problems with FEMA,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 573, July 19, 2006, pp.

8–9. And see Gene Healy, “Obama’s Disaster-Prone Presidency,” Washington Examiner , July 2, 2012. 80 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to war thesis Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” p. 22. 83 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to pointer Respond and Recover on Its Own,” p. 49. 84 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 9. 85 James W. Writing Mba Thesis. Fossett, “A Tale of Two Hurricanes: What Does Katrina Tell Us About Sandy?” Nelson A. Assignment. Rockefeller Institute of Government, January 2013. 86 James W. Essays. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery.” . 87 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to assignment Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” pp. 16, 20. 89 Bucci, et al., p. 3. 90 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 7.

91 These issues are discussed in it like beckham, McCarthy. 92 Quoted in Miskel, p. 127. 93 Quoted in Platt, p. Assignment. 58. 94 Quoted in bend it like beckham, Platt, p. 89. 96 Jeb Bush, “Think Locally on Relief,” op-ed, Washington Post , September 30, 2005.

97 Quoted in House of Representatives, , p. 322. 98 Matt Mayer, “Five Lessons from Hurricane Sandy,” November 29, 2012, p. 1. 99 Quoted in ibid., p. 1. 101 Miskel, p. 15. 102 Brad Plumer, “Is Sandy the Second-Most Destructive U.S. Hurricane Ever,” Washington Post , November 5, 2012. 104 GAO, “Disaster Management: Improving the Nation’s Response to Catastrophic Disasters,” GAO/RCED-93-186, July 1993, p. 3.

105 Miskel, p. 81. 107 This was a report by the National Academy of Public Administration, which is assignment, discussed in Miskel, p. 87. 108 Quoted in Miskel, p. 85. 109 Miskel, pp. 41, 83–85. 112 House of Representatives, p. 1. 114 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, “Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared,” March 1, 2006, chap. Quotations On Essay Allama. 14. 115 Miskel, p. 15.

116 House of Representatives, pp. 1, 11. 120 Miskel, p. 136. 123 Scott Shane, “Stumbling Storm-Aid Effort Put Tons of Ice on Trips to Nowhere,” New York Times , October 2, 2005. 124 John Cochran, “85M Pounds of Ice Growing Down the Drain, abcnews.com, July 15, 2007. And see Rep.

Bennie G. Pointer Assignment. Thompson and essays Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, “One Year Later: Katrina’s Waste,” August 28, 2006, p. 14. 125 Abbie Boudreau and pointer assignment Scott Zamost, “FEMA Gives Away $85 Million of french and indian, Supplies for Katrina Victims,” CNN.com, June 12, 2008. 126 Rep. Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, p. 3. 127 House of Representatives, pp.

300–302. 128 House of Representatives, p. 299. 129 GAO, “Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Disaster Relief,” GAO-06-844T, June 114, 2006. And see Brad Heath, “Katrina Fraud Swamps System,” USA Today , July 6, 2007. 130 Associated Press, “Abuse Could Push Katrina Costs to $2 Billion,” December 25, 2006. 131 Frank Bass and Eileen Sullivan, “Scammers Scooped Up $500M in Katrina Aid,” Associated Press, December 4, 2007. 132 Eric Lipton, “Breathtaking Waste and Fraud in Hurricane Aid,” New York Times , June 27, 2006. 133 House of Representatives, p. 286. 136 Sobel and assignment Leeson. 137 House Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the phd thesis, Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina, Rep.

Jefferson questioning of Michael Brown, September 27, 2005. 138 Ann Rodgers, “Homeland Security Won’t Let Red Cross Deliver Food,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , September 3, 2005. 139 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game,” New York Times , September 5, 2005. 140 Elizabeth Williamson, “Offers of pointer, Aid Immediate, but U.S. Approval Delayed for Days,” Washington Post , September 7, 2005. 141 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game.” 142 Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), p. 6.

144 Associated Press, “Agency ‘Beyond Repair’ and Must Be Replaced, Republican Chairwomen Says,” April 27, 2006. 145 Platt, p. 277. 146 Platt, p. 277. 147 Chris Edwards, “Department of Homeland Bureaucracy,” Cato Institute, June 12, 2014. 148 Miskel, p. 83. 150 Gregory J. Sanial, “The Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Study of the Coast Guard’s Culture, Organizational Design and Leadership in Crisis,” masters degree thesis, Sloan School of writing proposal, Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2007. 151 Steven Horwitz, “Making Hurricane Response More Effective,” Mercatus Center, George Mason University, March 2008.

152 Sanial, p. 26. 154 Ibid., pp. 71, 70. 155 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, p. Assignment. 10. Allama Iqbal. See also James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), pp. 40, 96, 97. 156 House of pointer assignment, Representatives, p. 343. 157 Ibid., pp.

312, 344. 158 Miskel, p. 25. 159 House of Representatives, p. 328. 161 Michael Barbaro and Justin Gillis, “Wal-Mart at the Forefront of latex dedication, Hurricane Relief,” Washington Post , September 6, 2005, p. D1. 163 House of Representatives, pp. xi, 2. 164 Bucci, et al., 166 Quoted in ibid., p. 4. 167 Partnership for Public Service, “The Best Places to Work in the Federal Government,” 2013, www.bestplacestowork.org. 168 Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, “FEMA’s Logistics Supply Chain Management System May Not Be Effective During a Catastrophic Disaster,” September 2014, p. Pointer Assignment. 5.

171 Meghan Barr, “AP-NORC Poll: Friends, Kin Key to latex dedication Sandy Survival,” Associated Press, June 24, 2013. 173 Department of Homeland Security, “DHS Announces Grant Allocation for pointer assignment, Fiscal 2013 Preparedness Grants,” press release, August 23, 2013. 175 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no. 393, March 10, 2014. It Like Beckham. And see Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no.

394, March 18, 2014. 176 Office of Senator Tom Coburn, “Safety at Any Price: Assessing the Impact of pointer, Homeland Security Spending in U.S. Cities,” December 2012, p. 5. 177 Ibid., pp. Proposal. 14, 15, 19, 20, 21.

178 Department of Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement: Homeland Security Grant Program,” DHS-14-GPD-067-000-01, 2014. 179 Matt A. Assignment. Mayer, Homeland Security and Federalism: Protecting America from Outside the Beltway (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2009), p. 64. 180 Department of Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement,” Appendix A. 181 Coburn, p. Writing. 23. 182 Melissa Raines, “Hazmat Trailer, Truck to Be Sold,” Mount Vernon News , Au­gust 26, 2008. 183 Coburn, p. 26. 184 The Department of Defense has also been giving excess military equipment to local police forces. See Matt Apuzzo, “Officer Friendly, In a Tank? War Gear Flows to Local Police,” New York Times , June 9, 2014. 185 Jennifer Levitz, “Towns Say No Tanks to Militarized Police,” Wall Street Journal , February 7, 2014. 186 Coburn, pp.

4, 36–41. 187 Budget of the U.S. Government, FY2015, Appendix (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), p. Pointer. 548. For general information, see www.fema.gov/assistance-firefighters-grant. 188 PBS.org, “ Citizen Ben : Firefighter,” 2002, www.pbs.org/benfranklin. 189 Bureau of the Census, State and Local Government Finances, Table 1, www.census.gov/govs/local.

The 2011 total is $42 billion. 190 Sandra Santos, “Red Tape Delays Some Stimulus Projects,” www.mysanantonio.com, June 29, 2010. 191 Office of Representative Sean Patrick Maloney, “Maloney Joins New Newburgh Firefighters at Live Burn,” press release, December 20, 2013. 192 FEMA, Congressional Budget Justification, FY2013, Flood Hazard Mapping and Risk Analysis, www.fema.gov/fiscal-year-2013-budget. 193 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “NOAA’s State of the Coast,” 2012, http://stateofthecoast.noaa.gov/pop100yr/welcome.html. 194 GAO, “Flood Insurance: More Information Needed on Subsidized Properties,” GAO-13-607, July 2013, p. 4. 195 Rawle O. King, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service, February 6, 2013, p. 3. 197 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Opportunities Exist to Improve Oversight of the WYO Program,” GA0-09-455, August 2009, p. 1.

198 Annmarie Geddes Baribeau, “The National Flood Insurance Program Is Under Water: Can the Private Sector Help?” Contingencies , July/August 2013, p. 30. 199 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. About For Students. 12. 200 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” GAO-13-858T, September 18, 2013, p. 1. 202 For some of the pointer, differences between NFIP and private insurance, see Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, “True Market-Risk Rates for Flood Insurance,” June 2011. And see American Academy of Actuaries, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Past, Present, and Future?” July 2011. 203 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and french war thesis Operational Issues,” p. 5. 205 Property Casualty Insurers Association of assignment, America, p. 4. 206 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continue Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” p. Quotations On Essay Iqbal. 9.

207 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to pointer assignment Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 7. 210 Quoted in The Week , “After Hurricane Sandy: Is Flood Insurance Bad for Taxpayers?” editorial, www.theweek.com, December 8, 2012. 211 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 212 J. Gatsby Critical. Scott Holladay, “Flooding the Market,” Institute for Policy Integrity, New York University School of Law, April 2010, p. 3. 214 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America. 215 King, p. 20. And see GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 8. Repetitive loss properties are those with two or more claims payments of $1,000 or more over 10 years. 216 Thomas Frank, “Huge Losses Put the Federal Flood Insurance Plan in the Red,” USA Today , August 26, 2010. 217 John Stossel, “Taxpayers Get Soaked by Government’s Flood Insurance,” abcnews.com, September 20, 2009. 218 Holladay, p. 6.

219 Eli Lehrer, “Watery Marauders,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, August 2007, p. 8. 221 Ibid., p. xvii. 224 James Bovard, “Uncle Sam’s Flood Machine,” The Freeman , January 1, 2006. 225 Platt, pp. Pointer Assignment. 194, 199. 227 Some commentators have suggested that the quotations on essay, market failure of “adverse selection” is a barrier to private flood insurance.

But adverse selection is based on assignment the idea that insurance buyers have hidden information not available to quotations allama insurance companies. That is not the pointer, case with flood insurance because flood risks are public knowledge. 229 Andrew G. Simpson, “Private Flood Insurance Agency Now Selling in 15 States,” www.insurancejournal.com, February 10, 2014. 230 Scott E. Harrington, “Rethinking Disaster Policy,” Cato Institute, Regulation 23, no 1. And see Scott E. Harrington and Tom Miller, “Insurance Regulation and Government Insurance,” Cato Handbook for Congress, 108th Congress . 231 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Strategies for critical, Increasing Private Sector Involvement,” GAO-14-127, January 22, 2014. 232 Deloitte Center for Financial Services, “The Potential for pointer, Flood Insurance Privatization in the U.S.,” 2014, p. 3. 233 For a discussion, see King. 234 Nedra Pickler, “President Obama Signs Flood Insurance Relief Bill,” www.insurancejournal.com, March 24, 2014. The 2014 law was the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act. 235 Mark A. Hofmann, “Congress to Consider Privatizing the NFIP,” www.businessinsurance.com, January 27, 2013. 237 Office of gatsby critical essays, Rep.

Candice S. Miller, “Rep. Pointer. Miller: Eliminate the National Flood Insurance Program,” press release, April 8, 2013. 239 For data on the seacoasts, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This is the phd thesis latex, population in pointer, Special Flood Hazard Areas. 240 I’ve argued that most of the functions of the Corps should be privatized. See Chris Edwards, “Cutting the critical essays, Army Corps of Engineers.”

241 Ibid. And see Michael Grunwald, “The Threatening Storm,” Time , August 2, 2007, and Michael Grunwald, “Setting the assignment, Stage for More Katrinas,” Time , August 2, 2007.