Essays on successful aging
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The Science of Healthy Aging: Living Better, Not Just Longer
Ellen Hughes, MD, PhD, Professor of Medicine; Former Director of Education, Osher Center for Integrative Medicine discusses
Paper 1: Defining Successful Aging: A Tangible or Elusive Concept
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Essay Title: “Critically evaluate the concept of successful ageing
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle. Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Aristotle's Ethics. Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics Material. GradeSaver provides access to 843 study guide PDFs and quizzes, 6317 literature essays, 1745 sample college application essays, 259 lesson plans, and ad-free surfing in this premium content, “Members Only” section of the site! Membership includes a 10% discount on all editing orders.
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics Essays. Building from Happiness to Friendship Matthew Fleck. Essays Aging? In Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle examines happiness, which is the essay good towards which every human action is directed. Entangled in this pursuit is Aristotle's discussion of such ideas as virtue, magnanimity, justice and friendship, as well as the. Virtue in Aristotle#39;s Ethics Jason Van Dyke. Aristotle devotes the first six books of his Nicomachean Ethics to a discussion of virtue. In doing so he divides virtue into two different categories: moral virtue and intellectual virtue and discusses them individually.
However, in our approach. Essays? Courage and Aristotle#39;s Doctrine of the Mean Anonymous. For Aristotle, the doctrine of the mean is a moral frame of reference by which each manAAAs character can be better understood. When applied to specific virtues such as courage, it illuminates what Aristotle believes to be the complex relationship. Self-Love: The Blueprint for Justice A. Livezey. Aristotle asks good human beings to be self-lovers, devoting special attention to how to application letter for teaching post virtue's most fundamental groundwork.
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What does it mean to essays on successful aging be human? We are “decision-making creatures capable of overruling [their] own instincts.” It naturally follows that those tools which enable humans to exhibit these unique characteristics are the most essential to human. How To Write An Essay On A Book? Finding Machiavelli: An Examination of Motive and essays aging Intention Through a Modern Political Lens Anonymous. Niccolo Machiavelli’s seminal work of political science, The Prince, directed at a prince of the then-powerful Medici family of Florence, has been the thesis outline subject of much debate over essays the centuries since it was published. Decried as a. Comparison of Aristotle#39;s and Machiavelli#39;s Philosophies Shenjun Xu. Speech Recognition Phd Thesis? The conflict between the ideal and the reality has long been the center of the debate in the history of political philosophy.
Many famous philosophers have constructed an imaginary world upon essays on successful aging which their entire theories are based. They believe an. Ancient to Modern Ethics: Aristotle and speech recognition phd thesis Kant on Virtue and Happiness Anonymous College. The following essay aims to compare Ancient versus Modern theories of ethics, particularly those of Aristotle and Immanuel Kant. The central concepts of virtue, happiness, and the human good are relevant to modern ethics, but do not play the same.
The Goodness in the Situational Ethic Anonymous College. The nature of goodness is distinctly disparate between Plato and Aristotle. Plato argues for a higher form of goodness, while Aristotle argues back with a societal form of goodness. Aristotle’s view of goodness is essays aging far more realistic to the actual. Friendship in Aristotle#39;s Writings Anonymous College. Friendship is arguably the of college most relevant philosophical matter expounded upon in The Nicomachean Ethics . Aging? While other virtues may not be practiced on a daily basis, friendship and the implications of such a relationship are somewhat more consistent. Aristotle’s Introduction to Function, Reason, and Virtue Anonymous College. In the first two books of Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle asserts that the function of humans is to practice rational activity, which completed over a lifetime makes a good life. Aristotle first explores the function and ends of all actions and.
Comparison of the Ethics Inculcated by Three Political Figures: Aristotle, Gandhi, and the Dalai Lama Aris Raj Agarwala 12th Grade. The rationale of the Dalai Lama has been a concept passed down from an essay on a book many generations. Being a line of reincarnations, very rarely have the essays on successful morals deviated from the original Dalai Lama. Said to embody compassion, the Dalai Lama defined his duty to. Virtue Surmounts Deception Anonymous College.
Several of the for teaching post most famous stories told to young children were Aesop’s fables, creative stories designed to teach valuable life lessons. One of the most memorable to me was the fable about the lion that spared a mouse’s life and was later rescued.
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Internet Encyclopedia of essays aging Philosophy. Acts of recognition infuse many aspects of our lives such as receiving a round of applause from a rapt audience, being spotted in a crowded street by a long-forgotten friend, having an application for challenges of college, a job rejected because of your criminal record, enjoying some words of aging praise by a respected philosophy professor, getting pulled over by the police because you are a black man driving an expensive car, and fighting to have your same-sex marriage officially sanctioned in order to enjoy the same benefits as hetero-sexual marriages. Evidently the phd thesis, various ways we are recognised (and recognise others) play an important role in shaping our quality of life. Recognition theorists go further than this, arguing that recognition can help form, or even determine, our sense of who we are and the value accorded to us as individuals. Political theories of recognition, which attempt to reconfigure the concept of justice in terms of due or withheld recognition, can be contrasted with (but set alongside) the rise of multiculturalism, which has produced an array of literature focused on recognising, accommodating and respecting difference. Although these two trajectories overlap, there are important differences between them. Multicultural politics is rooted in essays on successful, the identity politics underlying various social movements that gained prominence during the 1960s, such as the civil rights movement and radical/cultural feminism. These movements tend to emphasise the distinctness and value of their cultural identity and demand group-specific rights to protect this uniqueness. Thesis Outline In Latex. Without depreciating identity politics and essays aging multiculturalism, this article is primarily concerned with political theories of recognition, particularly those formulated by Charles Taylor (who is also a prominent figure in multicultural politics), Nancy Fraser and Axel Honneth.
These focus on challenges of college essay the role played by recognition in essays, individual identity formation and the normative foundation this can provide to theories of how to justice. Despite its brief history as an explicitly political concept, philosophical interest in the idea of recognition can be traced to the work of Hegel, who first coined the phrase ‘struggle for recognition’ ( kampf um anerkennung ). Essays On Successful Aging. This article begins by clarifying the specific political and philosophical meaning of recognition. It will provides an overview of outline Hegel’s remarks on essays recognition before proceeding to identify the activities, contemporary advocates of recognition. It presents the main similarities and differences between these authors before examining some important criticisms levelled at concept of recognition. The conclusion is a reflection upon the increasing influence of recognition and how it may develop in the future. The term ‘recognition’ has several distinct meanings: (1) an act of intellectual apprehension, such as when we ‘recognise’ we have made a mistake or we ‘recognise’ the influence of religion on American politics; (2) a form of identification, such as when we ‘recognise’ a friend in the street; and (3) the aging, act of challenges acknowledging or respecting another being, such as when we ‘recognise’ someone’s status, achievements or rights (upon the different meanings of recognition, see Inwood, 1992: 245-47; Margalit, 2001: 128-129). The philosophical and political notion of recognition predominantly refers to (3), and is often taken to mean that not only is recognition an important means of valuing or respecting another person, it is on successful, also fundamental to understanding ourselves. Various attempts have been made to clarify precisely what is, and is not, to count as an act of recognition (perhaps most comprehensively by thesis outline, Ikaheimo and Laitinen, 2007).
Ikaheimo (2002: 450) defines recognition as ‘always a case of A taking B as C in the dimension of D, and B taking A as a relevant judge ’. Here A and B indicate two individual persons, specifically A is the recogniser and B the recognisee. C designates the aging, attribute recognised in A, and write application post D is the dimension of B’s personhood at on successful, stake. Speech. For example, I may recognise you as a person possessing certain rights and responsibilities in light of your being an autonomous, rational human being (for more on defining the structure of recognition, see Laitinen, 2002). A key feature of on successful Ikaheimo’s definition is that it requires not only that someone be recognised by another, but that the person being recognised judges that the recogniser is capable of conferring recognition. This means that we must place sufficient value in how to an essay on a book, the recogniser in order for their attitude towards us to count as recognitive.
Brandom (2009) approaches this idea through the idea of essays on successful authority, arguing that a genuine instance of recognition requires that we authorise someone to confer recognition. Similarly, one can gain authority and responsibility by petitioning others for essay, recognition. Consequently, one has authority only insofar as one is essays on successful aging, recognised as authoritative. We may not consider being valued by a wilful criminal as any sort of recognition in the sense being defined here. We do not judge them capable of conferring value on us, as we do not accord any value or respect to them. Similarly, someone who is coerced into write letter for teaching, recognising us may also fail to count as a relevant judge. A king who demands recognition of aging his superiority from all his subjects, simply in virtue of his being king, and threatens to punish them if they disobey, does not receive any meaningful kind of recognition for the subjects do not genuinely choose to confer value on him. Thus, in recognising another, we must also be recognised as a subject capable of giving recognition.
This indicates that reciprocity or mutuality is likely to be a necessary condition of appropriate recognition (for a discussion of of college essay this point, see Laden, 2007). A further issue in defining recognition is on successful, whether it is generative or responsive (Laitinen, 2002; Markell, 2007). A generation-model of recognition focuses on the ways in which recognition produces or generates reasons for actions or self-understandings. This is to say that someone ought to write for teaching post, act in a certain way in virtue of being recognised as, for example, recognising someone as a rational being will generate certain duties and responsibilities for both the person being recognised and those who interact with him. A response-model of recognition focuses on the ways in aging, which recognition acknowledges pre-existing features of a person. Here, to recognise someone is to acknowledge them as they already really are (Appiah, 1994: 149).
This means that there are reasons why one ought to give recognition to someone prior to the act of recognition itself. Outline. Thus, for example, we ought to recognise someone’s ability to self-determination because they possess certain features, such as rational autonomy. The demand for recognition in a response-model is produced and justified through pre-existing characteristics of a person, whilst in the generation-model it is the act of recognition itself which confers those characteristics onto a person through their being recognised as such. The former is a case of on successful aging person ‘knowing’, whilst the latter is a case of person ‘making’ (see Markell, 2002). A third issue is whether groups or collectives can count as recognisers and recognisees. For example, when speaking of recognising a particular cultural group, do we mean we recognise that group qua a group, or as a collection of individuals? Similarly, does the granting of certain rights or respect apply to the group itself or the individual members belonging to that group? (For a detailed discussion and defence of group-differentiated minority rights, see Kymlicka, 1995). These questions revolve, at ib cas essay, least in part, around the on successful aging, ontological status afforded to groups or collectives. Advocates of letter post a politics of recognition are not always clear regarding whether or not groups can be granted recognition. Debates over the legitimacy or sovereignty of a state may depend upon the extent to which we recognise it as legitimate or sovereign. Important discussions of groups as entities include Tuomela (2007), Jones (2009) and List and Pettit (2011).
However, as yet there has been little analysis of the essays on successful aging, connection between recognition and the ontology of write an essay book groups. Charles Taylor (1994) argues for the importance of collective rights, but gives little consideration to whether collectives are genuine subjects over-and-above the individuals that constitute them. In his more recent work, Axel Honneth (Fraser and Honneth 2003: 159ff.) appears to give consideration to the possibility of groups as the object of recognition, but his general emphasis is on individual rights and recognition. Common to all social and political notions of recognition is the shift from an aging, atomistic to an intersubjective, dialogical understanding of the individual. Because our identity is shaped precisely through our relations to others, our being recognised by them, feelings of speech recognition phd thesis self-worth, self-respect and self-esteem are possible only if we are positively recognised for who we are. To this extent, theories of essays on successful aging political recognition, which were first formulated in the 1990s, developed out of political movements centred upon such concepts as gender, sexuality, race, ethnicity and culture. Recognition, according to Taylor (1994), is an indispensible means of understanding and justifying the challenges of college essay, demands of these identity movements, which have had a major impact on society, particularly from the 1960s onwards. Consequently, for many political theorists, recognition is an integral component of any satisfactory modern theory of aging justice as well as the means by essay, which both historical and contemporary political struggles can be understood and justified.
In order to understand how such theories developed, it is on successful, necessary to examine their genesis within Hegel’s philosophy. Descartes’ dualistic philosophy of consciousness created an influential legacy in which the mind was characterised as a private theatre and reflective knowledge of the aging, self was achieved through introspection. This atomistic conception of self, encapsulated in Descartes’ cogito , filtered into of college, the transcendental idealism of Kant (despite his objections to Descartes’ philosophy) and the transcendental phenomenology of Husserl, as well as being present in the contract theories of Hobbes and on successful aging Locke. Against this trend there emerged a strongly intersubjective conception of selfhood that found expression through the concept of phd thesis recognition, the founder of which is typically identified as Hegel. Although Hegel has undoubtedly influenced the essays aging, contemporary understanding of recognition more than any other philosopher, Hegel was himself inspired by the work of Johann Fichte (see Williams, 1992).
In his Foundations of Natural Right (1796/7), Fichte argues that the ‘I’ (the ego or pure consciousness) must posit itself as an individual to be able to understand itself as a free self. In order for such self-positing to occur, the individual must recognise itself as ‘summoned’ by challenges of college essay, another individual. This is to say, the essays, individual must acknowledge the claims of other free individuals in challenges essay, order to understand itself as a being capable of on successful action and possessing freedom. Hence, one’s freedom is both rendered possible and how to write application for teaching yet limited by the demands made on us by others. A key feature of this idea is aging, that the same applies in reverse – the other can only comprehend itself as free by being recognised as such.
Hence, mutual recognition is necessary for human beings to understand themselves as free individuals (as beings capable of ‘I-hood’). Through this analysis, Fichte produced a thoroughly intersubjective ontology of humans and outline in latex demonstrated that freedom and self-understanding are dependent upon mutual recognition. These ideas were developed in greater detail by Hegel. In his Phenomenology of Spirit Hegel (1807: 229) writes, ‘Self-consciousness exists in itself and for itself, in that, and by essays on successful, the fact that it exists for how to write an essay on a book, another self-consciousness; that is to say, it is only by being acknowledged or “recognized”’. Self-knowledge, including one’s sense of freedom and sense of self, is never a matter of simple introspection. Rather, understanding ourselves as an independent self-consciousness requires the recognition of another. One must recognise oneself as mediated through the other. As Sartre, who was heavily influenced by Hegel, wrote, ‘The road of interiority passes through the Other’ (Sartre, 1943: 236-7).
The idea of recognition is developed further in Hegel’s mature works, particularly Elements of the Philosophy of Right (1821), where it becomes an on successful aging, essential factor in the development of ethical life ( sittlichkeit ). According to Hegel, it is through the for depression, intersubjective recognition of essays aging our freedom that right is actualised. How To Write Letter Post. Rights are not instrumental to freedom; rather they are the concrete expression of it. Without recognition we could not come to aging, realise freedom, which in speech recognition phd thesis, turn gives rise to right. The work of Hegel consciously echoes the Aristotelian conception of humans as essentially social beings. For Hegel, recognition is the mechanism by which our existence as social beings is generated. Aging. Therefore, our successful integration as ethical and political subjects within a particular community is dependent upon for depression, receiving (and conferring) appropriate forms of recognition. The part of Hegel’s work to lay bare certain fundamental dynamics involved in recognition is the oft-discussed master-slave dialectic which appears in the Phenomenology (see Pinkard, 1996: 46ff; Stern, 2002: 83ff.). Essays. Hegel introduces the idea of a ‘struggle for recognition’, describing an encounter between two self-consciousnesses which both seek to affirm the certainty of their being for themselves (Hegel, 1807: 232ff.).
Such a conflict is an essay book, described as a life-and-death struggle, insofar as each consciousness desires to essays on successful, confirm its self-existence and independence through a negation or objectification of the ib cas reflective, other. That is, it seeks to incorporate the other within its field of consciousness as an object of negation, as something which this consciousness is not, thus affirming its own unfettered existence. Essays On Successful Aging. Of course, the other also tries to negate this consciousness, thus generating the struggle which results in for depression, affirmation of one self-consciousness at the cost of the negation or annihilation of the other. Only in this way, Hegel observes, only by essays on successful aging, risking life, can freedom be obtained. However, there is a key moment with this struggle.
Namely, consciousness realises that it cannot simply destroy the other through incorporating it within itself, for it requires the activities, other as a definite other in order to gain recognition. Thus, it must resist collapsing the other into essays on successful, itself, for to do so would also be to activities for depression, annihilate itself. It would be starving itself of the recognition it requires in order to essays aging, be a determinate self-consciousness. Within Hegel’s radical reworking of how the individual subject is understood, autonomy becomes a contingent, social and practical accomplishment; it is an intersubjectively-mediated achievement which is thesis outline in latex, never simply given or guaranteed but always dependent upon our relations with others. This co-dependency results in on successful aging, mutual relations of challenges recognition which are the condition for understanding oneself as a genuinely free being, albeit a free being which acknowledges, and thus adjusts itself, to the freedom of others. Aging. Discussing the process of recognition, Hegel (1807: 230) notes that it ‘is absolutely the double process of both self-consciousnesses. Action from one side only would be useless, because what is to happen can only how to write post be brought about by means of both’. As a result, these two self-consciousnesses ‘recognize themselves as mutually recognizing one another’ (ibid: 231). Hegel characterises this mutuality, which cannot be coerced but be freely given and received, as being at home in the other. Such a relation with another is the on successful, condition for the phenomenological experience of freedom and right.
Consequently, our interactions with others are not a limitation on freedom, but rather the ‘enhancement and concrete actualization of freedom’ (Williams, 1997: 59). We see now how the master-slave dialectic of recognition is inherently unstable and unsatisfying. The master has dominion over the slave, reducing the latter to the status of a mere ‘thing’ through refusing to recognise it as a free and equal self-consciousness. The slave, realising that life as a slave is book, better than no life at all, accepts this relation of essays dominance and subservience. Whilst the slave receives no recognition from the master, the master has ‘earned’ the write an essay book, recognition of a slave which it considers as less-than-human. Such recognition is essays on successful aging, not ‘real’ recognition at all and ib cas reflective yet, within this Hegel’s dialectic of recognition, the master requires the recognition of the slave in order to gain some modicum of self-understanding and freedom. The recognition of the slave is ultimately worthless, for it is not the recognition of a free self-consciousness, which alone can grant the recognition on another required for self-certainty of existence and freedom.
Trapped in this fruitless relation, the on successful aging, slave becomes the ‘truth’ of the master, and so the master, paradoxically, becomes enslaved to activities, the slave. For Hegel, relations of domination provide a vicious spiral of recognition. They lead nowhere but to their own destruction. Hence recognition must always take place between equals, mediated through social institutions which can guarantee that equality and aging thus produce the necessary mutual relations of recognition necessary for the attainment of freedom. It is precisely this last point that recent recognition theorists have seized upon and elaborated into comprehensive discussions of justice. 3. Contemporary Theories of how to write Recognition. Much contemporary interest in recognition was undoubtedly fuelled by Charles Taylor’s essay ‘Multiculturalism and the Politics of Recognition’ (1994), first published in 1992. Taylor’s lucid and concise article is often treated as the classic expression of essays on successful a theory of recognition.
However, it would be more accurate to say that Taylor awoke a general interest in the idea of recognition. His short essay provides a series of reflections and conjectures which, whilst insightful, do not constitute a full-blown theory of phd thesis recognition. However, its exploratory nature and essays non-technical language has helped install it as the common reference point for discussions of recognition. Taylor begins with the assertion that ‘a number of strands in contemporary politics turn on the need, sometimes the demand, for speech, recognition ’ (Taylor, 1994: 25). He identifies such a demand as present in the political activities of feminism, race movements and aging multiculturalists (for a critical discussion of this point, see Nicholson, 1996). The specific importance of recognition lies in its relationship to identity, which he defines as ‘a person’s understanding of who they are, of their fundamental characteristics as a human being’ (Taylor, 1994: 25). Because identity is ‘partly shaped by recognition or its absence’, then ‘Nonrecognition or misrecognition can inflict harm, can be a form of oppression, imprisoning someone in a false, distorted, and reduced mode of being’ (ibid.).
Underlying Taylor’s model is the Hegelian belief that individuals are formed intersubjectively (see Section II). Our individual identity is not constructed from within and generated by each of us alone. Rather, it is through dialogue with others that we negotiate our identity. Taylor refers to these others as ‘significant others’, meaning those people who have an important role in how to application for teaching post, our lives (that is, family, friends, teachers, colleagues, and essays so forth.). The idea that our sense of who we are is determined through our interaction with others initiates a shift from a monologic to a dialogic model of the self. Taylor is keen to stress just how important recognition is, referring to it as ‘a vital human need’ (ibid: 26) and speech recognition stating that misrecognition ‘can inflict a grievous wound, saddling its victims with a crippling self-hatred’ (ibid: 26). Deploying a brief historical narrative, Taylor argues that the collapse of social hierarchies, which had provided the basis for bestowing honour on certain individuals (that is, those high up on the social ladder), led to the modern day notion of dignity, which rests upon universalist and egalitarian principles regarding the equal worth of all human beings.
This notion of dignity lies at the core of contemporary democratic ideals, unlike the notion of honour which is, he claims, clearly incompatible with democratic culture. This picture is complicated by the fact that alongside this development of dignity there emerged also a new understanding of ‘individualised identity’, one in which the emphasis was on each person’s uniqueness, which Taylor defines as ‘being true to myself and my own particular way of essays being’ (ibid: 28). Taylor refers to application letter for teaching post, this idea of uniqueness as the ideal of authenticity, writing ‘Being true to myself means being true to on successful aging, my own originality, which is something only I can articulate and discover. In articulating it, I am also defining myself’ (ibid: 31). Taylor has been accused of adopting an reflective essay, essentialist view of the self, on the basis that there is some inner ‘me’ waiting to aging, be uncovered and displayed to (recognised by) the world (see section V. b). However, he is quick to point out that the discovery of our authenticity is not simply a matter of introspection. Activities For Depression. Rather, it is on successful, through our interactions with others that we define who we are.
Nor is there an end point to this dialogue. It continues throughout our entire lives and does not even depend upon the physical presence of a specific other for that person to influence us. Consider, for example, the ib cas reflective essay, way an imaginary conversation with a deceased partner might influence how we act or view ourselves. The importance of recognition lies precisely in the fact that how others see (might) us is a necessary step in forming an on successful aging, understanding of of college who we are. To be recognised negatively, or misrecognised, is to be thwarted in our desire for authenticity and self-esteem. Taylor’s uses these insights to aging, construct a politics of equal recognition. He identifies two different ways in which the idea of equal recognition has been understood.
The first is a politics of ib cas essay equal dignity, or a politics of universalism, which aims at the equalisation of on successful all rights and entitlements. How To Write Post. In this instance, all individuals are to be treated as universally the same through recognition of their common citizenship or humanity. The second formulation is the essays on successful aging, politics of difference, in which the of college essay, uniqueness of each individual or group is recognised. Aging. Rousseau bitterly noted that man, having shifted from a state of self-sufficiency and simplicity to challenges, one of competition and domination that characterises modern society, has come to crave the recognition of their difference (Rousseau, 1754). Essays Aging. In this detrimental situation, man is rendered dependent upon the views of challenges others, craving what Rousseau termed ‘ amour propre ’ through the admiration of essays those around him, leading to an endless competition for greater achievements and respect and thus robbing man of reflective essay his independence. For Rousseau, this desire for individual distinction, achievement and recognition conflicts with a principle of equal respect. Returning to Taylor, he notes that there is also a universal basis to this second political model insofar as all people are entitled to have their identity recognised: ‘we give due acknowledgement only to what is universally present – everyone has an essays aging, identity – through recognizing what is peculiar to each. The universal demand powers an acknowledgement of specificity’ (Taylor, 1994: 39). One consequence of speech recognition this politics of difference is that certain rights will be assigned to specific groups but not others. The two approaches can be summed as follows.
The politics of equal dignity is difference-blind, whereas the politics of difference is, as the name suggests, difference-friendly (this does not mean that a politics of equal dignity is not also ‘friendly’ towards difference, but rather that differences between individuals cannot be the essays, normative foundation for the assignment of certain rights or entitlement to speech recognition phd thesis, some individuals or groups but not others). Taylor defends a politics of difference, arguing that the concept of equal dignity often (if not always) derives its idea of aging what rights and entitlement are worth having from the perspective of the hegemonic culture, thus enforcing minority groups to conform to the expectations of dominant culture and hence relinquish their particularity. Failure to conform will result in the minority culture being derided and ostracised by the dominant culture. As Taylor (ibid: 66) notes, ‘dominant groups tend to entrench their hegemony by inculcating an image of inferiority in thesis, the subjugated’. A clear instance of this can be seen in de Beauvoir’s claim that woman is always defined as man’s ‘other’ or ‘shadow’ (de Beauvoir, 1949). Woman exists as a lack; characterised through what she does not possess or exhibit (namely, male and masculine traits). Similarly, civil rights movements have frequently protested that the image of the ‘human’ was inevitably white, Western, educated, middle-class and wealthy. An example of how this plays out in everyday life is the essays, recent, though now generally discarded, practice of labelling pink crayons ‘flesh’ coloured. Both feminist and race theorists have tried to write letter, convey the idea that the white male is simply another particular instance of humanity, rather than its ‘default’ image or constitutive, universal norm. This point was strongly made by Fanon (1952), who detailed how racism infiltrates the on successful, consciousness of the oppressed, preventing psychological health through the internalisation of subjection and thesis outline in latex otherness.
This in on successful aging, turn alienates the black person from both their society and their own body, owing to the fact that the world is speech recognition phd thesis, defined in terms of ‘whiteness’ and thus as something essentially irretrievably different (alien) to them. Axel Honneth has produced arguably the most extensive discussion of recognition to date. He is in agreement with Taylor that recognition is essential to self-realisation. However, he draws more explicitly on Hegelian intersubjectivity in essays, order to identify the mechanics of how this is ib cas reflective essay, achieved, as well as establishing the motivational and normative role recognition can play in understanding and justifying social movements. Following Hegel (1807; 1821) and Mead (1934), Honneth identifies three ‘spheres of interaction’ which are connected to essays on successful, the three ‘patterns of recognition’ necessary for an individual’s development of a positive relation-to-self. These are love, rights, and how to letter solidarity (Honneth, 1995: 92ff; also Honneth 2007, 129-142). The mode of recognition termed ‘love’ refers to our physical needs and emotions being met by others and takes the form of our primary relationships (that is, close friends, family and lovers). It provides a basic self-confidence, which can be shattered through physical abuse.
The mode of essays recognition termed ‘rights’ refers to the development of moral responsibility, developed through our moral relations with others. It is a mutual mode of reflective essay recognition ‘in which the individual learns to see himself from the perspective of his [or her] partner in interaction as a bearer of equal rights’ (Honneth, 1992: 194). The denial of on successful rights through social and legal exclusion can threaten one’s sense of ib cas reflective being a fully active, equal and respected member of society. Finally, the essays on successful aging, mode of recognition termed ‘solidarity’ relates to recognition of our traits and abilities. It is essential for developing our self-esteem and for how we become ‘individualised’, for it is precisely our personal traits and abilities that define our personal difference (Honneth, 1995: 122). Consequently, unlike the ib cas essay, relations of love and rights, which express universal features of human subjects, esteem ‘demands a social medium that must be able to on successful, express the characteristic differences between human subjects in a universal, and more specifically, intersubjectively obligatory way’ (ibid.). All three spheres of recognition are crucial to developing a positive attitude towards oneself: For it is only due to the cumulative acquisition of basic self-confidence, of self-respect, and of self-esteem. that a person can come to see himself or herself, unconditionally, as both an autonomous and thesis an individuated being and to identify with his or her goals and aging desires (ibid: 169). According to Honneth, the denial of recognition provides the motivational and justificatory basis for social struggles.
Specifically, it is through the emotional experiences generated by certain attitudes and actions of others towards us that we can come to feel we are being illegitimately denied social recognition. For Depression. This argument makes use of Dewey’s theory of emotion as intentionally orientated. Certain emotional states, such as shame, anger and frustration, are generated by the failure of our actions. Conversely, more positive emotional states are generated through successful action. The experience of negative emotional states can, in theory, reveal to us that an injustice is taking place (namely, that we are not being given due and appropriate recognition). However, as Honneth points out, feelings of shame or anger need not (indeed, do not) necessarily disclose relations of disrespect (ibid: 138). What they provide is the potential for identifying the occurrence of an injustice which one is justified in opposing. The experience of disrespect is the raw material from which normatively justified social struggles can be formulated. Furthermore, it is only within certain social contexts, those in which the ‘means of articulation of a social movement are available’ (ibid: 139), that experiences of disrespect provide the motivational basis for political struggles (see Honneth, 2007).
Presumably, disrespect in other contexts would lead to individual acts of retaliation or undirected violence, rather than coordinated resistance. This phenomenological approach to recognition thus locates the source and justification of social struggles in on successful aging, the experiences and expectations of recognition. Of course, as noted, it requires the further steps of (a) locating these experiences within a socially-generated framework of emancipatory discourse; and (b) the establishment of common experiences amongst individuals for these individual frustrations to of college, develop into social struggles. Essays Aging. Therefore, it would be naive to think that Honneth is blind to ib cas reflective essay, the importance of, say, ensuring the essays on successful, means and rights to collective political action within societies. But the fundamental component of any attempt to identify injustice and vindicate the challenges of college, necessary remedies must be located in the individual’s experiences of disrespect (Honneth, 2007) (for a potential problem with this position, see Rogers, 2009).
In order to justify these claims, Honneth ascribes an on successful, inherent expectation of speech recognition to humans, referring to demands generated from such an expectation as the ‘“quasi-transcendental interests” of the human race’ (Fraser and Honneth, 2003: 174). It is on successful aging, only through the failure of such expectations that recognition can be a motivational source, arising via negative emotional experiences. This assumption allows Honneth to assess societal change as a developmental process driven by moral claims arising from experiences of thesis outline in latex disrespect. Honneth (1995: 168) summarises his somewhat teleological account (a product of Honneth’s Hegelian and Aristotelian tendencies) as follows: ‘Every unique, historical struggle or conflict only reveals its position within the development of society once its role in the establishment of moral progress, in terms of recognition, has been grasped’. The positing of an approximate and ideal end-state, presumably one in which full recognition reigns supreme, allows a distinction between progressive, emancipatory struggles and those which are reactionary and / or oppressive. Therefore, from on successful aging this general position of enabling the self-realisation of one’s desires, characteristics and abilities, we can assess current socio-political struggles and analyse their future directions so as to ensure their promoting of the conditions for self-realisation. Ib Cas. Honneth is essays aging, careful to specify that he is not advocating a single, substantive set of universal values and social arrangements. Rather, his concept of challenges of college ‘the good’ is concerned with the ‘structural elements of ethical life’ which enable personal integrity (ibid: 172). Essays On Successful. Therefore, the posited ‘end-point’ from which normative claims can be made must emanate from structural relations outlined in the three distinct patterns of recognition which foster a positive relation-to-self (for a discussion of Honneth’s conception of the good / ethical life, see Zurn, 2000). Here, Honneth is trying to retain a Kantian notion of respect and autonomy through identifying the necessary conditions for self-realisation and self-determination, akin to a Kantian kingdom of ends in ib cas, which all individuals receive and confer recognition on one another. Simultaneously, in stressing the on successful aging, minimal or ‘bare’ conditions necessary for this, he aims to avoid committing himself to a singular, substantial conception of the good life and thus resists the dangers of reproducing an exclusivist and exclusionary conception of recognition what constitutes the good life.
Whereas there are broad areas of agreement between Honneth and Taylor, Nancy Fraser is keen to differentiate her theory of recognition from both of their respective positions. Fraser’s overarching theme throughout her works on recognition is the dissolving of the assumed antithesis between redistribution and recognition (arguably this assumption is a consequence of on successful aging critical theory’s Marxist roots, within which framework Fraser’s work undoubtedly emerges from). Thus far, the ib cas, presentation of recognition and redistribution has been presented (at least implicitly) as an essays aging, either/or decision. Fraser believes that this binary opposition derives from the fact that, whereas recognition seems to promote differentiation, redistribution supposedly works to eliminate it. The recognition paradigm seems to target cultural injustice, which is rooted in the way people’s identities are positively or negatively valued. Activities For Depression. Individuals exist as members of a community based upon a shared horizon of meanings, norms and values. On Successful Aging. Conversely, the distribution paradigm targets economic injustice, which is rooted in one’s relation to the market or the means of production (Fraser and Honneth, 2003: 14). Here, individuals exist in a hierarchically-differentiated collective class system which, from the perspective of the group activities for depression, majority class who are constituted by a lack of resources, needs abolishing. According to Fraser, both these forms of injustice are primary and co-original, meaning that economic inequality cannot be reduced to cultural misrecognition, and essays on successful aging vice-versa. Many social movements face this dilemma of essay having to balance the demand for (economic) equality with the insistence that their (cultural) specificity be met. Fraser (1997: 19) gives the example of the feminist movement by posing the question, ‘How can feminists fight simultaneously to essays, abolish gender differentiation [through economic redistribution] and to valorize gender specificity [through cultural recognition]?’.
There is a clear divergence here between the monistic models of Taylor and Honneth, in which recognition is the foundational category of social analysis and essay distribution is treated as derivative, and Fraser’s dualistic model. Whereas Honneth thinks a sufficiently elaborated concept of recognition can do all the essays on successful aging, work needed for a critical theory of challenges of college essay justice, Fraser argues that recognition is but one dimension of justice, albeit a vitally important one. The disagreement over whether or not distribution can be made to supervene on essays recognition arises from the speech phd thesis, differing interpretations of recognition. According to Fraser (Fraser and Honneth 2003: 29), one can understand recognition as either (a) a matter of justice, connected to on successful, with the concept of a universal ‘right’ (Fraser’s position); or (b) a matter of thesis in latex self-realisation, connected with historically-relative cultural conceptions of the ‘good’ (Honneth’s and Taylor’s position). In (b) Fraser draws out the Aristotelian idea of eudaimonia (flourishing), which runs throughout Honneth’s teleological account. Contra Honneth and Taylor, Fraser does not look to situate the injustice of misrecognition in the retardation of personal development. Rather, she identifies it with the fact that ‘some individuals and groups are denied the status of essays aging full partners in thesis in latex, social interaction simply as a consequence of institutionalized patterns of cultural value in whose construction they have not equally participated and which disparage their distinctive characteristics or the distinctive characteristics assigned to essays on successful, them’ (ibid). Addressing injustices arising from misrecognition therefore means looking at the discursive representations of identities in order to identity how certain individuals are assigned a relatively inferior social standing.
Hence, on Fraser’s model, misrecognition should not be construed as an impediment to ethical self-realization (as it is for of college, Taylor and Honneth). Instead, it should be conceived as an institutionalised relation of subordination. Owing to her identification of recognition with social status, the evaluative element in Fraser’s account is the notion of essays ‘parity of participation’. Group. According to this principle, ‘justice requires that social arrangements permit all (adult) members of society to interact with one another as peer’ (ibid: 36). In effect, recognition is aging, required in order to guarantee that all members of society have an equal participation in social life. Crucially, participatory parity also requires material / economic redistribution in order to of college, guarantee that people are independent and ‘have a voice’ (ibid). Because Honneth equates recognition with self-realisation, the essays on successful aging, derivative issues of redistribution are only generated to in latex, the extent that they inhibit this personal development.
For Fraser, injustice in the form of both misrecognition and maldistribution is detrimental to the extent that it inhibits participatory parity. Fraser considers two possible remedies for injustice, which transcend the redistribution-recognition divide by on successful, being applicable to both. The first is ‘affirmation’, which incorporates any action which corrects ‘inequitable outcomes of social arrangements without disturbing the underlying framework that generates them’ (ibid: 23). The second is ‘transformation’, which refers to ‘remedies aimed at correcting inequitable outcomes precisely by restricting the underlying generative framework’ (ibid). Fraser’s concept of how to an essay on a book transformation highlights her belief that certain forms of injustice are ingrained within ‘institutionalized patterns of cultural value’ (ibid: 46). Certain forms of inequality, including those of race and gender, derive from the on successful, signifying effect of socio-cultural structures.
These discursive frameworks, situated within language and recognition phd thesis social arrangements, reproduce hierarchical binary oppositions such as ‘heterosexual/homosexual’, ‘white/black’ and ‘man/woman’. Thus, the solution is not simply a matter of essays on successful revaluing heterosexual, female or black identities. Rather, one must attempt to of college essay, deconstruct the binary logic which situates people as inherently inferior, creating a ‘field of essays aging multiple, debinarized, fluid, ever-shifting differences’ (Fraser, 1997: 24). One key aspect of this transformative approach is that, unlike the application letter for teaching, affirmative approach which aims to alter only one particular group’s sense of worth or material situation, it would change everyone’s sense of self. The proposal made by Fraser, then, is the radical restructuring of society, achieved through transformative redistribution (that is, socialism) and recognition (cultural deconstruction). It should be noted that in aging, her more recent work on recognition (that is, Fraser 2000; 2001), she resists offering any particular remedies, arguing instead that the required response to injustice will be dictated by the specific context. Thus, she appears to recognition phd thesis, distance herself from the more ‘deconstructive’ elements of essays her earlier work (see Zurn, 2003).
4. Redistribution or Recognition? The Fraser-Honneth Debate. In a very important discussion, Fraser and Honneth (2003) defend their respective theories of recognition (see also Honneth, 2001). How To Write. Underlying the essays on successful, disagreements between them is their respective positions regarding the distribution / recognition debate. As noted in Section III, Fraser believes that recognition and distribution are two irreducible elements of a satisfactory theory of justice. This is to say, they are of write on a book equal foundational importance – the one cannot be collapsed into the other.
Honneth, on the other hand, contends that issues of distribution are ultimately explained and justified through issues of recognition. As he writes, ‘questions of essays aging distributive justice are better understood in terms of normative categories that come from a sufficiently differentiated theory of recognition’ (ibid: 126). He begins justifying this claim through a historical survey of political movements and unrest amongst the lower classes during the early stages of of college essay capitalism. What marked such activities was the commonly held belief that the honour and essays aging dignity of the members of the essay, lower classes were not being adequately respected. Summarising these findings, Honneth (ibid: 132) proclaims that ‘subjects perceive institutional procedures as social injustice when they see aspects of their personality being disrespected which they believe they have a right to recognition’. One important consequence of this view is that it undermines the received wisdom that collective identity movements are a recent ‘modern’ phenomenon. Essays. In actual fact, according to Honneth, experiences of disrespect and denigration of an individual’s or group’s identity are the constitutive feature of all instances of social discontent. Portraying ‘recognition’ as the sole preserve of cultural minorities struggling for social respect is therefore highly misleading and obscures the fact that challenges to the existing social order are always driven by the moral experience of how to write book failing to receive what is deemed to be sufficient recognition (ibid: 160). Any dispute regarding redistribution of on successful aging wealth or resources is reducible to phd thesis, a claim over the social valorisation of specific group or individual traits.
The feminist struggle over the gendered division of labour is, according to Honneth, primarily a struggle regarding the prevailing assessment of achievement and on successful worth which has had important redistributive effects, such as a trend towards greater access to, and equality within, the workplace and the acknowledgement of ib cas ‘female’ housework. The division that Fraser makes between economic distribution and cultural recognition is, Honneth claims, an arbitrary and ultimately misleading one that ignores the fundamental role played by recognition in economic struggles, as well as implying that the essays aging, cultural sphere of society can be understood as functioning independently of the economic sphere. Fraser (ibid: 30ff.) offers four advantages of thesis outline in latex her status model over Honneth’s monistic vision of justice as due recognition (for a discussion of these, see Zurn, 2003). Essays On Successful. Arguably the most important of these is that, in locating injustice in social relations governed by cultural patterns of representations, she can move beyond both Taylor’s and Honneth’s reliance on psychology as the normative force underlying struggles for recognition. Recalling that Honneth locates the experiences of injustice in the emotional responses to frustrated expectations of due recognition, Fraser argues that she is able to ‘show that a society whose institutionalized norms impede parity of participation is morally indefensible whether or not they distort the subjectivity of the oppressed ’ (ibid: 32). How To. The ideal of participatory parity gives Fraser her normative component, for it provides the essays aging, basis on which different recognition claims can be judged. Namely, a valid recognition claim is one in which subjects can show that ‘institutionalized patterns of cultural value deny them the necessary intersubjective conditions [for participatory parity]’ (ibid: 38). Honneth’s invocation of pre-political suffering, generated by group, the perceived withholding of essays on successful recognition, as the motivating force behind social movements is thus rejected by Fraser as seriously problematic. In particular, she says, the idea that all social discontent has the same, single underlying motivation (misrecognition) is essay, simply implausible. Honneth rejects other motivational factors such as ‘resentment of unearned privilege, abhorrence of cruelty, aversion of arbitrary power. Essays Aging. antipathy to exploitation, dislike of supervision’ that cannot not simply be reduced down to, or subsumed by, an overarching expectation of appropriate recognition.
Another problem with Honneth’s psychological model of experiences of injustice is that, so Fraser argues, it shifts the focus away from society and onto the self, thus ‘implanting an excessively personalized sense of injury’ (ibid: 204). Write Letter. This can lead to the victim of oppression internalising the injustice or blaming themselves, rather than the on successful, discursive and material conditions within which they are situated as oppressed or harmed. Indeed, Fraser proceeds to thesis in latex, point out that there can be no ‘pure’ experience of moral indignation caused by withheld or inappropriate recognition. There is no realm of personal experience that is not experienced through a particular linguistic and historical horizon, which actively shapes the experience in question (see section V. Essays Aging. d). Thus to challenges, introduce a ‘primordial’ sense of moral suffering is, Fraser claims, simply incoherent (similar concerns are raised by McNay, 2008: 138ff.). Aging. Honneth cannot invoke psychological experiences of outline in latex disrespect as the essays on successful, normative foundation for his theory of recognition as they cannot be treated as independent of the discursive conditions within which the subject is constituted. To do so is to speech recognition phd thesis, rely on an ultimately unjustifiable transcendental account of the subject’s access to their sense of moral worth grounded in the right to recognition. In his response to Fraser, Honneth points out that she can necessarily focus only on those social movements that have already become visible.
By analysing the ways in essays, which individuals and groups are socially-situated by institutionalised patterns of cultural value, Fraser limits herself to only those expressions of social discontent that have already entered the public sphere. The logic of this criticism seems to be that, if (in)justice is a matter of group activities for depression how society signifies subjects’ abilities and characteristics, then it can only address those collective subjectivities which are currently socially recognised. In other words, there could be a plethora of individuals and essays on successful groups who are struggling for recognition which have not yet achieved public acknowledgement and thus have not been implicated within positive or negative social structures of signification. There appears some weight to this criticism, for a successful critical social theory should be able to not only critique the status quo , but identify future patterns of social resistance. If, on Fraser's account, justice is a matter of how to write application for teaching post addressing how subjects are socially-situated by existing value structures, then it seems to lack the conceptual apparatus to on successful aging, look beyond the present. The ability to thesis in latex, identify social discontent must, Honneth argues, be constructed independently of social recognition, and therefore ‘requires precisely the kind of moral-psychological considerations Fraser seeks to avoid’ (ibid: 125).
In ignoring the individual’s experiences of injustice as the disrespect of aspects of their personality, a social theory can only address the present situation, rather than exploring the aging, normative directions of future social struggles. It is out of the frustration of individual expectations of essay due recognition that new social movements will emanate, rather than the pre-existing patterns of signification which currently hierarchically situate subjects. Despite its influence and popularity, there are a number of concerns regarding the concept of recognition as a foundational element in a theory of justice. This article cannot hope to present an on successful aging, exhaustive list, so instead offers a few of the most common critiques. Perhaps the one most frequently voiced criticism is that regarding the speech recognition, reification of group identity. Put simply, the concern is that, in initiating an identity politics in which one demands positive recognition for a group’s specific characteristics, specific characteristics can be seen as necessarily constitutive of aging this group and how to application thus any group member who does not display these characteristics risks being ostracised.
Such claims are often cloaked in on successful, a language of ‘authenticity’ which leads to demands for conformity amongst individual members of the group in order to of college essay, gain acceptance and approval. This risks producing intergroup coercion and enforcing conformity at essays on successful aging, the expense of individual specificity. To give an example, discussed by Appiah (1994) in his response to Taylor’s essay on thesis outline in latex recognition, the construction of a black politics in which black identity is celebrated can provide a sense of self-worth and dignity amongst historically denigrated black communities. However, it can also lead to on successful, a ‘proper’ way of being black, one which all members of the black community must demonstrate in order to partake in group activities, this positive self-image. Such expectations of behaviour can lead, Appiah notes (ibid: 163), to one form of tyranny being replaced by another. On Successful. Specifically, individuals who fail to exemplify authentic ‘black’ identity can find themselves once again the victims of intolerance and social exclusion. Similar dynamics of exclusion can be seen in the debate within certain feminist circles about whether lesbians can be properly considered ‘women’. Extrapolating from these concerns, Markell (2003) argues that Taylor conflates individual identity with group identity with the result that agency is rendered a matter of group for depression adopting the identity one is assigned through membership of one's community.
Consequently, the critical tension between the individual and essays community is dissolved, which leaves little (if any) space for outline, critiquing or resisting the dominant norms and values of one's community (see also Habermas, 1991: 271). The reification of group identity can also lead to separatism through generating an ‘us-and-them’ group mentality. By valorising a particular identity, those other identities which lack certain characteristics particular to aging, the group in question can be dismissed as inferior. This isolationist policy runs counter to group activities, the ideal of social acceptability and aging respect for difference that a politics of recognition is meant to initiate. Reifying group identity prevents critical dialogue taking place either within or between groups. Internal group members who challenge apparently ‘authentic’ aspects of their culture or group identity can be labelled as traitors, whilst non-group members are dismissed as unqualified to comment on the characteristics of the group on the basis that they are ‘outsiders’. Activities. The result is on successful, a strong separatism and radical relativism in which intergroup dialogue is eliminated. This can mask over the ways in which various axes of speech phd thesis identity overlap and thus ignores the commonalities between groups. For example, the focus of black feminists on ‘black culture’ and the oppression this has suffered can lead to a failure to recognise their commonality with women in other cultures.
Conversely, the tendency among feminists to focus on the concept of ‘woman’ can lead them to ignore the potential alliances they might share with other oppressed groups that don’t focus on gender injustice. Underlying this critique is the idea that identity is always multilayered and essays that each individual is how to, always positioned at essays aging, the intersection of multiple axes of oppression. Simply reducing one’s sense of oppression to challenges of college essay, a single feature of essays on successful identity (such as race or gender) fails to acknowledge the way that each feature of identity is write application for teaching post, inextricably bound up with other features, so that, for example, race and essays aging gender cannot be treated as analytically distinct modes of dominance. Similar to speech phd thesis, the concerns over on successful, reification, there is a concern that recognition theories invoke an essentialist account of how to write an essay on a identity. Essays Aging. This has particularly been the case with regards Taylor’s model of recognition (see McNay, 2008: 64ff). Critics accuse recognition theory of assuming that there is a kernel of selfhood that awaits recognition (see, for example, Heyes, 2003). Of College Essay. The struggle for essays aging, recognition thus becomes a struggle to be recognised as what one truly is. Application For Teaching. This implies that certain features of a person lie dormant, awaiting discovery by the individual who then presents this authentic self to the world and demands positive recognition for essays, it.
Although Taylor is keen to stress that his model is not committed to such an essentialist account of the self, certain remarks he makes do not help his cause. For example, in describing the modern view of how we create a sense of thesis in latex ‘full being’, he notes that, rather than connecting with some source outside of ourselves (such as God or the Platonic Good), ‘the source we have to connect with is deep within us. This fact is part of the massive subjective turn of modern culture, a new form of inwardness, in which we come to think our ourselves as beings with hidden depths’ (Taylor, 1994: 29). Taylor proceeds to note that ‘Being true to myself means being true to my own originality, which is something only I can articulate and discover’ (ibid: 31) and essays aging that authenticity ‘calls on me to discover my own original way of being. How To On A Book. By definition, this way of being cannot be socially derived, but must be inwardly generated’ (ibid: 32). A more radical account of intersubjectivity can be found in Arendt (1958). Examining the processes by which the subject reveals who they are, she shifts the focus away from a personal revelation on the part of the agent and into the social realm: ‘it is aging, more than likely that the “who” , which appears so clearly and write application letter for teaching post unmistakably to others, remains hidden from the on successful aging, person itself, like the daimon in Greek religion which accompanies each man throughout his life, always looking over of college essay, his shoulder from essays behind and thus visible only to those he encounters’ (Arendt, 1958: 179-80). One important consequence of ib cas this idea is essays on successful, that, in order to address the question of ‘who’ we are, we must be willing to relinquish control of any such answer. In so doing, we place ourselves into the hands of others. As Arendt writes, ‘This unpredictability of outcome [of personal disclosure] is closely related to the revelatory character of action and speech, in write an essay on a book, which one discloses one’s self without ever either knowing himself or being able to essays on successful, calculate beforehand whom he reveals’ (ibid: 192) (for an Arendt-inspired critique of challenges of college recognition, see Markell, 2003). Taylor mitigates his position and, arguably, eschews any form of essentialism, by essays on successful aging, arguing that we always work out our identity through dialogue with others.
However, there is a possibility that he slips towards a subjectivist position, for it seems that it is the individual who ultimately decides what their ‘true’ identity is. For example, Taylor (1994: 32-3) states that this dialogue with others requires that we struggle with and sometimes struggle against the things that others want to see in us. Recognition. However, he does not state to what we appeal to in this potential struggle with others. If it is ultimately our sense of who we are, then this would seem to undermine the very conditions of intersubjectivity that Taylor wants to essays on successful aging, introduce into challenges, the notion of personal identity. For, if one is the ultimate judge and jury on who one is, then those around us will simply be agreeing or disagreeing with our pre-existent or inwardly-generated sense of self, rather than playing an on successful aging, ineliminable role in speech phd thesis, its constitution. Again, it is unlikely that Taylor would endorse any form of subjectivism.
Indeed, his turn towards intersubjective recognition is precisely meant to resist the idea that one simply decides who one is and demands that others recognise oneself in such a way. Taylor would certainly seem critical of the essays on successful, existential tradition, which emphasised the need for one to in latex, define oneself and provide meaning to the world. Although Sartre deployed the language of intersubjectivity (see V. d) and highlighted the importance of the other, his analysis of the in-itself and the for-itself, coupled with describing how we are each born alone and must carry the weight of the world on our shoulders (with no-one able to lighten the burden), suggests an ego which negates (and hence is radically separated from) the world. This split between ‘I’ and ‘you’ renders any notion of dialogical identity construction impotent. Recognition, contrasted with this existential picture, theories seem well equipped to resist any accusation that they slide into subjectivism. However, they must provide a criterion from which to judge whether individual and collective demands for recognition are legitimate. For example, it cannot be the case that all demands for recognition are accepted, for we are unlikely to want to recognise the claims of a racist or homophobic group for cultural protection. There is a danger that Taylor’s model does not explicitly state the conditions by which acceptable claims for recognition can be separated from unacceptable claims. Essays On Successful Aging. His politics of group activities for depression difference is premised on ‘a universal respect for the human capacity to form one’s identity (Taylor, 1994: 42).
Hence he seems committed to essays on successful aging, respecting difference qua difference, regardless of the particular form this difference takes. There is how to letter, a sense that, as long as recourse is made to an ‘authentic’ life, then the demand for recognition should be met. But no matter how strongly the racist group insists upon aging, their authenticity, we would be likely to resist recognising the value and worth of their identity as racists. Certain theorists have tended to cast recognition in challenges essay, a far more negative, conflictual light. Typically, they interpret Hegelian recognition as evolving an inescapable element of domination between, or appropriation of, subjects.
Perhaps the most notable of such thinkers is Sartre (1943), whose account of intersubjectivity appears to preclude any possibility of recognition functioning as a means of attaining political solidarity or emancipation. According to Sartre, our relations with other people are always conflictual as each of us attempts to negate the other in an intersubjective dual. The realisation of essays our own subjectivity is dependent upon our turning the other into an object. Ib Cas Reflective. In turn, we are made to feel like an object within the gaze of the other. Essays On Successful. Sartre’s famous example is the shameful, objectifying experience of suddenly feeling the ‘look’ or ‘gaze’ of another person upon us when carrying out a contemptible act.
In this moment of shame, I feel myself as an object and am thus denied existence as a subject. My only hope is to make the other into an object. There are no equal or stable relations between people; all interactions are processes of domination. Whereas Sartre focuses on the problem of being recognised, Levinas (1961) turns to thesis in latex, the ethical issues attending how one recognises others. According to essays aging, Levinas, Hegelian recognition involves an group activities for depression, unavoidable appropriation or assimilation of the on successful, other into phd thesis, one’s own subjectivity. By this he means that in recognising the other we render them ‘knowable’ according to our own terms, thus depriving him or her of their irreducible ‘alterity’ or difference.
Levinas believes that the denying of such difference is the fundamental ethical sin as it fails to respect the other in on successful, their absolute exteriority, their absolute difference to us. In effect, to recognise someone is to render them the same as us; to eliminate their inescapable, unapprehendable and absolute alterity (Yar, 2002). An alternative perspective on the self-other relationship can be found in Merleau-Ponty who argues that the other is always instigated within oneself, and vice-versa, through the potential reversibility of the self-other dichotomy (that is, that the self is also a potential other; seeing someone necessarily involves the possibility of being seen). Merleau-Ponty explicitly rejects the Levinasian perspective that the other is an irreducible alterity. Rather, the ib cas reflective essay, self and other are intertwined through their bodily imbrications in the world. On Successful Aging. He describes our respective perspectives on the world as slipping into one another and thus being brought together: ‘In reality, the other is not shut up inside my perspective of the world, because this perspective itself has no definite limits, because it slips spontaneously into the other’s’ (Merleau-Ponty, 1945: 411). Consequently, there is no ‘problem’ of the other, for the other is already contained within our being, as we are within theirs. Essay. This resonates with Heidegger’s characterisation of Being ( Dasein ) as being-with-others. We are always already alongside others, bound up in relations of mutuality that prevent any strict ontological distinction between self, other and world. The Levinasian and Sartrean accounts of the self-other relationship can be criticised from a hermeneutic perspective for failing to acknowledge the aging, fact that understanding is essentially a conversation with another, and that a simple reduction of the other to a sameness with oneself, or a pure objectification of the other, would preclude the possibility of a genuine interaction from which mutual understanding could arise (Gadamer, 1960).
Levinas presents a monological account of understanding, ignoring the fundamentally dialogical nature of intersubjectivity. As Taylor (1994: 67) approvingly noted, understanding according to Gadamer is always a fusion of horizons, a coming-to-understanding between two individuals who require the perspective of the other in order to make sense of their own (and vice-versa). Neither the total incorporation of the other into the perspective of the recognisee, nor the reduction of the thesis outline in latex, other to pure object, is essays on successful, possible on a hermeneutic account of ib cas reflective essay meaning and understanding. Concurrent with the on successful aging, rise of identity politics, there has been a trend towards ‘deconstructive’ or ‘destabilising’ accounts of the individual subject. Group. Rather than representing a single critical perspective on recognition and identity politics, the post-structural challenge can be understood as a broad term incorporating various attempts at essays on successful, showing how the subject is always constructed through and within networks of power and discourse (e.g. Foucault, 1980; Butler, 1990; Haraway 1991; Lloyd, 2005; McNay, 2008). Perhaps the most notable theorist in thesis outline in latex, this regard is Foucault, who develops a detailed account of the way in which the subject is constituted through discursive relations of power. Within Foucault’s theory, the individual becomes the ‘site’ where power is essays on successful, enacted (and, importantly, resisted or reworked). Thesis. Foucault’s genealogical method was employed precisely in order to on successful aging, explore the conditions under which we, as subjects, exist and what causes us to exist in the way that we do. According to Foucault, not only are we controlled by truth and power, we are created by it too. Concerning his genealogical method, Foucault (1980: 117) writes, ‘One has to dispense with the constituent subject, to get rid of the subject itself, that’s to say, to arrive at an analysis which can account for the constitution of the subject within a historical framework’.
This leads to a far more problematic view of the subject than is generally found within recognition theories. Specifically, issues of power, coercion and oppression are seen as coeval with identity formation and intersubjective relations. This suggests that there can be no instances of mutual recognition that do not simultaneously transmit and reproduce relations of power. Activities For Depression. As Foucault (1988: 39) notes, ‘If I tell the on successful aging, truth about myself. it is in part that I am constituted as a subject across a number of power relations which are exerted over me and which I exert over for depression, others’. Critics of recognition theorists argue that they ignore the fundamental relationship between power and identity formation, assuming instead that intersubjective relations can be established which are not mediated through power relations. McNay (2008) develops this critique through a discussion of Bourdieu’s concept of essays aging habitus, arguing that Taylor assumes that language is an expressive medium that functions independently of, and antecedent to, power and thus fails to analyse how ‘self-expression is constitutively shaped by ib cas essay, power relations’ (ibid: 69). Another important theorist in this regard is Judith Butler, whose account of gender identity develops certain key themes of Foucauldian theory as well as insights offered up by Derrida on the re-iteration of norms as fundamental to identity formation. On Successful. Butler (1988: 519) begins outlining this project by arguing that gender is ‘in no way a stable identity or locus of agency from which various acts proceed; rather it is an identity tenuously constituted in time – an speech, identity instituted through a stylized repetition of acts ’. Gender is created through acts which are ‘internally discontinuous’. These acts produce the aging, ‘ appearance of substance ’, but this apparition is no more than ‘a constructed identity, a performative accomplishment which the mundane social audience, including the actors themselves, come to believe and to perform in the mode of belief’ (ibid: 520; see also Butler 1990: 141). Essentially, we internalise a set of recognition phd thesis discursive practices which enforce conformity to essays, a set of idealised and constructed accounts of gender identity that reinforce heterosexual, patriarchal assumptions about what a man and woman is group for depression, meant to be like. Turning the commonsense view of on successful aging gender on its head, Butler argues that the various acts, thoughts and physical appearances which we take to arise from our gender are actually the very things which produce our sense of thesis outline in latex gender.
Gender is the consequence, rather than the cause, of these individual, isolated, norm-governed acts. Because acts which constitute gender are governed by on successful, institutional norms which enforce certain modes of behaviour, thought, speech, and even shape our bodies, all positive constructions of write an essay on a gender categories will be exclusionary. Consequently, not only does Butler deny any ontological justification for a feminist identity politics, but she also rejects the possibility of a political justification. Identity categories ‘are never merely descriptive, but always normative, and as such, exclusionary’ (1992: 16). On Successful Aging. As a result, ‘Any effort to give universal content or specific content to the category of women. will necessarily produce factionalization’ and so, ‘“identity” as a point of thesis outline in latex departure can never hold as the solidifying ground of a feminist political movement’ (ibid: 15). Infusing issues of power into the recognition debate therefore presents problems for existent models of recognition. Taken to its extreme, contemporary feminist accounts of on successful gender and activities for depression identity may be seen as reason to decisively reject recognition politics. If, as Butler suggests, gender identity is essays aging, intrinsically connected to power, then to demand recognition for one’s identity could seen as becoming compliant with existing power structures. Such a position would have no possibility of radically critiquing the status quo and would thus potentially forfeit any emancipatory promise.
Upon the relationship between the individual and power, Foucault (1980: 98) writes: ‘[Individuals] are not only thesis outline its [power’s] intent or consenting target; they are always also the aging, elements of its articulation. In other words, individuals are the vehicles of power, not its point of application’. The concern is that there is no form of self-realisation in recognition models that does not, in for depression, some way, reproduce patterns of dominance or exclusion. Despite the above reservations regarding the concept of recognition and its political application, there is a growing interest in the value of essays recognition as a normative socio-political principle. The increasingly multicultural nature of societies throughout the for depression, world seems to call for a political theory which places respect for difference at its core.
In this regard, recognition theories seem likely to aging, only increase in influence. Ib Cas Essay. It should also be noted that they are very much in essays on successful aging, their infancy. It was only in the 1990s that theorists formulated a comprehensive account of recognition as a foundational concept within theories of justice. To this extent, they are still in the process of being fashioned and re-evaluated in the light of critical assessment from various schools of thought. For many thinkers, the concept of recognition captures a fundamental feature of human subjectivity.
It draws attention to the vital importance of our social interactions in formulating our sense of identity and phd thesis self-worth as well as revealing the essays aging, underlying motivations for, and justifications of, political action. It seems particularly useful in challenges of college essay, making sense of notions of authenticity and the conditions for agency, as well as mapping out the conditions for rational responsibility and authority (see Brandom, 2009). As a result, recognition can be seen as an on successful aging, indispensible means for analysing social movements, assessing claims for justice, thinking through issues of equality and difference, understanding our concrete relations to others, and explicating the nature of personal identity. Although there remain concerns regarding various aspects of recognition as a social and political concept, it is entirely possible that many of these will be addressed and resolved through future research.
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Successful Aging Essay - Academic Writing Tips
The three different types of IELTS essay question. The first rule of IELTS essays is to essays aging answer the for depression question. One problem in doing that is there are different types of IELTS essay questions each of which poses its own problems. In this post, I talk you through the three main types of essay questions and show you how to identify them and what problems they pose. I strongly suggest that you practise writing essays on on successful, each type of question before you get to the exam. You will find a selection of essay questions organised by speech phd thesis, question type on my sample essay question page. Here you are given a social issue or problem and asked directly to discuss it and on successful aging, very often asked to how to letter suggest a solution for it. In this type of question you are given the problem (here in red) and then told how to discuss it/your task (in blue). In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour . What do you think are the causes of this?
What solutions can you suggest? Many universities charge higher fees for foreign students. Why do they do this? Do you believe that it is fair? “Why do they think that?” “What solutions can you suggest?”
There are 2 typical problems with understanding this type of essay question. You are being asked for your personal opinion: it is not enough to talk generally about the essays on successful aging topic. You must give your personal view . Very often you given two tasks: for example, to outline in latex discuss the causes and the solution. If you discuss only one of these, you will be penalised on on successful aging, Task Achievement. The question does not give you much help with ideas: you may need to spend more time planning and thinking of ideas. Here you are given an opinion about essay, some social issue to discuss. Typically, you are asked whether or to what extent you agree with it. In this type of question you are given an opinion (in red) and then told how to discuss it/your task (in blue). Essays On Successful Aging? Sometimes the ib cas essay question is longer and you are given some background information (in green), then the opinion and then the task.
Fatherhood ought to be emphasized as much as motherhood. The idea that women are solely responsible for deciding whether or not to have babies leads on to the idea that they are also responsible for bringing the on successful aging children up . Thesis Outline In Latex? To what extent do you agree or disagree? Currently there is a trend towards the use of alternative forms of medicine. However, at best these methods are ineffective, and at aging, worst they may be dangerous. To what extent do you agree or disagree? “What is outline, you opinion?” “Do you agree that…” “To what extent do you agree?” Discuss. There are three typical problems with understanding this type of essay question:
The questions are simply longer to read and sometimes harder to understand. Spend plenty of time reading the question and underlining the essays key words and making sure you understand what words like “this” and “these” refer to. It can be easy to confuse the challenges of college essay background information from the opinion. You must discuss the opinion (the bit in red). If you only essays on successful aging, discuss the topic (the bit in green), you will be penalised on Task Achievement. You need to discuss the opinion in the question.
You cannot only give your opinion. Here you are given a problem or issue and for depression, two different solutions or opinions about essays on successful, it. Typically, you are then asked to decide which solution/opinion is the better. The argument type essay question has two main types. In the essay first type, you get two different situations or opinions (red) and then your task (in blue) is to decide between them. In some countries people pay different rates of tax depending on their salary , in other countries everyone pays the same rate . Which do you believe is the essays on successful best system? In the second type, you get a solution (in red) to a situation (in green) and you then your task (in blue) is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of that solution. Unemployment is one of the most serious problems facing developed nations today . What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of reducing the working week to thirty five hours ? “What are the phd thesis advantages and disadvantages of this” There are two typical problems here: The essay discusses the problem generally and doesn’t talk about advantages or disadvantages or make a choice between the two options. Again this will be penalised under Task Achievement.
The essay only looks at the advantages or the disadvantages. It needs to look at both sides of the question. I would like to emphasise that you may well find questions that could fall into two different categories. That is not so important. Essays On Successful? What really matters is learning to group for depression look at on successful, each question and deciding what precisely it is asking you to do and what possible problems it poses. This is my very simple checklist to outline help you decide which type of question you are looking at:
1. Does it ask me what my own opinion is on successful aging, about a topic? > Discussion question > Use my own opinions. 2. Does it ask me to discuss a particular proposal? > Proposal question > Discuss that proposal. 3. Does it ask me to decide between two different opinions or look at the advantages and disadvantages of a topic > Argument question> Discuss both sides and come to a decision. Look at application, these reported recent IELTS questions and decide which type of essay you need to write: Many people have an unhealthy diet and on successful, do not take enough exercise. What do you think are the reasons for this and what can be done to activities encourage people to lead a more healthy lifestyle? Although countries with long average working hours are economically successful, this often has some negative social consequences.
To what extent do you agree or disagree? Some people think that paying taxes is enough to contribute to aging society. Others argue that being a citizen involves more responsibilities. Discuss. Many people argue that children should stay in school until the age of eighteen. What are the advantages and disadvantages of making school compulsory until the age of 18?
Many people nowadays leave their county to work abroad and an essay, take their family with them. What are the advantages and disadvantages in terms of family development? Get more essay advice in your inbox. How to like it, share it and share it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of on successful aging, my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and activities for depression, even more advice there.
Or just get all my free lessons by on successful, email. 46 Responses to The three different types of outline in latex, IELTS essay question. I have a question about the on successful aging checklist above. 1. Phd Thesis? Does it ask me to give my own opinion about a topic? > Discussion question > Use my own opinions. — It seems to aging me this is a proposal question. 2. Does it ask me to discuss a particular opinion about a topic? > Proposal question > Discuss that opinion. Thanks for your highly intelligent comment. I have rewritten that section slightly now in the hope that it is clearer. There is perhaps a slight difficulty with terminology here. I’m tying to avoid the word “opinion essay” as much as possible.
This post is not so much about the type of write application letter for teaching, essay you write, as about understanding the problems of the on successful aging essay question. Of College Essay? For me, this is a necessary first step. Essays On Successful Aging? I will in due course be looking at different types of reflective, essay. My point in distinguishing between proposal and essays, discussion questions is this: in the “Proposal Question”, you are “discussing” someone else’s point of view whereas in how to write application letter for teaching, the “Discussion Question” you need to find your own solutions to a problem. For some candidates, the “Discussion Question” is nasty as it gives them less help with ideas. When you come to essays write the essay, you will of course need to give your own opinions. Ib Cas Reflective Essay? From that point of view it doesn’t matter what type of essay question you get. Thank you for further explanations and essays aging, rewriting. Now I understood that you are telling about understanding the problems of the essay question and key points when I answer to how to book different type of essays on successful, questions. I have a slightly irrelevant question. Write An Essay On A? Is it okay to on successful aging involve some ‘invented’ statistical data to an essay, when writing an example.
For instance: It has been proved scientifically that over 40 % of outline in latex, people hate their jobs. thank you in aging, advance. No problem whatsoever. There is no lie detector test in ib cas reflective essay, IELTS – it is after all only a test of your English. I would advise you, however, to be slightly careful not to be carried away when you do it. It certainly helps to keep your “data” plausible and you need to essays aging make sure that it fits in with the how to application post essay question. In some ways it could even be seen as a “good thing” as it makes your writing more academic. Although in essays on successful aging, truth the write application IELTS essay is essays on successful, not a particularly academic piece of writing and I would generally advise you to keep your writing fairly plain and how to an essay, simple, as opposed to trying to show off academically. IELTS examiners are not academics!
Here are some sample phrases for you to consider: It has been demonstrated that. Research has shown that. A recent opinion poll showed that. thanks, this clarifies a lot. hello again, Mr.Cole. Essays Aging? There’s one thing that’s unclear to me about the how to application letter proposal essay.
Here’s the example. “Education should be free. To what extent do you agree or disagree? ” Should I take a firm position about only one side ( agree or disagree) and then devote the whole essay to essays proving this particular side, or should I describe both plus and minus of the statement and then say what i think in the conclusion ?? My overall band score is 7.5! Partly, this is your merit as well, since I was using plenty of information from your website when trying to figure out the essay question type or developing my reading strategy. Thaks alot!
I wish you further sucess. Need your help in ielts . How To An Essay Book? My test is on 24 sep 2016. 4 weeks back i suddenly got the on successful aging idea of attempting ielts, so i booked a slot and had a descent 2 weeks of time to prepare . But due to outline in latex various reasons ( and most importantly laziness) the amount of time left to me for preparation got reduced to 2 days.. jus 2 days to go for IELTS and i din had any idea about it..i was going through the sample tests provided my British council but it hardly gave me any confidence… it was during that time when i accidentally came across your website.(Serendipity. )) and i was amazed.. All the information provided here were so organized and the instructions you provided were so simple but yet very effective.. i concentrated the last 2 days before my exam on your website..following all your guidelines.. ( especially the way you described the working of brain under pressure was cool..) and did my best at the exam.. And today i got my result..an overall band of on successful, 7.5.. thanks a lot sir. ):)
Thank you very much! I’ve struggled to challenges of college picture the 3 types, and they are clear to essays aging me now. This is Ajay from India. I have taken IELTS 5 times till now any everytime I am getting 6.5 ..I disparately need 7 score but I am not able to understand where I am loosing that much needed 0.5. Can you help me to understand this. Also is there anyway you can review my essays.
I’m simply too busy yo help sorry. In Latex? It’s partly for this reason I’ve added online tutors to the site. They all look at essays. So I suggest you contact one of them. Good luck with the 7. how could u got 6.5band in yur ielts. In advantages and disadvantages essay, can be take one side either of advantages or disadvantages in conclusion paragraph. please reply soon because my ielts test is coming soon.
This will depend slightly on how the question is worded. Always always read the question very carefully. If the question is “Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this proposal”. On Successful Aging? I would suggest you need to reflective mention both sides of the argument in your conclusion. Essays? This is because your conclusion should reflect your whole essay. You can of course also say that in your opinion the advantages are greater than the disavantages and so write more about them. Another common form of advantage/disadvantage essay question is in latex, “To what extent do you agree or disagree with this proposal?” Here you have 3 basic options: 1. You can agree. 2. Essays? You can disagree.
3. You can agree and how to write an essay on a, disagree. In this case, you must make your position clear in on successful aging, the conclusion. hello Mr cole i realy want to phd thesis thank you for sending me this amazing email But i have one question ihave taken ielts exam thrice and on every exam 5 without any develope idont know why the same mark. i have only 1 day for my exam still iam confused about writing can plzzzzzzzzzzz help so dat i can get a band 7 in writing. infact while searching on net i came to on successful aging know about ur site and i really found it very helpul but still give me tips for d last minute preparation plzzzzzzzz. One day before is too late to do anything serious. the best thing you can do is relax and clear your head. It helps to have a clear strategy for each paper – particularly for timing.
If you feel in control, you feel better and should perform better. I have recently written IELTS and was given a problem to discuss in writing. The topic was :now-a-days the activities for depression natural beauty like rivers, mountains and lakes are getting damaged by garbage and waste by people. On Successful Aging? Why do people do that? What do you think should be done to prevent this? I have explained it well(I guess) with an introduction paragraph followed by two paragraphs emphasizing two reasons why people doing this with one reason in each paragraph. These two paragraphs are followed by thesis in latex, two paragraphs explaining what should be done to essays prevent this with one solution in reflective essay, each paragraphs.
I forgot to write a conclusion paragraph. Do we really need to give conclusion for a problem task in the end? Thank you and awaiting for your reply. Yes, i’m afraid you do. An essay without a conclusion is essays on successful aging, not an an essay, essay and you will have been penalised for task response. It is not perfect but the advice is to write a sentence conclusion if you are running out of time so that at essays aging, least you have something there for the examiner to how to write an essay on a look at. For me, a good conclusion does make an essay better. It is essays aging, a skill worth practising. It need not be a long/complex conclusion, but if you can briefly summarise the ib cas reflective essay and return to the introduction, it does help your task response. I have recently written IELTS and was given a problem to discuss in essays on successful aging, writing.
The topic was :now-a-days the natural beauty like rivers, mountains and how to an essay, lakes are getting damaged by garbage and waste by people. Why do people do that? What do you think should be done to prevent this? I have explained it well(I guess) with an essays on successful, introduction paragraph followed by two paragraphs emphasizing two reasons why people doing this with one reason in each paragraph. These two paragraphs are followed by two paragraphs explaining what should be done to letter for teaching post prevent this with one solution in each paragraphs. I forgot to write a conclusion paragraph. Do we really need to give conclusion for a problem task in essays on successful aging, the end?
Thank you and awaiting for your reply. Yes, sadly for you the conclusion is needed. It is an group activities for depression, essential part of an aging, essay. I would like to Thank you and all the Blog participants for clearing out many confusions for IELTS candidates. However, I have few questions where I feel myself weak. 1. Phd Thesis? How can I use a strong vocabulary in Writing Exam? Is there any list of good words which can be used instead of general words?
2. Reading Exams are lengthy, the pressure built’s more when you are on the last passage with tough vocabulary to understand and have a general idea. What do you suggest? Please, do pray as I am appearing for essays aging, IELTS tomorrow. Good luck tomorrow. Get a good night’s sleep and try to relax is my best advice. On writing the write an essay on a best vocab is very often simple vocab. many candidates get this wrong and try and use over-complex words. You may not believe this, but all my essays are at least band score 8.0 and on successful aging, mostly 9.0.
Don’t be fooled that they use simple language. They are well written and clearly written. A key to writing is understanding that 50% of the score is for how to write, coherence and task response. Take a look at IELTS Simon’s blog – you will find he says the essays same thing. On reading, yes time can be a problem.
Remember some questions are just plain hard and would trick intelligent native speakers. Don’t get stuck, move on. Thank you for shedding some light on the types of essay that might be posed on IELTS exams and strategies on how to tackle it. However, I have been led to how to write letter believe that in proposal questions, especially when the questions goes ” To what extent….” I have to give caveats to the proposal rather than fully agree or disagree. Essays? And believe me there are some topics that I have very strong views about and yet my marker penalised me on challenges of college, TR for essays on successful, not stating to what extent I agree or disagree with the stated proposals even though in my essays I have written I strongly believe!! As a result I am one confused bunny and find proposal questions a nightmare!! Please help!
your blog is wonderful and does wonders in helping for the. exam. however, your essay question types is confusing, especiall proposal and argumentitive coz all of them are answerd using the ib cas reflective essay same approach, i.e argumentitive type. I have got IELTS exam after 2 weeks and i need to get 7 each in any case. last time i just got 5.5 in writing could you please help me how to improve my writing in couples of week. I am preparing for my IELTS exam scheduled on 26th of May and your website has helped me in understanding the expectations of this test. It has been a while since I have written any letters and essays and this worries me a lot whether I would be able to essays write material of Band score 7+. Thanks a lot for the detailed information.
I am confused about the types of writing. You mentioned the different types but not the ways to answer each of them. Could you illustrate how to answer the group activities for depression different types please? I will give the exam about 45 days later. Do you have any recommendation about essays aging, writing and other things? In August the plan to produce an essay a day – each essay illustrating a different writing skill – this should include looking at different types of activities, essay questions. I didn’t get it. Have you answered my question.
Could you mention a comprehensive resource to find out these types and the way to answer them please? Hi – the resource I was thinking of appears not to aging be available on the internet and so I will need to put something together myself to recognition help you out. For the essays on successful aging time being I suggest you check out how to write an essay on a book writefix – this is an essays aging, excellent writing site where you can find different types of essays illustrated. I aim to post something on group activities for depression, this in on successful, the next few days – possibly Monday. Thesis Outline? In the meantime, can I suggest that there is no one way to answer each question type ie an opinion essay is aging, ABBA , a discursive essay ABCA and so on.
It is perfectly possible for instance to look at both sides of the argument in challenges, a “do you agree/disagree” type question much as you would in a discuss essay. It all depends on what you as a an aging, individual think about that question. Ib Cas? One person may choose to answer the question in one way and another in another way. The examiner does not sit down and say “This is an opinion essay and aging, it must be structured like this”- rather they look at whether you have answered the question as it is asked. i’m really confused Rayn’s website mention some steps which looked too easy to follow but when i read some para from the ielts book the how to write application follow another steps ( totally different ) …. i’m nt that good in English to aging join both of them or choose which one is the best ……
SO PLEASE CAN YOU HELP ME . i’m dying to get only band 5 because my university asked for that. please reply soon #128577; i have an exam after 15 days. Thanks a lot for these very informative lessons you have done. I would like to ask further information in writing proposals or “to what extent questions”. Outline? How many paragraphs should one write?
Is it a 5 paragraph essay? No one answer to this question. Essays On Successful Aging? It depends in what is in outline, your head! You should be prepared to write both 4 and 5 para essays. If you have more points, it will be 5. If you have only on successful aging, 2 points, then a 4 para essay is fine.
There are numerous essay writing directive words that a student needs to be across (e.g. discuss, describe, explain, compare, contrast, etc). If you don’t clearly understand what is being asked of write an essay, you, then you have next to no chance of writing an excellent essay. Agreed. I would add as a personal opinion that I believe it is dangerous to focus on “types of essay”. My strong preference is to focus on the question and answer that question in essays aging, a logical way.
The danger of following a format for an opinion essay, for how to write, example, is that you can fail to address the essays on successful aging question by concentrating too much on a particular format. 1)Many people have an unhealthy diet and do not take enough exercise. What do you think are the reasons for this and what can be done to encourage people to lead a more healthy lifestyle? —- My answer: Discussion type. 2) Although countries with long average working hours are economically successful, this often has some negative social consequences. To what extent do you agree or disagree? —- My answer: Proposal type. 3) Some people think that paying taxes is enough to contribute to society. Others argue that being a citizen involves more responsibilities.
Discuss. Of College? —- My answer: Discussion type. 4)Many people argue that children should stay in school until the age of eighteen. What are the essays on successful aging advantages and disadvantages of making school compulsory until the recognition phd thesis age of essays aging, 18? —- My answer: Argument type. 5) Many people nowadays leave their country to work abroad and write application letter for teaching post, take their family with them. What are the advantages and aging, disadvantages in terms of family development? —- My answer: Argument type. This is one of those lesson I’m in the process of reviewing and for depression, updating. I hope to produce a much clearer version soonish. Hi there, I enjoy rdading t?rough yo?r post. ² wanted to write a little cokmment tto support ?ou. In your description on essay types you have mentioned “you will be penalised under Task Achivement” but Task Achievement criterion is used in marking Task 1 , I guess. Okay – nice observational skills. TY for comment.
I need to update my resources on this generally. But in truth task achievement and task response are close to essays interchangeable as names. It is important to see though that task 1 does have its own criteria. it would be really helpful if you wrote other articles about different types of essays and general structures for ib cas reflective essay, each type. I hope you would consider doing it, thank you so much for your advice on this site!
[…] Question type Read the IELTS question carefully and ensure that you know what you are being asked to write. It’s no use putting pen to paper until you are sure you know what type of essay you are being asked to produce. Dominic Cole expalins things very well on this page. […] […] is a proposal type question where we are asked to essays give our opinion about whether improving health education would have a […]
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Analysis of vision and mission statement. A Mission Statement defines the company#8217;s business, its objectives and its approach to essays reach those objectives. A Vision Statement describes the desired future position of the company. Elements of on a, Mission and Vision Statements are often combined to provide a statement of the company#8217;s purposes, goals and values. Typically, senior managers will write the company#8217;s overall Mission and Vision Statements. Other managers at different levels may write statements for their particular divisions or business units.
We will write a custom essay sample. on Analysis of vision and mission statement or any similar. topic specifically for you. The development process requires managers to: Clearly identify the corporate culture, values, strategy and view of the future by interviewing employees, suppliers and customers Address the commitment the firm has to its key stakeholders, including customers, employees, shareholders and essays on successful aging communities Ensure that the objectives are measurable, the approach is actionable, and the vision is achievable Communicate the message in ib cas reflective, clear, simple and precise language Develop buy-in and support throughout the essays aging, organization Mission and Vision Statements are commonly used to: Internally Guide management#8217;s thinking on strategic issues, especially during times of significant change Help define performance standards Inspire employees to work more productively by providing focus and common goals Guide employee decision making Help establish a framework for ethical behavior Externally Enlist external support Create closer linkages and better communication with customers, suppliers and how to application letter for teaching post alliance partners Serve as a public relations tool Methodology: The banking industry of Bangladesh consists of 30 banks. From those, we have selected 10 banks in a random sampling basis. Those are – Bank Asia Limited BRAC Bank limited Export Import (EXIM) Bank First Security Islami Bank Jamuna Bank Limited Mercantile Bank Limited One Bank Limited Premier Bank Limited Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited Trust Bank limited Analyses: Requirement # 01: Identify the aging, companies’ respective vision and mission statements. I. Bank Asia Limited. Vision: Bank Asia’s vision is to have a poverty free Bangladesh in course of a generation in the new millennium, reflecting the national dream. Our vision is to build a society where human dignity and human rights receive the highest consideration along with reduction of poverty.
Mission: To assist in speech, bringing high quality service to our. Page 2 Analysis of vision and aging mission statement Essay. customers and to participate in the growth and how to an essay book expansion of our national economy. To set high standards of integrity and bring total satisfaction to our clients, shareholders and employees. To become the most sought after Bank in on successful aging, the country, rendering technology driven innovative services by our dedicated team of professionals. II. BRAC Bank Limited Vision: Building a profitable and group activities for depression socially responsible financial institution focused on Markets and Business with growth potential, thereby assisting BRAC and on successful aging stakeholders build a “just, enlightened, healthy, democratic and activities for depression poverty free Bangladesh. Mission: Sustained growth in #8216;small Medium Enterprise#8217; sector Continuous low cost deposit growth with controlled growth in essays aging, Retained Assets Corporate Assets to be funded through self-liability mobilization. For Depression! Growth in Assets through Syndications and Investment in faster growing sectors Continuous endeavor to increase fee based income. Keep our Debt Charges at 2% to maintain a steady profitable growth Achieve efficient synergies between the essays on successful, bank#8217;s Branches, SME Unit Offices and BRAC field offices for delivery of Remittance and Bank#8217;s other products and services Manage various lines of business in a fully controlled environment with no compromise on service quality Keep a diverse, far flung team fully motivated and driven towards materializing the bank#8217;s vision into reality III. EXIM Bank Limited Vision: The gist of the bank’s vision is ‘Together Toward Tomorrow’. Export Import Bank of Bangladesh believes in togetherness with its customers, in its march on the road to growth and progress with services.
Mission: To be the most caring and customer friendly and group activities for depression service oriented banks. To create a technology based most efficient banking environment for its customers. To ensure ethics and transparency in all levels. Essays! To ensure sustainable growth and establish full value of the honourable shareholders Above all, to add effective contribution to the national economy IV. First Security Islami Bank Limited Vision: To be the premier financial institution in essay, the country providing high quality products and services backed by latest technology and a team of highly motivated personnel to aging deliver excellence in Banking. Mission: To contribute the letter, socio-economical development of the country. To attain highest level of satisfaction through extension of services by dedicated and on successful aging motivated professional.
To maintain continuous growth of market share ensuring quality. To ensure ethics and transparency in all levels. To ensure sustainable growth and establish full value of the how to application for teaching post, honourable shareholders and Above all, to add effective contribution to the national economy. V. Jamuna Bank Limited Vision: To become a leading banking institution and to play a pivotal role in the development of the country. Mission The Bank is essays on successful aging, committed to satisfying diverse needs of its customers through an thesis in latex array of products at a competitive price by using appropriate technology and providing timely service so that a sustainable growth, reasonable return and contribution to the development of the country can be ensured with a motivated and essays on successful professional work-force. VI. Mercantile Bank Limited Vision: Would make finest corporate citizen.
Mission: Will become finest most caring, focused for equitable growth based on diversified deployment of resources and nevertheless would remain healthy and gainfully profitable bank. VII. One Bank Limited Vision: To establish ONE Bank Limited as a Role Model in phd thesis, the Banking Sector of Bangladesh. To meet the needs of our Customers, provide fulfilment for our People and create Shareholder Value. Mission: To constantly seek ways to better serve our Customers. Be proactive in on successful, fulfilling our Social Responsibilities. To review all business lines regularly and develop the ib cas reflective essay, Best Practices in the industry. Working environment to be supportive of teamwork, enabling the employees to perform to the very best of their abilities.
VIII. Premier Bank Limited: Vision: “The Bank has a clear vision towards its ultimate destiny- to be the best amongst the top financial institutions. On Successful Aging! ” Mission: The mission of the Bank is To be the most caring and customer friendly provider of financial services, creating opportunities for more people in more places. To ensure stability and sound growth whilst enhancing the value of shareholders investments. To aggressively adopt technology at all levels of operations and to improve efficiency and reduce cost per transaction. To ensure a high level of transparency and ethical standards in all business transacted by the Bank. Challenges Essay! To provide congenial atmosphere which will attract competent work force who will be proud and eager to work for the Bank. To be socially responsible and strive to essays on successful uplift the equality of the life by making effective contribution for social development. IX. Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited Vision: “To be the unique modern Islami Bank in Bangladesh and to make significant contribution to the national economy and application enhance customers’ trust wealth, quality investment, employees’ value and rapid growth in shareholders’ equity. ” Mission: To provide quality services to customers.
To set high standards of integrity. To make quality investment. Essays On Successful! To ensure sustainable growth in business. To ensure maximization of Shareholders’ wealth. To extend our customers’ innovative services acquiring state-of-the-art technology blended with Islamic principles. To ensure human resource development to reflective essay meet the challenges of the time. X. Trust Bank Vision Build a long-term sustainable financial institution through financial inclusion and deliver optimum value to essays on successful aging all stakeholders with the highest level of compliance.
Mission: Long Term Sustainable Growth diversified business with robust risk management Financial Inclusion bring unbanked population into banking network through low cost technology-based service delivery Accountable to All Stakeholders customers, shareholders, employees regulators Highest level of group for depression, compliance and transparency at all levels of operation. Requirement # 02: Identify whether CSR or business ethics have been disclosed in their statements. Corporate social responsibility (CSR, also called corporate conscience, corporate citizenship, social performance, or sustainable responsible business/ Responsible Business) is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. Essays On Successful Aging! CSR is a process with the aim to embrace responsibility for the company#8217;s actions and encourage a positive impact through its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere who may also be considered as stakeholders. CSR activities of a firm may include Sustainable environmental program Educational program Community development program Disaster management program Aid in Sports, art and culture Other Corporate social responsibilities Business ethics are moral principles that guide the reflective essay, way a business behaves. The same principles that determine an on successful aging individual’s actions also apply to business.
Acting in an ethical way involves distinguishing between “right” and outline “wrong” and then making the “right” choice. It is essays, relatively easy to identify unethical business practices. For example, companies should not use child labour. How To Application For Teaching! They should not unlawfully use copyrighted materials and processes. They should not engage in bribery. Whether the selected banks have disclosed CSR and business ethics through their mission statements have been analysed below: I. Bank Asia Limited Bank Asia Limited has a significantly distinguished expression of interest in on successful, the field of fulfilling its CSR directly identifying the urge to endeavour for establishing a poverty free prosperous country both in of college, its Vision and mission statement.
Mentioning specific arenas with emphasis, the bank has expressed strong desire to remain committed to the vast area of CSR. Again there are several specific emphases of on successful aging, separately mentioned Business Ethics disclosures along with principles related with the insurance of thesis in latex, transparency in all levels is the Business Ethics. II. BRAC Bank limited BRAC Bank Limited shows its commitment toward the society in its vision and mission statement. It is committed to build an enlightened, healthy, democratic and essays poverty free Bangladesh which can be inferred from the vision statement.
The issue of ib cas reflective essay, business ethics is highlighted on essays aging, the mission statement indirectly by promising to provide quality product issue of CSR activities is challenges essay, highlighted indirectly in terms of on successful, “Sustained growth in #8216;small Medium Enterprise#8217; sector”. Sustained growth will only ib cas essay, be possible when the organization will act in an environment friendly way as well as it will give priority to the overall development of the society. III. Export Import (EXIM) Bank EXIM Bank Limited has indirectly identified it’s CSR in mission statement. One of its mission is to ensure sustainable growth, and we know sustainable growth is possible only when it will be financially viable, committed to the society and environmentally friendly. Essays! To ensure ethics and transparency in all levels is the Business Ethics of application letter post, EXIM Bank Limited which has been clearly mentioned in its mission statement.
Vision statement of EXIM Bank Limited doesn’t include any issues regarding their CSR activities and Business Ethics. IV. First Security Islami Bank Do not describe about CSR but describe about business ethics in the mission statement. V. Jamuna Bank Limited The vision of Jamuna bank Limited. Essays On Successful! is to “play a pivotal role in the development of the country”. It will carry on its CSR activities in how to write on a book, the way of developing the country. Nothing is mentioned in the mission statement in relation to essays on successful CSR or business ethics of the bank. VI. Group Activities For Depression! Mercantile Bank Limited The vision and mission statement of Mercantile Bank Limited doesn’t include any issues regarding their CSR related activities and Business Ethics.
VII. One Bank Limited One Bank Limited has directly identified it’s CSR in mission statement. Regardless of mentioning specific arenas with emphasis, the bank has expressed strong desire to remain committed to the vast area of CSR. There are two separate statements under Vision which highlight the bank’s desire for aging being a bench mark in the banking sector ensuring high-level customer as well as employee satisfaction. There is no specific of separate mentioning about ib cas reflective, ethics and transparency in all levels is the Business Ethics of aging, One Bank Limited. VIII. Premier Bank Limited Premier Bank Limited. In their mission and vision statement identified CSR and business ethics issues. Their commitment to CSR is expressed with the statement –“To be socially responsible and strive to uplift the equality of the write on a, life by making effective contribution for social development. ” In their statement they expressed the eagerness–“To ensure a high level of transparency and ethical standards in essays, all business transacted by the Bank” as a commitment to uphold business ethics. IX.
Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited. In their mission statement did not identified any CSR related issue. Write For Teaching Post! But they have identified Business Ethics in their statement by stating their mission as – “To set high standards of integrity. Trust Bank limited Described about business ethics in the mission statement. Requirement # 03: Make a company-wise evaluation as to how responsive these companies are in respect of their philosophy and public image concept. SL# Name of the Bank Components of Mission Statement Philosophy Concept for Public Image I. Bank Asia Limited II. BRAC Bank limited III. Essays Aging! Export Import (EXIM) Bank IV. How To Application Letter! First Security Islami Bank V. Jamuna Bank Limited VI.
Mercantile Bank Limited VII. One Bank Limited VIII. Premier Bank Limited IX. Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited X. Trust Bank limited. Requirement # 04: Evaluate how appropriate these companies’ disclosures are in regard to CSR or business ethics disclosure requirements.
As a part of the essays aging, regulatory requirements by Bangladesh Bank, all the reflective, banks are to provide CSR related disclosures in their annual report. The disclosures provided by essays the selected sample banks are as under: I. Bank Asia Limited Bank Asia always continues its efforts to look beyond short-term quantitative gains, and to concentrate on issues that make the institution socially responsible and have given all out efforts towards sustainable balanced growth. It considers socially responsible activities as an important part of its culture, identity and phd thesis business practice. So, it contributes to improve the livelihood opportunities of the less fortunate, provision of facilities for education and health, protection of the environment, and encouragement of cultural and on successful social activities in the rural as well as urban areas. Ib Cas Essay! II.
BRAC Bank limited BRAC Bank, through its CSR activities, is trying to build better relationships with all stakeholders by essays on successful paying closer attention to how to fulfil its social, economic, environmental and how to write ethical responsibilities. CSR practice allows the on successful, bank to align its operations with standards and expectations that are increasingly important to its shareholders, employees, customers and communities where it operates. III. Export Import (EXIM) Bank The bank’s CSR activities mainly involve contribution towards building up an essay enlightened and essays aging prosperous nation. In view of it, it has taken patronization of education as its core CSR activity, whereas disaster management and alleviation of poverty is much emphasized.
IV. First Security Islami Bank FSIBL keeps on how to write letter for teaching, discharging its CSR activities as a part of social entity for the greater interest of the entire society. The bank has always extended its support to the development of the community through promotion of sports, culture, health educational programs, disaster relief etc. Essays! V. Jamuna Bank Limited Jamuna Bank is committed to discharge its duties for the service of downtrodden people of the society. The bank’s CSR activities are about for depression, addressing the needs of all the stakeholders in an appositive and essays on successful meaningful manner. VI. Mercantile Bank Limited MBL is fully committed to how to write an essay on a conduct its business activities in economically, environmentally and socially sustainable manner. Essays On Successful! It fosters the motive in mind to essay build a long-term good relationship with the customers, shareholders, the regulatory bodies and other stakeholders of the essays on successful aging, bank.
VII. One Bank Limited The bank has decided to constitute One Bank Foundation to enable the bank to undertake CSR more proactively by taking planned initiatives and serve the challenges, needy and distressed community at large. VIII. Premier Bank Limited The bank is earnestly committed to essays its Corporate Social Responsibilities and out of these responsibilities it is conducting various charitable, social welfare and challenges essay development activities. IX. Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited With a view to providing financial assistance to the poor and essays aging needy people of the how to write an essay book, society and also for the welfare of the community, the bank has established a separate foundation. Its objective is to essays on successful aging provide health care, relief rehabilitation, education, humanitarian activities etc.
X. Essay! Trust Bank Limited Corporate Social Responsibility holds the bank accountable for the social, environmental and economic impact of its operations. TBL designs its policies and business practices to reflect the highest standards of corporate governance.
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Paper 1: Defining Successful Aging: A Tangible or Elusive Concept
After a Generation in Decline, OC's College Republicans Are Back and Stronger Than Ever. We support free speech; let teachers teach! chanted at least a hundred Orange Coast College (OCC) students at the school's free-speech zone in on successful December 2016. They stood with signs in essay support of Olga Perez Stable Cox, a human-sexuality professor who was in hiding at the time because of essays on successful, death threats. They came from around the world starting the day after the group for depression presidential election, when she stated in her class that voting for essays, Donald Trump was an act of terrorism. On the other side of the grassy quad stood freshman Caleb O'Neil. Thesis In Latex? Blond and fit, with a strong jaw and essays aging a helmet of hair that gave him the look of a Kennedy cousin, he held his own sign: Be Careful What You Wish For, Olga! We're Standing Up! He had secretly recorded Cox on his cellphone, then shared the video with OCC's College Republicans chapter.
The club put it up on YouTube, and it quickly went viraland led to the school suspending O'Neil. Speech Phd Thesis? Right-wingers rallied around him nationwide; locally, young conservatives sprung into action. More than 20 fellow College Republicans joined O'Neil for the protest. Essays Aging? Standing with them were older men in an essay book suits, including * Republican Assemblyman Matthew Harper (R-Huntington Beach) and Shawn Steel, the former chairman of the essays aging California Republican Party and group for depression husband to Orange County Supervisor Michelle Steel. I don't think the students [Cox supporters] understand the essays aging difference between academic freedom and free speech, remarked College Republicans founder Joshua Recalde-Martinez as he looked on. The issue was personal to him: A petition circulating around campus asked OCC to remove the sophomore as club president for his partisan and out of line behavior, which included appearing on FOX News to slam Cox and the school. (He'd later voluntarily step down to application letter for teaching post, become treasurer.) Nothing eventful happened on either side during the aging rally. But in just showing up to challenges, protest, OC's various conservative student groups, from College Republicans to Young Americans for Freedom and more, can claim victory. In retreat for on successful, nearly 20 years as OC became more liberal and group activities the California GOP cratered, the rise of Trump has inspired millennial conservatives to aging, come out on campus. Their actions get national coverage, thanks to smart social media and an alt-right press who claim a liberal conspiracy in higher education and are thrilled undergrads are standing up to it. College Republicans were there during the write an essay book March 25 #MAGAMarch at essays Bolsa Chica State Beach, and application letter graduates jeered during Cal State Fullerton's commencement, when Univision anchor María Elena Salinas spoke in aging Spanish and trashed Trump.
Last September, Young Americans for Freedom members caught Saddleback College history professor Margot Lovett removing 9/11 Never Forget posters with images of the Twin Towers from a wall. Former Breitbart News senior editor Milo Yiannopoulos spoke at UC Irvine last June and an essay on a book October, which led to protests against him, sanctions against the College Republicans that the university eventually had to walk back, and a permanent ban on on successful, Yiannopoulos speaking there. And in write an essay on a book February, a No Ban, No Wall protest against Trump's immigration policies at essays aging Cal State Fullerton ended in a physical altercation between anthropology professor Eric Canin and a CSUF Republicans member, for which the ib cas instructor was suspended. I'm probably the most hated person on campus. . . . I love it, says Ariana Rowlands, a UCI senior who's already a GOP force at just 20 years old. Essays On Successful Aging? The president of UCI's College Republicans has more than 31,000 followers on Twitter, on reflective, which she does everything from aging, wittily debate tweeters to ib cas, post pictures of aging, herself in a star-spangled bikini. Speech? She's a contributor to Breitbart and Red Alert Politics, a youth website sponsored by billionaire Philip Anschutz. Last year, the David Horowitz Freedom Center invited her to speak, introducing her as the future of conservative activism. [UCI student government leaders] bring up me or the essays on successful College Republicans . . How To Book? . 'Oh those bigots!
We should force them to do this; we should force them to do that,' Rowlands says in a mocking tone. Every time they do that, it just makes us stronger and gives us another opportunity to say, 'Hey, this is why the Left is bad.' But as Rowlands and her fellow travelers become rising stars in essays on successful aging their movement, their progressive peers express concern. It's just like [College Republicans] can intimidate, and they can troll, and they're going to essay, do whatever they want until something very bad happens, says an essays on successful aging anonymous OCC student who feels college administrators haven't done enough to protect students from conservatives on campus. It makes me really nervous because it's not just isolated, it's not just going on here, says another OCC student with a concerned look on her face. Reflective Essay? I don't trust them. During the essays OC GOP's golden era, its youth wing had a consistent presence on how to write application, all county campuses. During the 1980s, College Republicans at Santa Ana College (then known as Rancho Santiago College) hosted Nicaraguan exiles opposed to the Sandinistas; the Chapman University branch welcomed Oliver North when he spoke there in 1993. The movement continually brought new blood to the local GOP, and many became elected officials themselves. Essays On Successful? Longtime OC GOP head Tom Fuentes was a College Republican at Chapman; other GOP bigwigs such as Scott Baugh and Van Tran were involved in Young Americans for Freedom.
The trend continued somewhat into the 2000s, such as when UCI's College Republicans held a bake sale in 2004 mocking affirmative action, or when the same chapter displayed controversial cartoons featuring the Prophet Muhammad in 2006; both actions made national news. But after Barack Obama was elected president in 2008, College Republicans clubs across the county mostly faded away as millennials turned to the Left. That started to change thanks largely to Rowlands, a Ladera Ranch native and how to for teaching post child of immigrants (a father from essays aging, Wales, and a Mexican mother). UCI's College Republicans are the merry pranksters of the local college political scene, relishing any opportunity to troll liberals. They passed out how to write application letter baby pacifiers to protesters before Yiannopoulos' speech to give them a safe space and wore T-shirts that read, Can We Take a Joke? while inviting people on on successful, campus to write on challenges essay, their free speech board. Campus progressives fear them so much that, earlier this year, a rumor spread that the College Republicans were going to build a fake border wall on campus. Faculty and essays aging activists planned protests, even though Rowlands said they weren't actually planning on doing something like that. But Rowlands is unapologetic about the challenges loud and out-there activism of her club. Essays? The College Republicans represent a silent minority of students who are very appreciative that there's somebody out speech phd thesis there voicing their beliefs and essays on successful aging not really caring about the Leftists that call them names or try to shut them down, she says. In the group activities past year, we've managed to definitely influence the temperature on this campus a lot, she continues. We're just trying to show other young people that there is another way of thinking, that it makes a lot of sense and that we're actually more tolerant of other ideas. [We're not] saying, 'You have to be this one way, or you're a horrible person,' like the Left is.
That's what the essays on successful aging Left has becomethey've somehow masqueraded intolerance as tolerance. The former business major, now political science major hopes to thesis in latex, continue to dismantle the liberal monopoly on essays aging, academia in challenges essay her current run for state chair of the California College Republicans (CCR). She has even assembled a team called Rebuild CCR because she thinks the current organization is too focused on national politics instead of changing campus culture. On her slate is current OCC College Republicans president Vincent Wetzel, a self-proclaimed gay Hispanic Republican. With support from the Republican Party of Orange County, the California Federation of Republican Women and the Lincoln Club of aging, Orange County, Rowlands boasts that Rebuild CCR is going to try to change the state so that all the College Republican chapters can be like the ones in Orange County. CSUF College Republicans Take Punch in book Josh Newman Recall War (and More) Chris Boyle says Cal State Fullerton's chapter of College Republicans, CSUF Republicans, has grown to about 40 members since he restarted the chapter last semester after transferring from Orange Coast College, where he was a member. At times, we've been able to work with groups like the essays on successful College Dems to co-host debate-watch parties and other bipartisan events, he says. But we also had an incident where a professor physically assaulted one of our students during a demonstration. The fracas made national news, but some Cal State Fullerton students maintain it was all a setup.
Boyle scoffs at the notion. When I go out here, it isn't to sensationalize; it's to recruit conservatives and get them involved, the College Republicans president says. Group Activities? Crying wolf would be counterproductive. . . Essays Aging? . It would make us look unprofessional and unreliable, and that's not something that I would be willing to [do to] lessen my [organization's] standing. CSUF Republicans have since challenged university president Mildred Garcia for not personally and how to write on a book publicly addressing the altercation. I think [the school's] communications director came out and said they affirm all free speech, but she said it on Twitter, Boyle says.
That's a stark contrast to how Garcia responded to President Trump's victory and immigration policies, he adds: The president of our university issued emails that went into the personal email boxes of every student on campus, showing them, you know, that they'd be protected against Trump and all this stuff. Last month, CSUF Republicans were upset again when their resolution to create a free-speech education campaign on campus was denied by the student government. According to a press release from the group, it was the fault of the liberal-leaning Students for Quality Education (SQE), who successfully argued against the resolution, claiming time constraints, unforeseeable ramifications and lack of free speech violations on campus as reasons for voting against the bill. Boyle says the California Faculty Association and SQE have became very antagonistic toward them since the Canin incident. But conservative Titans have fought back. Essays Aging? A fake Real SQE Instagram profile recently surfaced and posted a parody flyer promoting a Students for Quesadillas and how to application letter for teaching post Enchiladas Cinco de Mayo fundraising event at an on-campus Baja Fresh. On Successful? The flyer also stated that any time someone proclaimed Trump's infamous quote, I love the Hispanics, 10 percent of the purchase would go to Real SQE. Cal State Fullerton's Academic Senate quickly passed a resolution condemning the flyer as clearly designed for ib cas reflective, the racial mockery of aging, Latinx students and groups. Speech Recognition Phd Thesis? Boylewho says that CSUF Republicans members run the on successful Real SQE account but that it isn't a club-sanctioned effortpushed back. It would be absurd for [CSUF Republicans] to be a racist organization, he told the university's student newspaper Daily Titan . Write An Essay Book? Half of on successful aging, my executive board is Latino. Like Rowlands, Boyle says established local conservatives such as longtime Cal State Fullerton donor and alumnus Steve Mihaylo (after whom the university's Mihaylo College of Business and Economics is named) have expressed their support for ib cas, CSUF Republicans.
Mihaylo recently drew heat after he trashed a Cal State Fullerton student on Twitter by asking him if he ever considered getting a job to pay off his student debt; the student replied by saying he already works two jobs on campus. [Mihaylo is] a great friend of the club: He's come to speak to on successful aging, us; he's actually invited us onto his boat a couple timeshe's a really great guy, Boyle says. If I worked for how to application, him as a PR guy, I probably wouldn't have recommended him doing what he did. But he's a really good guy, and essays on successful aging he comes from a good place, and group activities for depression he's done a lot to help this organization. I've heard from people that whenever Trump is brought up, people drop [their] poli-sci classes, says an OCC student who asked for essays on successful aging, anonymity. I've had people say they're not going back to OCC because of what happened. College Republicans insist they're the speech recognition oppressed minority on on successful, college campuses across Orange County and that progressives make student life intolerable for conservatives. But a different story emerges from progressive students and faculty, who've been caught off-guard by the resurgent Right. At OCC, students from organizations such as the Feminist, Pride and Planned Parenthood clubs received unsolicited visits to ib cas reflective, their meetings by College Republicans in February. When club leaders and advisers asked them to leave, the GOPers refused.
They cited California public forum rights and said they were merely trying to foster healthier relationships between opposing clubs on campus. Liberal club members believe such unannounced drop-ins were petty tactics to antagonize, intimidate and distract them. In one meeting the Weekly attended, Wetzel showed up, then left and walked away with an older man in a suit. (A club leader told the Weekly two students left a meeting crying because they were upset by the College Republicans' refusal to leave.) Milo Yiannopoulos wrote an article on his blog in support of the essays on successful aging Republican Club here, and that really scares me because they're connected to people who are known to put private, sensitive information out there for people to get doxed, says an OCC student who asked to remain anonymous for fear of retaliation from College Republicans. There's a degree to recognition phd thesis, which both sides have misbehaved, adds an anonymous OCC faculty member. There's this weird group dynamic going on in the College Republicans, and they've been emboldened for essays on successful aging, whatever reason and want to antagonize people. For me, it's even simpler than sort of intersectional feminism and identity politics; it's just, 'Didn't you learn not to behave like that in the fifth grade?'
This faculty member also questions whether freedom of association rights are still applicable on ib cas, public college campuses when GOPers employ such tactics. The definition of a club in essays on successful the club handbook is that you are like-minded individuals, right? And thus [you] can exclude non-believers. I've put that question out to both administration and a legal group, and I haven't yet heard a response. The unannounced visits began in February, according to OCC progressives, while O'Neil celebrated his victorious appeal against the Coast Community College District Board of Trustees. They had originally decided to punish him with a two-semester suspension and force him to issue a personal apology to Cox and on a write a three-page essay about his actions. He defended his motives in essays on successful a previous press conference. I pulled my phone out reflective essay because I was honestly scared that I would have repercussions with my grades because she knew I was a Trump supporter, says O'Neil, who ended up getting an A in Cox's course.
You can have someone . Essays On Successful Aging? . . like Caleb, who says he's afraid of people using words because words can be violent and words can be unsafe, and at the same time be at a rally two months back and write application letter post yell at younger people than him that 'Feminism is cancer'[to] people who are probably really scared to on successful, be in that crowd right now, says another anonymous OCC student, referring to a video taken last year at a Trump rally at the Orange County Fairgrounds across the outline in latex street from on successful aging, OCC that was publically posted on Instagram. Speech? The school's student newspaper, The Coast Report , reported that the young man wearing a MAGA hat in the video was O'Neil. He doesn't care about freedom of speech; he just cares about on successful aging, being able to say what he wants to say and thesis telling people to shut up when he wants them to. In the weeks after the OCC College Republicans released the video, a student says faculty members with ethnic-sounding last names received threatening emails that warned them to stop supporting a white genocide. That led to essays on successful, a student writing to write for teaching post, OCC president Dennis Harkins, begging for support. Without a firm action taken to prevent racism, homophobia and xenophobia [manifesting in actions, language and ideas] by campus administration, these attacks lay in your hands, read an email. Any silence on this matter will not be interpreted as neutrality; silence is allowance, it is compliance. Harkins didn't reply. [OCC's College Republicans] have such wealthy lawyers they have the on successful Republican Party funding them, says yet another anonymous faculty member.
They're being groomed and coached, and what they're doing is write an essay, waiting for someone to kick them out. They're testing the college's policies so they can sue the college for being biased toward conservative students. Basically, the on successful faculty member concluded, the college got sucker-punched by them. Adult OC conservatives have looked on with pride at their young wards and have offered to help when needed. How To On A? KABC-AM 790 morning host John Phillips wrote for the Orange County Register 's opinion pages that OCC doesn't deserve the support or confidence of the on successful taxpayers who fund its indoctrination camp. Recalde-Martinez has worked for State Assemblymember Matt Harper (himself a former president of Orange Coast's College Republicans) and Supervisor Andrew Do, and now works for essay, Michelle Steele as an executive aide. Last December, California OC GOP royalty such as chairman Fred Whitaker and nine California elected leaders, including state senators Janet Nguyen and John Moorlach, sent a letter to aging, Harkins discouraging disciplinary action against essay O'Neil.
The College Republicans need support in their effort to ensure that conservative students receive equal treatment on campus and have the essays on successful aging ability to report discrimination they experience, Whitaker later said in an April 3 press release. Activities? As a former California College Republican state chair, I know personally what it's like to defend free speech on campus and protect the rights of conservative students. Later that month, Moorlach introduced a bill that aimed to provide whistleblower safeguards to on successful aging, college students. The proposed legislation sought to group activities for depression, allow students to record in a community college classroom without an instructor's permission if the students reasonably believed they were capturing a violation of essays aging, local, state or federal laws. Speech Recognition? The legislation died in the committee because of a lack of support in on successful aging the super-majority Democratic California Senate. Unions representing teachers and challenges faculty claimed the bill would allow students to essays on successful aging, record as a weapon against teachers they simply don't like or agree with. The climate at OCC remains fraught. Signs reading, Video and/or Audio Recording Without Instructor Permission IS PROHIBITED are now posted in speech recognition every classroom. Recalde-Martinez submitted several public-records requests looking for any mention of the Orange Coast College Republican Club to uncover any possible administrative biases; soon after, on-campus graffiti saying, Doxx Joshua Martinez OCC Young Republicans = Fascists and, Support your local antifa stickers were found on five buildings, along with a knife laying on the grass.
In March, OCC student Robert McDougal was arrested on vandalism and hate-crime charges for essays on successful, carving a swastika and fuck the how to application nigger on the hood of a campus-safety vehicle. And a Black Lives Matter art installation was mysteriously removed from the Arts Center building around that time. The OCC Republicans condemned the on successful latter two events on its Facebook page. But then Cox was given a Faculty of the speech Year award in March by essays on successful the Orange Coast College Professional Development Committee, which consists of faculty members, classified staff and past recipients of the award. The college GOP soon posted a meme on recognition, its Facebook page with a photo of Cox that read, CALLS TRUMP'S ELECTION AN ACT OF TERROR/WINS TEACHER OF THE YEAR. That led to a contentious April 5 Coast Community College District (CCCD) Board of Trustees meeting, at which Recalde-Martinez, Rowlands and others demanded that Cox's award be rescinded.
If the December rally were heated but civil, the CCCD meeting showed how much worse relations had become between progressives and conservatives at OCC. Students who supported Cox were now in the minority. Aging? Several audience members in patriotic garb, long past their college days, held signs reading, REVOKE OLGA'S AWARD. A facilitator at the Board of Trustees meeting had to speech recognition, remind audience members to compose themselves and refrain from interrupting speakers. On Successful? When any speaker voiced opposition to the College Republicans, jeers burst from the crowd. But when the College Republicans spoke, none was interrupted by how to letter for teaching the audience. The faculty has decided to make Olga Perez 'un' Stable Cox Faculty Member of the Year; this is completely inexcusable, said Wetzel. He then called out Rob Schneiderman, president of the Coast Federation of Educators and consistent Cox supporter, for aging, showing his disreputable face here today and warned his club will do everything to stop him from beating Congresswoman Mimi Walters in 2018. Student Elias Altamirano voiced his support of Cox.
Despite the threats to her life, the challenges constant mockery and insults posted in the [College Republicans] club's Facebook page by people who have no idea who she is, he began, Professor Cox had the aging admirable courage to activities for depression, not let a few students ruin her commitment to on successful, this institution, her dedication to continue teaching and write application letter her passion for helping hundreds of students like she has done for over 30 years. He then triggered conservatives when he said, Ignorance is the root of essays aging, all evil, and the fact that there are many here today attacking a person they have never met is extremely tragic. We met her on write on a, the video! interrupted a woman, which sparked laughs and applause by College Republicans supporters in the audience. You may not do that again, the facilitator snapped to the woman. If you do you'll have to leave. Altamirano continued, I love this school, and the faculty has been nothing but a great support to on successful, me.
I won't let someone's [craving] for attention and a political platform ruin this institution I consider home. This time, the conservatives in the crowd remained silent. * Editor's note: The OC Weekly originally reported that Matt Harper was at recognition the counterprotest at OCC in December 2016 described in the beginning of this story; he was not. Essays On Successful? The Weekly apologizes for confusing Harper with another hatted dweeb. Get the ICYMI: Today's Top Stories Newsletter Our daily newsletter delivers quick clicks to keep you in the know. Catch up on the day's news and challenges of college essay stay informed with our daily digest of the most popular news, music, food and arts stories in essays on successful aging Orange County, delivered to your inbox Monday through Friday. 2017 OC Weekly News, Inc..
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