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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in thesis pearson, a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of Analysis, formatting a paper in thesis pearson, APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for on juvenile probation officers, you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the thesis pearson, APA Essay Format Page:
The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the essay, APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in chris, APA essay format . ETL Functional! It usually contains such standard elements as the chris, title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. Analysis! It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and thesis chris pearson mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in thinking nursing, APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns.
You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the thesis chris, idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. ETL Functional! APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to thesis, put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of thinking nursing, 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Chris! Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections.
Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Writeing Servece! Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the thesis chris pearson, Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; its recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on ETL Functional Analysis our website.
Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and thesis free title page. Try our services and dictatorship topics get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. Thesis Chris Pearson! We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at servece a blank piece of paper waiting for chris, inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in essay, an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help.
Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in thesis pearson, APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. How To Write An Essay Book! Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to chris pearson, P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. An Essay On A Book! You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to thesis pearson, place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in easy, the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in thesis chris pearson, APA format.
The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and thinking a page number (if possible). Pearson! In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the essays officers, standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from thesis pearson, another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas).
Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at write an essay least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . Pearson! In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the writeing, APA essay format . Chris Pearson! Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need.
Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and essays probation cited in thesis chris pearson, the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an servece organized look to the essay. It is also important to pearson, know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in essays officers, the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of thesis chris, source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. ETL Functional! Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article.
Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Thesis! on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from how to an essay, http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Thesis Chris! Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories.
In the essays, APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on chris the APA essay headings format, where information on easy writeing servece font, punctuation and thesis position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in how to an essay book, APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the thesis pearson, main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. Nursing! A running header should be placed in chris pearson, the right corner at the top of the how to write an essay on a, page next to the page number. A running header in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the chris, full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of dictatorship essay topics, submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page.
APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the thesis, author, book or organization each time it is used. Dictatorship Topics! In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism.
To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the pearson, student should always remember to take note of the reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and ETL Functional the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is thesis actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the dictatorship topics, flow of thesis chris pearson, thoughts throughout the teenagers lack the sense, essay. It is chris pearson said that the easy writeing servece, citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to thesis chris, be followed. Essay Teenagers Lack! The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of thesis chris pearson, a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process.
This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an ETL Functional Analysis academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the thesis pearson, formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essays probation officers essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and thesis chris pearson any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of ETL Functional, academic paper. Thesis Chris! Following the format not only ensures organization for easy, each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students academic papers.
In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and thesis guidelines on the format of essays on juvenile probation officers, essays . Chris! Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the writeing, format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. Pearson! College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. ETL Functional! What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of thesis, professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to essay nowadays, consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the thesis, essay . While college academic papers follow the dictatorship topics, basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to thesis pearson, remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help.
Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of essays on juvenile officers, any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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Odysseus: Fascinating Man and His Many Transformations. Odysseus was one of the Greek kings who went to pearson, Troy and came back a hero. How To Write! He was ruling the small island of Ithaka when he was asked by the Atreidae to join forces with them on thesis chris the expedition to recover Helen. The portrayal of Odysseus in Analysis, the Iliad marked the beginning of his literary career. As he moved through time, additional elements of his character were emphasized and thesis extrapolated upon, but all the seeds for later development can be seen in the Iliad . Did the depiction of the Iliadic character of Odysseus change in subsequent literature? And how was he portrayed in later Greek tragedies? First it may be best to trace his actions throughout Homer's epic poem to see how he was initially cast unto the world of literature. Homer stood at the end of an epic-telling tradition -- at the end of a tradition of poetry that is called oral poetry. Oral poetry was handed down from on juvenile officers, generation to generation, and dealt with traditional stories that were well known.
Some of the stories existed in the late Bronze Age and were passed on by word of mouth. Homer was relating stories that would have taken place at least four hundred years before his time. The Trojan War was fought between the Greeks and Trojans, and acts as the backdrop for the action in Homer's Iliad . Some of the characters were likely based on chris historically realistic men. For example, in Analysis, The Nature of thesis pearson Greek Myths , G.S. Kirk writes that Odysseus in his more realistic actions, which vastly predominate . is Analysis, based on the conception of a real if provincial chieftain from north-western Greece. (1) But many of Homer's characters are decidedly one-dimensional and are seen only as instruments to precipitate victory in a long and drawn-out war. Near the beginning of the poem, Odysseus is shown to be more diverse. He is the one to pearson, whom Athena goes when Agamemnon's plan to boost the morale of his army backfires and they happily begin to ready themselves to essays on juvenile probation, go home after more than nine years of fighting. Agamemnon has ended his speech by saying:
Come then, do as I say, let us all be won over; let us run away with our ships to the beloved land of our fathers since no longer now shall we capture Troy of the wide ways . Pearson! (2) These words are supposed to encourage the essays on juvenile probation officers, Achaians, but inadvertently cause a departure from the war. Agamemnon is the king and the men who make up the rank and thesis pearson file do not need to be told twice. But it was the will of an essay on a book Zeus that Troy should fall and for that reason, Athena goes directly to Odysseus and uses persuasion to elicit his help to stop the exodus. This marks the beginning of a long and diverse relationship between Odysseus and thesis pearson the goddess, which could be best described as a friendship. This connection between Athena and the King of Ithaka had far greater significance in the saga of Odysseus' life: the Odyssey , and also plays a role in later Greek tragedy, which will be examined later.
Athena must believe that her choice of spokesperson will have the ETL Functional, needed affect on the Achaians. Odysseus may have come to Troy with only twelve ships, but nine years later, he is seen as a man with enough power and presence to take the holy sceptre from Agamemnon's hands and use it to restore some degree of order to the chaos. A man who was liked less by Agamemnon would have been seen as an upstart, since it was the king who should be the one to stop the mass exodus. Odysseus was trusted and respected enough by Agamemnon to take the thesis chris pearson, symbol of Greek power and go about condemning and cajoling the men to stay in Troy. One of Odysseus' traits that was emphasized in later literature can be seen in Book Two of the Iliad in write an essay on a book, the way he handles Thersites. His actions and words are cold, hard, brutal and thesis pearson demeaning, but in one sense, Thersites was encouraging mutiny, and he was also abusing Agamemnon, the shepherd of the people. (3) That was not acceptable to any of the kings, nor to the gods. Maybe a more even-handed diplomacy would have been fairer, considering that it was the common man's fields that had not been plowed by them for more than nine years. A person was needed to unite the men and Odysseus did just that to carry out the wishes of the gods. A synopsis of Odysseus' war career is then given by men who had witnessed the discipling of Thersites:
Come now: Odysseus has done excellent things by officers, the thousands, bringing forward good counsels, and ordering armed encounters; but now this is far the best thing he ever has accomplished among the Argives . Chris Pearson! (4) Odysseus is obviously seen as someone to respect and the Achaians settle down to listen to his words that will eventually persuade them to servece, stay in Troy. This would prove to be one of his most important functions in the story since his words of chris pearson persuasion actually work, and the spirit of the Greeks were rallied because of him. The Greeks remained in an essay, Troy because it was the chris pearson, will of Zeus -- a constant and easy underlying reality that cannot be removed from the action of the epic. In Book Three, as Helen is surveying the thesis pearson, battlefield, she points to Odysseus and says: This one is writeing servece, Laertes' son, resourceful Odysseus, who grew up in the country, rough though it be, of Ithaka, to know every manner of shiftiness and crafty counsels . Thesis Chris! (5)
W.B. Stanford echoes Helen's words in The Quest for Ulysses : [Odysseus], Homer tells us, was born and bred near the sea. His island home, Ithaka, lay off the west coast of Greece near the intersection of two major trade routes . Merchants from nowadays, distant lands would often sail that way, and pirates would lurk in wait for them. A young prince reared in such an thesis chris, environment might well acquire qualities not so necessary for royal youths in mainland kingdoms like Mycenae and Argos. He would need to be resourceful and adaptable in handling boats among shifting winds and currents. He would learn to deal warily with merchants and how to book swiftly with pirates . (6) Antenor, who has overheard Helen's words agrees with her and says that he remembers Odysseus from the embassy that came to Troy to negotiate for her release. Chris! He describes the power of Odysseus' words as drifting down like the winter snows. (7) Odysseus' strong suit by far seems to be the way in thinking, which he uses words to pearson, achieve whatever goal he desires. Homer calls him Odysseus, the equal of essays probation officers Zeus in counsel (8) on more than one occasion, which was a fine compliment. Chris! W.B.
Stanford points out that all the ETL Functional, princes would have training in eloquence because it was an integral part of their education, and Odysseus was just more effective than the others. (9) With this ability, his specialty is as an thesis, ambassador for the Atreidae and this is his primary function. When he was given the important job of escorting Chryseis home to her father, he was described as Odysseus of the many designs. (10) His next mission was a member of the embassy that tried to convince Achilles to topics, rejoin the thesis chris, fighting and to help them win the easy, war. The Atreidae sent for him and he begins his speech to chris, Achilles by complimenting him and officers assuring him that he is needed to rescue the afflicted sons of the Achaians from the Trojan onslaught. Chris Pearson! (11) He mentions the dictatorship, good advice that Achilles' father Peleus gave him about being careful with his anger, and begins to list off all the gifts that Agamemnon has promised for his return. Odysseus related Agamemnon's words verbatim until he comes to these: Let him give way . And let him yield place to me, inasmuch as I am the kinglier and inasmuch as I can call myself born the elder . (12) Odysseus knows that these words should be omitted if there can be any chance of success, but Achilles senses right away that Odysseus has chosen to omit something because he knows Agamemnon's character and also the thesis pearson, way his envoy has with words. How To Write An Essay On A! Achilles tells him that he hates backdoor politics just as much as he hates Death, saying: . I detest that man, who hides one thing in the depths of his heart, and thesis chris pearson speaks forth another. (13) Achilles tells Odysseus that there are many reasons why he will definitely not return to the fighting and easy instead, will return home to Phthia, but his tutor Phoinix and his friend Ajax seem to soften his anger. He tells Phoinix that in the morning they shall both decide if they should return home, and to Ajax he pledges to return to the battle if Hektor reaches the ships of his people, the pearson, Myrmidons.
The embassy has succeeded in changing Achilles' mind in some ways, and there seems to be some cause for hope. Why then did Odysseus only repeat the words Achilles spoke to ETL Functional, him when he returned to Agamemnon and the others, omitting the more hopeful conversations that Achilles had with Phoinix and Ajax? When he did not, why then did Ajax not expand on what Odysseus related to the king? The answers to these questions are open to speculation. Pearson! Did Odysseus assume that the best course of action was to servece, put thoughts of Achilles aside since his future involvement was so precarious, and better to plow ahead with other strategies?
Or was he so confident in his own capabilities that he decided that all was lost if he could not change Achilles' mind? Whatever the thesis chris, case, this time Odysseus does not get the job done -- something that will be seen again in Sophocles' Philoctetes . Odysseus left behind his wife, Penelope, and an infant son, when he went to fight with the other Greeks. He did have responsibilities to his family and his subjects, and was trying not to take chances with his life. In Book Eight, Diomedes is trying to rescue Nestor from Hektor and asks Odysseus for help, but Odysseus turns his chariot around and heads for the ships. Diomedes call him a coward, but long-suffering great Odysseus gave no attention as he swept by . (14) Heroes were not expected to fight every minute of every battle to thinking, be considered brave, and chris pearson Odysseus is thinking nursing, certainly not a coward, although he is chris pearson, quite prepared to run rather than face suicidal odds in battle. (15) Homer describes Odysseus as very brave and this quality can clearly be seen in Book Seven when Nestor calls for brave men who are willing to stop Hektor's ravaging. Odysseus is one of the many who comes forward to throw their lot in Agamemnon's helmet. Also in Book Ten, the how to write book, Greeks are seen in terrible straits, beaten back to their ships. Nestor has advised them that they need to know the Trojans' future strategy so they will be in a position to counteract it.
He again calls for volunteers to cross enemy lines. A number of men volunteer, but Diomedes chooses Odysseus as his partner since he believes him to be brave and loved by Athena. He also says that were he to go with me, both of us could come back from the blazing of fire itself, since his mind is best at devices. (16) Again, Odysseus' trickery and stealth are alluded to and so, what other kind of chris pearson person would Diomedes want with him on such a dangerous task? As soon as Odysseus realizes that he is going, he prays to Athena and sees her bird-sign. Writeing! He seems to look to her as his own personal daimon . It should be pointed out that it is probably easier to be brave when a goddess like the powerful Athena loves you and protects you. There also can be no question that Odysseus carries out most of his actions for the same reasons that the other heroes do: for glory. Heroes are primarily looking for material wealth and for immortal glory. In Book Six, Helen talks with Hektor about the activities of chris pearson heroes that will be sung about by the poets. In Book Eight of the Odyssey , Demodocus, the bard, sings of Troy and all the heroes who died there, for King Alcinous and servece his guest Odysseus. In some respects, the description of the night mission into enemy territory creates the greatest moments of apprehension and fear in thesis, the poem. Besides being the only military operation to take place in write an essay on a, the dark, the thesis chris pearson, reader also seems to be creeping along with Diomedes and Odysseus, who are slowly making their way through body parts and pools of blood.
Hektor has also sent out nowadays lack of responsibility, a spy that night, a man named Dolon, and it is illustrious Odysseus (17) who hears him approaching and thinks of a plan to trap him. Diomedes savagely kills him. Odysseus asks Athena for guidance in finding the way to pearson, the newly arrived Thracians, who have brought many horses with them. Odysseus collects the animals while Diomedes kills every sleeping man. When they return to their own ships with the booty, Odysseus gives the credit to his comrade and never mentions his own input. (18) He is the easy writeing servece, one who showed prudence and caution as Diomedes takes care of the more dangerous job of killing. All in all, the thesis, incident shows that Odysseus is brave, modest, and protected by Athena.
This is illustrated again in teach critical thinking nursing, Book Eleven when Odysseus is stabbed by Sokos, and yet saved from death by the goddess. Odysseus is thesis chris, again commissioned to essays on juvenile officers, hold the army together. Thesis Pearson! Agamemnon wants to move some of the ships and servece believes the gods are against a victory for chris, them. He ends his speech with, the man does better who runs from disaster than he who is ETL Functional, caught by it. (19) These words could have been spoken by Odysseus himself, but instead, he is thesis chris pearson, brave enough and angry enough to stand up to Agamemnon for essays, speaking them. He even says, I wish you directed some other unworthy army and were not lord over us . (20) He is confident enough to pearson, tell Agamemnon that his plan will not work and should be forgotten. ETL Functional! He is sensible and must speak his mind when he sees poor judgement being used. He also tells Achilles that the men need to rest and chris eat before they can do their best in battle, and to dictatorship essay, send them out would be foolhardy. Chris! Odysseus again fails to convince Achilles and he does not eat. Later, Athena must give Achilles nectar and ambrosia for strength, proving that Odysseus was right again.
The last we see of Odysseus in the Iliad is during the funeral games for Patroklos. Homer describes Odysseus as not forgetting his craft (21) when he trips up Ajax during a wrestling match. Odysseus then joins the foot race and will seemingly lose without Athena's help and prays to her for extra strength. Athena does not have any reason to help him now, since this is not a military expedition, (22) but she does by nursing, making Ajax slip in cow dung. The competition between these two men had very serious consequences for thesis chris, the future, when Ajax is certain he was maneuvered out of write an essay on a book another prize by chris pearson, Odysseus. All of these episodes are important to examine since they give a psychological profile of Odysseus. Dictatorship! Homer sees him as a man of words, who is chris pearson, capable, brave, sensible, modest, and patient. The Atreidae see him as a friend in much the same light and make use of his capacities as an ambassador for them, and as someone to hold the army together. But this was only the beginning of the poems, plays, and books that revolved around Odysseus.
Homer's second epic poem has him as a central character and nursing focuses on many of the qualities he is first given in the Iliad . He uses disguises, calls himself 'nobody' and chris pearson his trickery is shown in full force in the Odyssey . His constant companion Athena is at his side and helps him to make his odyssey home. Teach Critical Nursing! His cunning is used to escape the Cyclops and to listen to thesis chris pearson, the Sirens; to probation officers, fool his wife and son; and to entrap the suitors. When he visits the Phaeacians, he tells the king: I am Odysseus, Laertes' son. Thesis! The whole world talks of my stratagems, and my fame has reached the heavens. (23) His sagacity is also evident by how he patiently survives all the years away from essays on juvenile, home. The Odyssey must be mentioned in a discussion of Odysseus because without it, a large gap of material is left out of his tradition. On reading it, the warmth and admiration that Homer had for Odysseus is clearly evident. This will be contrasted with the writings of thesis many other Greeks. The other important point to teenagers nowadays of responsibility, make concerning the Odyssey is that it mentions the Trojan Horse.
Odysseus may have gone grudgingly to Troy, with only pearson a small battalion of men, but he ingratiated himself with the important Greek generals and gained their respect and trust. And he was the one who came up with the essays probation officers, plan to chris pearson, use the Trojan Horse that allowed them to enter Troy undetected. Of course, it was built with Athena's help, but the write an essay book, idea for such a sly and cunning invention came from no other than Odysseus. So Odysseus accomplished what Achilles could not: the sacking of Troy. The Greeks looked to pearson, their poets as teachers and believed that men like Homer and Hesiod were mouthpieces for the gods. School children were expected to memorize sections of Homer's works because they thought it contained morals about how one should live life, and other important truths. Essay Nowadays Of Responsibility! The ancient Greeks cherished these early works and had great interest in chris pearson, what happened to some of teach critical their favourite characters. Perhaps it was this interest that spawned so many subsequent stories that were transmitted through later poets and tragedians. Of course, some of them found fault with Homer's perceptions of certain characters. One was Pindar.
He believed that Homer told lies that have proved to pearson, be unfair to ETL Functional Analysis, men like Ajax. In Nemean 7, Pindar disagrees with Homer's description of thesis chris Odysseus: I even suspect that Odysseus' fame was greater than his worth, through the sweet words of Homer. For in his lies and in officers, his winged devices there is an awesome power: wisdom is pearson, deceptive, seducing with its myths, and the masses of mankind have a blind heart, for if they could have seen the truth, powerful Ajax, angered over Analysis, the armor, would not have plunged the smooth sword into his breast -- Ajax, except for Achilles, mightiest in battle of all . (24) Pindar must have felt quite strongly about this because he writes of it again in Isthmian 4 where he refers to Odysseus' famous traits of trickery and lying, saying they were used to win Achilles' armor. (25) He contrasts this hatcher of schemes (26) with the solid Ajax who was so proud of heart (27) that he no longer wanted to live.
Certainly, Homer also portrayed Ajax in a favourable light in the Iliad , and in the Odyssey presents him as the quiet, stalwart hero who is still so hurt by thesis chris, the incident that he does not want to talk of it, even in death. Odysseus tells Ajax that he wishes he had never won the armor since it caused such a great hero to die. Odysseus' sincerity is Analysis, evident and pearson it is a sad situation that is left unresolved. Compassion for this fallen hero was an element that Sophocles would later deal with in Ajax. With the coming of the ETL Functional Analysis, fifth century BC, there seems to be a negative shift in the portrayal of Odysseus. Sophocles presents two rather different portrayals of Odysseus in his tragedies Ajax and Philoctetes . Ajax is the earlier of the two and casts a more favourable light on him. In the opening scene, Odysseus is with his familiar friend Athena. She seems to describe a sort of telepathic connection between them when she says, . I felt your need and came on the path to guard and help you in your chase. (1) They are presented as close in a spiritual way. Ajax has gone mad with the help of thesis pearson Athena and how to book has killed the Greek flocks thinking they were actually his comrades.
Ajax had attempted to murder Odysseus since he was awarded the arms of Achilles instead of him, but Athena protected him. Odysseus shows his usual practicality and desire to survive when he shrinks from her suggestion that he go into the tent of Ajax to chris pearson, see how crazy he has become. Odysseus realizes that Ajax is his enemy and ETL Functional that he would be in thesis chris, great danger if seen by him. Topics! Ajax feels wronged by his comrades and has specifically blamed the man whom he sees as responsible for thesis chris, the slight against his honour. Ajax is under the delusion that Odysseus is inside his tent and plans to torture him: Crimson his back with this whip first, then kill him. (29) Odysseus shows great sincerity when, instead of gloating with Athena over these events, he sees them as a tragedy -- the tragedy of a fallen Greek warrior and hero, who can never live down this disgrace. He realizes that if Ajax can lose so much stature, anyone can. When Ajax comes to realize what he has done and how he disgraced himself, he plunges his own great sword into his body and ends his suffering.
When a great man falls from teach nursing, grace, it is always a long drop down and many people suffer. Tecmessa, his wife, wonders if the dreadful goddess has bred this pain, perhaps for her favourite, Odysseus. (30) Ajax may have fallen in cow dung during Patroklos' funeral games, but there was never an indication that he and Odysseus were arch-enemies. Ajax, just like Achilles, felt he was slighted when he did not receive the prize of the arms. Ajax could have accepted the decision like the noble man he was and kept quiet; he could have acted like he did when he saw Odysseus in Hades, but he did not. When Menelaus refuses to allow Ajax to be buried, Teucer argues the cause.
He points out thesis, that his brother came as a king and brought his own men to Troy. Menelaus may be the King of Sparta, but he had no right to direct the affairs of the dead man. Of course, this is a flawed argument because the Atreidae did direct everything for ten years and it was also attempts on their lives that caused Ajax to ETL Functional Analysis, kill himself. It is for this same reason that Menelaus will never be swayed by Teucer's arguments. Menelaus may have known the archer, but he was never in any direct command of him.
The person to persuade him is someone he knows well, trusts, and respects. That is why it is thesis chris, Odysseus' arguments that win over the Atreidae. The skilled speech maker is now using his abilities to win burial for a man who deserves to be buried. R.P. Winnington-Ingram says that Odysseus certainly [belongs] to a world which reasons and argues, (31) but why does Odysseus fight this battle? Why does he risk the friendship of Agamemnon and Menelaus? Odysseus knows that Ajax was a brave man and says so. He knows that just like Hektor, he had lived a pious life and deserved to be buried.
The gods would surely want him to be given proper rites and in fact, Odysseus says, for it is not he, but the laws of gods, you would be destroying. (32) R.P. Winnington-Ingram states that it is not . because non-burial infringes divine law rather than harms the dead man that it is probation officers, unjust to chris, dishonour him . (33) But Odysseus slips in a reference to divine law, hoping that it will help the cause. (34) He knows what a valuable man Ajax was to the Greeks, especially when Achilles was angry and refused to fight. Some writers portray Odysseus as risking his life when he opposed the Atreidae in this matter, but he never showed any subservience to them in the Iliad . He always spoke his mind and pointed out faults when he saw them, all along trying to be a uniting force. He was not risking his friendship or loss of prestige because their relationship had gone past that sort of tallying, and Odysseus was seen as their equal by dictatorship topics, the time of the action. Key to exhibiting Odysseus' virtue and sensibility in this regard are the words that he speaks to Agamemnon: His greatness weighs more than my hate, (35) and I hated him while it was fair to hate. (36) To keep up a continual assault on the fallen hero would accomplish nothing -- the words would be hollow. To disallow his burial might even garner hatred and unrest among the pearson, troops who surely respected Ajax and knew that he had saved their own ships on occasion.
But the reason that Odysseus is on juvenile officers, quite sure that he is right about this is thesis pearson, one he states in the beginning of the play: Yet I pity his wretchedness . I think of him, yet also of myself; for probation officers, I see the true state of all us that live -- we are dim shapes, no more, and chris pearson weightless shadow . (37) The last lines of the play reiterates these sentiments when the chorus says: What men have seen they know; but what shall come hereafter no man before the dictatorship topics, event can see, nor what end waits for him . (38) Sophocles characterized Odysseus quite favourably in this play, but as the years went by chris pearson, and he was near the end of his career, he gave a very different portrayal of him in an essay book, his tragedy, Philoctetes . Why? One can only speculate on chris things that happened so long ago. The fifth century BC was a time of intellectual upheaval for the Greeks and change was taking place in the political structure. Essay Topics! Many people were questioning the old aristocracy and their power, and the assertion that arete was something rich people are born with. Men, who were called sophists came to Athens with the message that arete was a teachable thing and as long as they had money, anyone could be taught. These sophists were seen, especially by the old upper class, as a dangerous element that was smooth-talking and deceitful. A group who would end up causing havoc.
In some ways, they were right and steps toward democracy were helped along by the introduction and innovations of men like Protagorus. Thesis Pearson! Did Sophocles concentrate on critical some of Odysseus' well-known personality traits and turn him into a political man, of a type which may be recognizable to fifth-century audiences? (39) Whatever the reason, Odysseus is a different man than the one seen in Ajax , but some of his original characteristics were still evident. In Philoctetes , Odysseus is again seen as ambassador for the Atreidae. He is sent on the important mission of retrieving Philoctetes and his bow, which must be brought to Troy to help the thesis pearson, Greeks win the war. The fact that Agamemnon has left him on the island for more than ten years after he received a terrible snake bite is the problem to be resolved. Philoctetes was bitten when he inadvertently walked on sacred ground and ETL Functional was consequently punished by the gods with a foul smelling, painful and thesis diseased foot. Odysseus was dispatched by the King and has Achilles' son Neoptolemus with him. Odysseus tells him that he had orders to essay teenagers lack, leave Philoctetes behind ten years before, stating: my masters, the princes, bade me to do it, (40) when Philoctetes' groaning was interrupting sacrifices to the gods, and the camp was haunted by him. (41) Odysseus was only following orders when he left the man on the island; he was not really in a position to argue since it happened on the way to Troy and he did not know the Atreidae at the time. He now fears the revenge that Philoctetes will surely want. As the quintessentially prudent man, he puts a guard on alert, saying: For he would rather take me than all the Greeks. (42)
Throughout Odysseus' conversation with Neoptolemus, he uses phrases like ensnare the soul of Philoctetes with your words, (43) and it is the tongue that wins and not the deed. (44) He is using his own sophistic persuasion to convince Achilles' son to help him. He is taking advantage of Neoptolemus' good nature and his young age to thesis chris pearson, twist him into submission. 'He' should be 'they' since he is only doing the dirty work for Agamemnon and will do anything to servece, achieve his goal. Odysseus realizes what Neoptolemus cannot: that neither force nor persuasion will work on their own, stating: he will not be persuaded; force will fail. (45) He knows that as the best archer of the Greeks, coupled with Heracles' bow, that no one could take Philoctetes by force. He hopes that Neoptolemus will be able to thesis pearson, trick him at least to pass over the bow so that they can then capture him easily. At the end of the play we realize that appropriate persuasion, as opposed to thinking nursing, deceit, was their last chance. Odysseus knows the prophecy of Helenus but he only thesis chris pearson tells Neoptolemus as much as he wants him to know. He compliments him, talks of his father, and tells him to take Philoctetes by craft.
He is ETL Functional, trying to ensnare him with his words and allows him to believe that he will be called a wise man and a good one (46) for chris, his actions on essays probation officers the deserted island. Odysseus asked him to forget his true self for one day and to give himself over to him and then he can be virtuous again. What Odysseus did not factor in was the possibility that Neoptolemus and Philoctetes would become friends, and that the young man would not be able to chris pearson, go against teach critical thinking nursing his true nature even for a day, even for thesis chris pearson, glory. Analysis! He tells Philoctetes that all is disgust when one leaves his own nature and does things that misfit it. (47) Neoptolemus is not like the Odysseus who is pearson, portrayed in this play, and he is unable to teach critical, accept that the suffering of this Greek man was allowed to pearson, continue for so long. ETL Functional Analysis! His father, Achilles, was a savage man, but he hated deception and did not like Odysseus for that quality. When Neoptolemus gives the bow back, Philoctetes tells him, . Pearson! you have shown your nature and true breeding, son of Achilleus and not Sisyphus . (48) This was a later addition to write, Odysseus' lineage.
He began as the son of Laertes, but as time went on, he was associated with the chris, trickster Sisyphus. Every culture seems to have at least one character that has the qualities of a trickster and the Greeks had many. Dictatorship Essay! In the Theogony , Hesiod wrote about Prometheus, who had outwitted even the mighty Zeus on pearson more than one occasion. (49) Zeus, himself, used many devious methods to obtain affection from women like Leto and Europa. Other mythological characters like Tantalus and Sisyphus were known for their wily ways. In the Philoctetes , Odysseus is portrayed as a combination of quintessential trickster and essay lack the sense smooth talking sophist, who has no compassion for Philoctetes whatsoever and no qualms about corrupting Achilles' son.
At the thesis, end of the play, his deceitful tactics do not work. He loses whatever hold he had over Neoptolemus and does not get agreement from Analysis, Philoctetes that he or his bow will go to Troy. Neoptolemus gave the bow back to its rightful owner and agreed to take him home. Its original owner then appears to thesis, give directions. Heracles tells his old friend Philoctetes that he must go to Troy with Achilles' son and fulfill the will of Zeus. Odysseus has no redeeming qualities in ETL Functional Analysis, Sophocles' second representation of him, and this trend continues with Euripides' tragedies. Odysseus appears in a few of Euripides's plays and always as a totally detestable character.
W.B. Stanford says that Euripides presents Ulysses in an almost entirely evil light, (50) particularly in Hecuba , where he plays a leading role, without a single redeeming feature. (51) Hecuba is a play that shows the devastating effects of thesis war and essays on juvenile probation what happens to chris pearson, captives in the aftermath. The tragedy opens with the speech of Hecuba's son Polydorus, who was in the care of his father's Thracian friend during the Trojan War, but who was recently murdered for gold. The queen lives with the assumption that her last remaining son is alive and looks forward to seeing him soon. This son and two of her daughters are her only children to survive Troy and its fall. A chorus of captive women bring her terrifying news that her daughter Polyxena is to be sacrificed on Achilles' tomb, and servece that it was Odysseus who had convinced the Greeks to chris, perform the ceremony: And the rush of words, yes and no, was balanced until that shifty-hearted butcher knife, that sweet-coaxing, pandering son of Laertes persuades the army not to nursing, reject the chris, best of all Greeks for the life of a slave, a sacrifice . (52) The pain and horror is write on a, evident as Hecuba tells her daughter of thesis pearson her fate. When Odysseus enters, he is calm and callous, telling the fallen queen not to ETL Functional, get upset for 'it is prudent, even in bad times, to use common sense. (53) This sounds characteristically Odysseus.
Hecuba gives him reasons why he should spare Polyxena and includes how she once saved his life in chris pearson, Troy. Now he should do something for her and she kneels in supplication before him. Odysseus ignores her pleading and tells her that Achilles requested the sacrifice and it could not be disregarded. Hecuba tells her daughter to supplicate herself to Odysseus, but he prevents her from doing so. Polyxena accepts her fate, but kills herself. Her mother is treated with sympathy by no other than the cold-hearted Agamemnon. Odysseus is portrayed as an evil man, who has no compassion or understanding of teach thinking nursing human suffering. Thesis Chris! This is a contrast with the sympathetic man we see in probation, Ajax . Euripides cast Odysseus in The Women of Troy , as well and thesis pearson he is how to write an essay, treated in a similar light. Troy has just fallen and Queen Hecuba has received the news that she will go to Ithaka with Odysseus. She laments:
Odysseus? Oh Odysseus! Now shear the head, tear the cheek, beat the thesis, brow! Cruellest fate of dictatorship essay all! Now I belong to thesis chris pearson, a perjured impious outcast, who defies man's law and God's; monster of how to on a wickedness whose tongue twists straight to crooked, truth to lies, friendship to hate, mocks right and honours wrong! (54) Hecuba is right to hate this man for soon she learns of thesis pearson his plan to throw her sweet grandson off the walls of her city, to die a tragic death. Andromache says, But this is dictatorship essay topics, horrible beyond all measure! (55) and it is to the reader, as well. When Astyanax is brought in on his father's shield, dead, Odysseus is thesis pearson, really seen as an evil man, even if he is doing such things for essays, the good of Greece because he shows no mercy for the Trojans. Euripides gave Odysseus a major role in a lost play called Palamedes , a man known for his cleverness, and who ruined Odysseus' plan of avoiding going to the Trojan War.
To get his revenge, Odysseus made it look like Palamedes was a traitor, who had helped the enemy in exchange for thesis pearson, gold. The Sense Of Responsibility! Palamedes was found guilty with trumped-up evidence, and stoned to thesis, death because of Odysseus. (56) The Homeric Odysseus would likely have become the servece, best of friends with a man as wily as himself, but Euripides seemed to thoroughly detest Odysseus. W.B. Stanford states: Euripides' blackening of [his] character in this and thesis chris other plays had a lasting influence on easy writeing servece classical drama until the thesis pearson, eighteenth century. The serviceable diplomat and statesman of the Iliad is transformed into a detestable politique whom no humane writer could admire. It was not until well into the nineteenth century that the [Odysseus] of drama fully escaped from this burden of infamy . (57) Odysseus went through many transformations from the time of the thinking nursing, Iliad to the fifth-century BC, but in some ways he did not change at all.
He began as a man of words and chris pearson he ended up the same way, even if the words seemed uncharacteristic of him at probation, times. Odysseus may be looked at in a positive manner, or in a very negative light, but he was one of the only heroes to chris pearson, survive the Trojan War and he always worked for teach, the Greek cause.
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Silas Marner Plans de lecon, activites pour les eleves et organisateurs graphiques. Niveau Scolaire 9-10. Niveau de Difficulte 3 (Developper a la maitrise) Type D'affectation Individuel ou Partenaire. Une activite etudiante commune pendant la lecture est de creer un diagramme de l' intrigue des evenements d'un roman. Thesis Chris Pearson! Non seulement est-ce un excellent moyen d'enseigner les parties de l'intrigue, mais aussi de renforcer les evenements majeurs et d'aider les eleves a developper une meilleure comprehension des structures litteraires. Les eleves peuvent creer un scenario qui capture le concept de l'arc narratif dans un roman en creant un storyboard a six cellules qui contient les parties principales du diagramme d' intrigue. Write On A! Pour chaque cellule, demandez aux eleves de creer une scene du roman dans l'ordre: Exposition, Conflit, Action montante, Climax, Action descendante et Resolution. Le roman commence dans le present et flashes de retour a quand Silas etait un jeune homme dans Lantern Yard.
Dans cette communaute religieuse, Silas etait venere, avait des amis et un fiance. Pearson! Cependant, il a ete bientot encadre par son meilleur ami et expulse de la ville. Dictatorship Essay Topics! Il a demenage a Raveloe pour commencer une nouvelle vie. Silas a ete grievement blesse, alors il est devenu un avare solitaire, plein de colere et de desespoir. Chris! Cela fait de lui le sujet de rumeurs et de mensonges. Les lecteurs sont presentes a la famille Cass: The Squire et ses trois fils, Godfrey, Dustan et Bob. ETL Functional Analysis! Godfrey, le fils aine, cache un secret scandaleux que son frere Dustan connait et utilise comme chantage contre Godfrey. Pearson! Godfrey est secretement marie a une femme dependante d'opium d'une ville voisine.
Apres avoir gaspille tout son argent et incapable d'obtenir plus de Godfrey, Dunstan prive Silas Marner, le laissant sans rien pour la deuxieme fois de sa vie. Write Book! Mais une nuit, Molly decide de se venger de Godfrey en se presentant avec leur enfant a la fete du Squire. Thesis! Elle ne le fait jamais. Writeing Servece! Au lieu de cela, elle meurt dans la neige, et son bebe se promene dans la maison de Silas. Soulage que Molly est mort, Godfrey epouse son vrai amour, Nancy, une femme qu'il courtisait pendant son mariage. Thesis Chris Pearson! Silas finit par elever l'enfant comme son propre, et il change sa vie pour le mieux; Il gagne des amis, le respect, et un remplacement pour son or vole: l'amour vrai. Nursing! Godfrey, cependant, jure qu'il n'oubliera jamais l'enfant, Eppie, et promet de garder un oeil sur elle. Thesis Chris Pearson! Apres 16 ans, Godfrey et Nancy, qui etaient incapables d'avoir des enfants de leur propre, essaient de prendre Eppie de Silas. Essay Teenagers Nowadays Lack The Sense! Pour la troisieme fois, Silas est confronte au desespoir. Impossible de quitter Silas, son vrai pere, et la vie qu'elle a connue, Eppiem, maintenant 18 ans, passe sur l'offre de Cass pour etre leur enfant.
Cela rend Silas le plus heureux qu'il ait jamais ete, et il sait maintenant qu'il va lui faire confiance pour le reste de sa vie. Thesis! Silas a egalement son or retourne a lui apres que la famille de Cass trouve le corps mort de Dunstan au fond d'une carriere dessechee pres de chalet de Silas, avec l'or de Silas a cote de lui. Avec toutes les choses qui lui ont ete rendues, Silas decide de retourner a Lantern Yard pour voir si quelque lumiere a ete versee sur son innocence. Essay! Cependant, quand il et Eppie y arriver, la ville est partie. Chris Pearson! Apres leur retour a Raveloe, Eppie epouse Aaron Winthrop.
Silas, Eppie et Aaron vivent heureux dans la maison de Silas pour les annees a venir. (Ces instructions sont entierement personnalisables. Dictatorship Topics! Apres avoir clique sur «Copier l'affectation», modifiez la description de l'affectation dans votre tableau de bord.) Creer un diagramme visuel de Silas Marner . Separez l'histoire dans l' exposition, le conflit, l'action montante, l'apogee, l'action decroissante et la resolution. Thesis Chris! Creer une image qui represente un moment important ou un ensemble d'evenements pour chacun des composants de l'histoire. Dictatorship! Redigez une description de chacune des etapes du diagramme d'emplacement. (Utilisez cette rubrique ou creez votre propre Quick Rubric.) Silas Marner Themes, symboles et motifs. Niveau Scolaire 9-10.
Niveau de Difficulte 3 (Developper a la maitrise) Type D'affectation Individuel ou Partenaire. Les aspects precieux de tout travail litteraire sont ses themes, symboles et motifs. Thesis Pearson! Une partie des normes ELA de base commune est d'introduire et d'expliquer ces concepts complexes. Dictatorship Essay Topics! Cependant, les idees abstraites sont souvent difficiles a interioriser sans beaucoup d'aide. Thesis Pearson! A l'aide d'un story-board, les eleves peuvent demontrer visuellement leur comprehension de ces concepts et maitriser une analyse approfondie de ces elements litteraires. Topics! Pour connaitre les meilleures pratiques, consultez notre article avec des etapes de plan de lecon specifiques sur la mise en place de votre classe et des activites pour les themes, les symboles et les motifs. Un exemple de ceci dans la salle de classe pourrait etre de suivre les themes et les symboles que George Eliot utilise dans Silas Marner pour communiquer avec le lecteur. Silas Marner Themes, motifs et symboles a rechercher et discuter. Un theme commun dans la litterature est la «solitude».
Tout au long de ce roman, de nombreux personnages eprouvent leur propre type de solitude ou d'isolement. Chris! Il est tres interessant de suivre ce theme et ses implications au fur et a mesure que l'histoire progresse. Dictatorship Essay! Certains personnages ont l'isolement physique ou la solitude, comme Silas. Thesis Pearson! D'autres personnages montrent la solitude mentale, comme Godfrey. On Juvenile Probation Officers! Il eprouve de la solitude quand il ne peut pas dire a ceux qu'il aime la verite sur ses mensonges.
Dans Silas Marner , de nombreux personnages seront lied, chantagees ou trahis. Pearson! Silas est trahi par William dans Lantern Yard, ainsi que par ceux qui le jettent hors de la ville. ETL Functional! Il a egalement ete trahi quand Dunstan a vole son argent. Chris Pearson! Le theme des mensonges est plus evident avec Godfrey. Essay Nowadays Lack Of Responsibility! En dissimulant son mariage secret, cachant le fait qu'Eppie etait son enfant, et mentir a Nancy, il coute inevitablement Godfrey ce qui etait vraiment important pour lui. Thesis! Dans l'ensemble, ces themes sont importants pour l'histoire, demontrant que les actes de corruption ne sont jamais recompenses.
Silas Marner a beaucoup de mal a apprendre a faire confiance aux gens. Dictatorship! Ayant ete encadre puis vole, Silas ne trouve pas la confiance des gens pour etre une tache facile. Thesis Chris! C'est seulement a la fin quand Eppie prouve son amour a Silas qu'il croit en l'amour et le peuple qu'il aime. L'argent de Silas devient un symbole de sa propre disparition. Teenagers Nowadays The Sense Of Responsibility! Il commence a adorer ses pieces d'or et croit que les visages sur chacun sont ses amis. Chris! Son attachement a l'objet inanime montre son manque de confiance dans les autres. On Juvenile Probation! Il se fixe sur les pieces d'or parce que, contrairement aux gens, ils ne peuvent le trahir, le laisser ou l'abandonner. Le metier de Silas est un symbole majeur dans sa vie. Thesis Pearson! Malgre ses moyens de revenu, le metier symbolise aussi la solitude de Silas et sa nature laborieuse. Dictatorship Essay Topics! Il aide aussi a depeindre la vie desolee de Silas et ajoute a la metaphore de Silas comme une araignee: courbee sur son metier, avec ses yeux assez grands et saillants, tissant constamment.
En tant que symbole universel, les foyers representent generalement la chaleur et le bonheur d'une maison. Chris Pearson! Pour Silas, il symbolise beaucoup plus. Teach Nursing! Il represente le don qui lui est venu, son enfant Eppie, et l'amour qu'il a trouve apres qu'il a ete abandonne et vole de. (Ces instructions sont entierement personnalisables. Pearson! Apres avoir clique sur «Copier l'affectation», modifiez la description de l'affectation dans votre tableau de bord.) Creer un storyboard qui identifie les themes recurrents dans Silas Marner . Servece! Illustrer les exemples de chaque theme et ecrire une breve description sous chaque cellule.
Cliquez sur Utiliser ce modele dans la tache. Chris Pearson! Identifiez le (s) theme (s) de Silas Marner que vous souhaitez inclure et remplacer le texte Theme 1. Essays On Juvenile Probation Officers! Creez une image pour des exemples qui representent ce theme. Thesis! Redigez une description de chacun des exemples. Writeing! Enregistrez et envoyez votre storyboard. (Utilisez cette rubrique ou creez votre propre Quick Rubric.) Silas Marner Personnages Graphic Organizer. Niveau Scolaire 9-10.
Niveau de Difficulte 3 (Developper a la maitrise) Type D'affectation Individuel ou Partenaire. Au fur et a mesure que les eleves lisent, un storyboard peut servir de journal de reference utile. Thesis Chris Pearson! Ce journal (egalement appele une carte de caracteres) permet aux eleves de rappeler les informations pertinentes et les details sur les caracteres importants. Nowadays Lack! Avec la cartographie des personnages , il est facile pour les etudiants de suivre et de capter les subtilites qui rendent la lecture plus agreable! Vous pouvez cliquer sur cette carte et creer une copie sur votre compte d'enseignant.
N'hesitez pas a l'utiliser tel quel, ou a le modifier pour le niveau de votre classe. Chris! L'impression sous forme de feuilles de calcul, pour que vos eleves terminent la lecture, est un moyen rapide et facile d'integrer cette carte de caracteres dans votre classe. (Ces instructions sont entierement personnalisables. Teach Critical Nursing! Apres avoir clique sur «Copier l'affectation», modifiez la description de l'affectation dans votre tableau de bord.) Creez une carte de caracteres pour les caracteres principaux. Identifiez les personnages principaux de Silas Marner et tapez leurs noms dans les differentes boites de titre. Pearson! Choisissez un caractere de l'onglet 1600 a 1800 pour representer chacun des caracteres litteraires. Essay The Sense Of Responsibility! Choisissez des couleurs et une pose appropriee aux traits d'histoire et de caractere. Thesis Chris! Choisissez une scene ou un arriere-plan qui a du sens pour le personnage. The Sense! Remplissez les Textables pour la description physique, les caracteristiques et les evenements majeurs. Chris Pearson! Enregistrez et soumettez la tache.
(Utilisez cette rubrique ou creez votre propre Quick Rubric.) Niveau Scolaire 9-10. Niveau de Difficulte 3 (Developper a la maitrise) Type D'affectation Individuel ou Partenaire. Une excellente facon d'engager vos eleves est de creer des storyboards qui utilisent le vocabulaire de Silas Marner . Dictatorship! Voici une liste de quelques mots de vocabulaire communement enseignes avec le roman et un exemple de tableau de vocabulaire visuel.
Exemple de mots de vocabulaire de Silas Marner. carriere excentrique repugnance penitent candeur Condescendant reverer irascible sobre jovial conciliatoire protester pauvre pieux indolent faillible Divin aberration subterfuge. Dans le tableau de vocabulaire, les eleves peuvent choisir entre l'utilisation du mot de vocabulaire, la recherche d'un exemple precis a partir du texte ou leur representation sans mots. (Ces instructions sont entierement personnalisables. Chris Pearson! Apres avoir clique sur «Copier l'affectation», modifiez la description de l'affectation dans votre tableau de bord.) Demontrer votre comprehension des mots de vocabulaire dans Silas Marner en creant des visualisations. Choisissez trois mots de vocabulaire de l'histoire et tapez-les dans les boites de titre. Essays On Juvenile! Trouvez la definition dans un dictionnaire imprime ou en ligne. Thesis Chris! Ecrivez une phrase qui utilise le vocabulaire. Analysis! Illustrez la signification du mot dans la cellule a l'aide d'une combinaison de scenes, de caracteres et d'elements. Chris Pearson! Sinon, utilisez Photos for dictatorship essay Class pour afficher la signification des mots avec la barre de recherche. Thesis Chris Pearson! Enregistrez et envoyez votre storyboard.
(Utilisez cette rubrique ou creez votre propre Quick Rubric.) Recapitulatif du chapitre de Silas Marner. Niveau Scolaire 9-10. Niveau de Difficulte 3 (Developper a la maitrise) Type D'affectation Individuel ou Partenaire. Une activite engageante a faire pendant la lecture, ou apres quelques chapitres, est un chapitre recapitulatif . Essays Probation! Pour aider les eleves a saisir des significations plus profondes a partir du roman, il est utile pour eux de creer un storyboard qui represente une scene ou, plus important encore, un symbole, un theme ou un motif de chaque chapitre. Thesis Pearson! Le produit fini ressemble beaucoup a un livre d'images, avec une cellule representant chaque chapitre de Silas Marner . Critical Thinking! Pour les classes avec acces informatique journalier , les eleves peuvent creer leur conseil apres chaque chapitre de Silas Marner . Thesis Chris Pearson! Pour les classes a acces limite, pensez a faire en sorte que les eleves fassent leurs chapitres a la fin de chaque semaine!
Silas Marner est un conte d'amour et de surmonter les revers. Essay Teenagers Nowadays Lack! Au debut du roman, le protagoniste, Silas, perd ses amis, sa foi et son fiance quand il est encadre pour vol. Thesis Pearson! Exile, il passe de Lantern Yard a l'idyllique pays anglais de Raveloe, une communaute agricole. On Juvenile Probation! La, il remplace les personnes et l'interaction humaine avec l'argent. Thesis Chris Pearson! Il travaille a son metier, le tissage et l'isole pour qu'il ne puisse jamais etre blesse comme avant. Plus tard dans l'histoire, les parcelles convergent lorsque Silas a tout son argent lui a ete vole par Dunstan Cass, un aristocrate conne de la ville. ETL Functional! Dunstan, le fils du Squire, etait dans l'affaire du chantage de son frere aine Godfrey. Thesis Pearson! Cependant, lorsque l'argent a couru, il a offert de vendre le cheval de Godfrey, Wildfire. Thinking! Il a fini par tuer le cheval avant de le livrer et de recevoir l'argent, l'amenant a voler de Silas. Le reveillon du Nouvel An, laissant sa porte ouverte, Silas recoit un visiteur peu probable.
Un petit enfant, ayant laisse les bras de sa mere mourante, entra dans son chalet. Pearson! Silas, se reveillant en transe, pense d'abord que l'enfant est son or retourne a lui. Dictatorship Essay Topics! En voyant les pistes dans la neige, puis en decouvrant le cadavre, Silas va chez Cass pour aller chercher le docteur. Chris! Quand il arrive, Godfrey reconnait l'enfant comme le sien de son mariage secret a une femme nommee Molly, un fait que Dunstan utilisait comme chantage. On A! Godfrey, en esperant que la femme est morte, suit le docteur et Silas. Chris! Ses espoirs sont realises; Molly a surdose et est mort dans la neige. Topics! Godfrey a deteste ce mariage et, avec sa femme morte, il se rend compte qu'il a la possibilite de se marier avec son veritable amour, Nancy Lammiter. Thesis! Cependant, il y a encore la question de l'enfant. Servece! Godfrey espere qu'il restera un secret, et il est assure lorsque Silas se bat pour la garder. Chris! Godfrey est soulage et promet secretement de toujours prevoir Silas comme un bienfaiteur secret. Beaucoup d'annees passent et Eppie, l'enfant des cheveux dores, est maintenant grandi.
Silas et Eppie sont inseparables. Analysis! Cependant, de l'autre cote de Raveloe, Godfrey et Nancy Cass sont malheureuses et sans enfants, une source de contestation tacite. Chris! Un jour, alors que Godfrey evacuait les Stone Pits, une decouverte choquante est faite: le squelette de Dunstan Cass est decouvert et l'argent manquant de Silas est a cote de lui. An Essay Book! Cela conduit Godfrey a se debrouiller sur son passe avec sa femme Nancy. Pearson! Nancy se fache contre Godfrey et suggere qu'ils vont demander a Eppie leur fille afin qu'il ait l'enfant qu'il a toujours voulu. How To Write An Essay On A! Ceci, encore une fois, pourrait prendre tout ce que Silas aime loin de lui! Eppie reste du cote de Silas.
Elle sait que Silas ne l'aurait jamais abandonnee comme Godfrey l'a fait. Thesis Chris! A la fin, Silas obtient son or retourne et obtient de garder sa fille. Easy Writeing! En apprenant a faire confiance et a croire en d'autres encore, Silas et Eppie vivent heureusement apres. Questions essentielles pour Silas Marner. Quelles sont les consequences d'une victime du mensonge, des ragots ou des rumeurs? Comment les gens font-ils face a un desespoir extreme? Comment l'education sociale influence-t-elle les caracteristiques et les comportements personnels?
L'argent at-il le bonheur? Decouvrez ces autres idees de plan de lecon de Silas Marner. Utilisez Storyboard That pour montrer les causes et les effets specifiques des evenements dans le roman. Thesis Pearson! Creez un storyboard montrant comment Silas change tous les cinq chapitres. Essay Nowadays Lack Of Responsibility! Creez un storyboard qui represente ce que ressemblait la vie au temps d'Eliot. Thesis! Ajoutez une presentation a n'importe quel projet de storyboard. Aidez-nous a Partager Storyboard That! Consultez le reste de nos guides pedagogiques et nos plans de cours!
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20 Tips For Writing Successful Paper, Digital, and Social Resumes. Are you looking to refresh your paper resume this year? You might be in for a little surprise to thesis chris pearson, find out that it's not just your printed manuscript that can land you the perfect teaching position. Essays Probation Officers. In this episode of the Jersey Educator Podcast we take a look at 20 things to consider before starting your next job search. This week on pearson, the Jersey Educator Podcast, Jim Boice and Jeff Bradbury sat down for a candid discussion about how educators should be crafting their 2017 resumes. In this episode, we take a look at some key features that every resume should (or must) have and provide helpful tips for dictatorship essay, not only your #8220;paper#8221; resume, but also your digital and social resumes as well. This episode of the thesis Jersey Educator Podcast can be found on critical thinking, iTunes and Stitcher Radio and is a companion episode to a previous show where we discussed 11 things every educator should be thinking about as they prepare for thesis chris, a job interview or job fair. What is writeing, a resume . . . it's the age old question that everyone has an answer for, but yet nobody has the right answer.
Your resume in 2017 looks completely different than it did in 2007 and yet, has the format really changed? Yes and No. To set some standards for this post, I think we can all agree what a resume is. Your resume is a gateway through a conversation . It is pearson, a document designed to be handed to someone who is about to have a conversation with you. On Juvenile Probation Officers. It is a professional yet concise way of showcasing your accomplishments in a format that allows your reader to (hopefully) select you above all other resumes in the stack and either create a positive situation that produces a phone call (for an thesis chris pearson interviewer) or a handshake and a contract. In addition to dictatorship topics, your paper resume, we will also be digging into the additional parts that you can use to sell your unique individual brand, your website and your social media presence to identify how you can create unique and eye catching experiences that will be sure to land you in front of thesis chris pearson, your future employer. Your Cover Letter is generally one of, if not the first thing that someone sees when reviewing materials.
Cover Letters should be crafted not only to provide a positive and well-rounded picture of you, but they should also provide knowledge that you have done a little bit homework about the easy position in which you are applying. Thesis Pearson. Anyone can take a look at a Cover Letter and tell if it's a generic letter or not. When hand mailing (or emailing) Cover Letters, they should always be addressed to the Superintendent and how to write an essay book, be professional. When attending a job fair, it is recommended that while prepping for the fair and thesis chris, seeking who will be there, create a cover letter for a few specific schools you know you will be interviewing at, but always have the an essay basic generic one in your pocket for those schools you might not have planned to thesis, meet. Should you put your Cover Letter on of responsibility, special paper? I think it's a good idea to chris pearson, do this when meeting people face to face, but the Analysis majority of your Cover Letters will probably be sent electronically. Keep it simple Keep it Professional Spell Check #8230; Spell Check #8230; Spell Check Point out some key spots in your resume that you want to draw their attention to. Thesis Pearson. If your Cover Letter succeeds where you need it to, your Resume is the next item that should be designed to sell you above all others. The trick to dictatorship, any good Resume is brevity.
It's easy to take a career, (short or long) and write a 6 page resume. The problem is that nobody will take the time to read it. Your resume should be one page. Thesis Chris. Where we can debate on if this means one full sheet (front and back) or just a single side of a sheet is something we can leave for another blog post, it is important to craft, not write your resume. A resume has a single purpose. It is a document designed to essay topics, get your interviewer to bring up conversation topics.
Normally, in an interview situation, your resume is in front of the pearson person across the table and as they are going through their list of generic questions, they are looking through your resume trying to get you to talk about essays probation your experiences. You don't have list everything you did on your resume, but you do have to make sure they see what you want them to see. There are a few standard sections to every resume. These may include: Experiences, Awards and thesis chris, Recognitions, Background info, and Contacts. As with your Cover Letter, I suggest tailoring every resume to the position you are applying for. In our age of digital and paper resumes, you may choose to write, have two different #8220;paper#8221; resumes. One that you hand to someone on actual paper, and then one that is sent as a PDF. The difference being that the chris pearson digital document may include clickable hyperlinks to your online portfolio or other types of media you wish to bring attention to.
Use your professional name . ETL Functional. . . James, not Jim is chris, always best. Professional Emails and Websites are always a step ahead of an essay book, #8220;@gmail#8221; or #8220;sites.google.com/#8230;#8221; Don't write in words that would not make sense to others. If you are a manager, call yourself a manager. Chris Pearson. Do not add titles that make someone question what they are. We are now living in writeing servece, a world where having an online destination is no longer an chris option for many Click To Tweet.
Before we go into answering the above question, take a moment and say these sentences out loud a few times: Would you like to see my website? Would you like to see my portfolio? Would you like to see my CV? Depending on the position you are applying for, you may choose a different one of these options to dictatorship essay topics, be your favorite. For example, when I'm talking about TeacherCast, I share my #8220;website.#8221; When someone is asking for a professional version of my past accomplishments, I share my #8220;portfolio.#8221; However, as a musician and musical professional, I would offer you the opportunity to take a look at thesis my Curriculum Vitae #8220;CV.#8221; Here are three examples of thinking nursing, looking at similar information online: These three items are slightly different yet based on the person or potential employer I'm speaking with, I would give them a different place to thesis chris pearson, learn more about my background.
The important thing to remember is that we are now living in a world where having an online destination is no longer an option for many jobs. Essays On Juvenile Officers. If you are looking to get hired in a place that relies primarily on Google Apps your website might be well suited on a Google Sites. Pearson. If you are looking at a place that is Microsoft heavy, having your background info on how to an essay on a, a SWAY might not be a bad idea. Purchase your own domain name (yourname.com) Create a story with your content that walks a reader through your story. Have a clear call to action that attracts others to thesis pearson, you above all others they are researching. Easy. One of the most important things you can do (in my opinion) is take time to figure out how Social Media works.
I'm not saying that you must create the most popular twitter account on the planet, but simply by having a twitter account and learning how to thesis chris pearson, take advantage of how it works is one of the most important parts of being an educator these days. Thinking. Twitter can and really should be thought of the worlds largest professional development converence on the planet that never goes to sleep. Thesis Chris. By learning about hashtags, you can not only start to see the world as an ever changing digital library but you will learn how to find just about any resource you need. My advice for anyone in education is to not attack social media, but learn how to essay, use it to your advantage. Figure out chris, what hashtags fit your subject area. Easy Writeing Servece. Learn the differences between a Facebook page and a Twitter profile.
Learn the thesis importance of joining a Google Plus community. All of these things are important parts of easy servece, your PLN and can ultimatly lead you to pearson, finding new opportunities to share your resume. Get a Twitter account and follow a few hashtags Join a Google Plus community #8230; or better yet, START ONE Connect with others in your field and share resources Don't be afraid to ask questions of those you don't know . . . they just may turn out to be life long friends. What really matters in the end is essay topics, . . . What really matters in the end is that you are comfortble with the documents you use while searching for thesis chris pearson, your next career opportunity. It is often said that you never know when your next interview will happen. I have been fortunate over the last few years to have several amazing opportunities put in Analysis, front of pearson, me without the need for a traditional paper resume and based mostly on my social and how to write on a book, digital portfolios. Thesis Chris Pearson. It can not be over stated that you should take every advantage you can to showcase your talents on every platform available. Remember, these platforms are (just about) free and you should never past up opportunities to take advantage of FREE.
What do you think #8230; please share your thoughts! I would love to teach nursing, know what you think on this topic. I'm sure you might agree with some of what is written here and I'm sure you might disagree with some of thesis pearson, these items. Personally, I have never been a position to really hire someone in a professional position. However, I have been asked to how to write an essay book, be on hireing committies where I had the chris pearson opportunity to look over resumes and provide my opinion on essay nowadays lack the sense of responsibility, someones potential to fill an open position. Please take a moment below and thesis chris pearson, leave a comment on how to on a book, your thoughts on this very important topic. How Education Technology Is Preparing Students For The Workforce Of Tomorrow.
Social Movements and the Classroom: A Conversation with TJ Whitaker | @NJEA. The Recovery Process: How Houstons School District Plans on Moving Forward. One additional piece of advice to everything above; less is more. When in doubt, leave it out. You can surely bring it up in your interview.
If you don#8217;t keep things to thesis chris, the point (one-page resume, one-page letter), you#8217;re going to lose attention and increase your chances of your materials making the circular file.
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essay on thesis chris pearson primitivism No one should ever work. Work is the source of nearly all the misery in the world. Almost any evil you'd care to name comes from working or from living in of responsibility a world designed for work. In order to stop suffering, we have to stop working. That doesn't mean we have to stop doing things. It does mean creating a new way of life based on play; in other words, a *ludic* conviviality, commensality, and maybe even art. Thesis! There is more to play than child's play, as worthy as that is. I call for write on a a collective adventure in generalized joy and freely interdependent exuberance. Play isn't passive.
Doubtless we all need a lot more time for sheer sloth and slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of income or occupation, but once recovered from employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of us want to act. Pearson! Oblomovism and Stakhanovism are two sides of the same debased coin. The ludic life is totally incompatible with existing reality. So much the worse for reality, the write an essay gravity hole that sucks the vitality from the little in life that still distinguishes it from mere survival. Curiously -- or maybe not -- all the old ideologies are conservative because they believe in work. Some of them, like Marxism and most brands of anarchism, believe in work all the more fiercely because they believe in so little else. Liberals say we should end employment discrimination.
I say we should end employment. Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Following Karl Marx's wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue I support the right to be lazy. Leftists favor full employment. Thesis Chris! Like the surrealists -- except that I'm not kidding -- I favor full *un*employment. Nowadays Lack The Sense! Trotskyists agitate for permanent revolution. I agitate for permanent revelry.
But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work -- and not only because they plan to make other people do theirs -- they are strangely reluctant to say so. They will carry on chris endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. They'll gladly talk about anything but work itself. These experts who offer to do our thinking for write an essay book us rarely share their conclusions about work, for thesis chris pearson all its saliency in the lives of all of us. Among themselves they quibble over teach nursing, the details. Unions and chris, management agree that we ought to sell the time of our lives in teach thinking nursing exchange for survival, although they haggle over the price. Chris! Marxists think we should be bossed by bureaucrats.
Libertarians think we should be bossed by easy writeing businessmen. Feminists don't care which form bossing takes so long as the bosses are women. Thesis Chris! Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over how to divvy up the spoils of teach critical nursing, power. Just as clearly, none of them have any objection to power as such and all of them want to keep us working. You may be wondering if I'm joking or serious. I'm joking *and* serious. To be ludic is thesis chris pearson not to be ludicrous. Play doesn't have to be frivolous, although frivolity isn't triviality: very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. I'd like life to be a game -- but a game with high stakes.
I want to play *for* *keeps*. The alternative to work isn't just idleness. To be ludic is not to be quaaludic. As much as I treasure the nowadays lack the sense pleasure of torpor, it's never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the managed time-disciplined safety-valve called leisure; far from thesis chris, it. Leisure is nonwork for the sake of work. Analysis! Leisure is the time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to forget about work. Many people return from vacation so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. The main difference between work and thesis chris pearson, leisure is that work at least you get paid for your alienation and enervation. I am not playing definitional games with anybody.
When I say I want to abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to say what I mean by defining my terms in non-idiosyncratic ways. My minimum definition of work is *forced* *labor*, that is, compulsory production. Both elements are essential. Essay Topics! Work is production enforced by economic or political means, by the carrot or the stick. (The carrot is just the stick by thesis other means.) But not all creation is work. Work is critical thinking never done for its own sake, it's done on account of some product or output that the worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of it. This is what work necessarily is.
To define it is to despise it. But work is usually even worse than its definition decrees. The dynamic of thesis chris, domination intrinsic to work tends over time toward elaboration. Dictatorship Essay! In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist of Communist, work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness. Usually -- and this is thesis chris pearson even more true in on juvenile probation officers Communist than capitalist countries, where the state is almost the only employer and everyone is an employee -- work is employment, i. e., wage-labor, which means selling yourself on the installment plan. Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for somebody (or some*thing*) else. In the USSR or Cuba or Yugoslavia or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the embattled Third World peasant bastions -- Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey -- temporarily shelter significant concentrations of agriculturists who perpetuate the traditional arrangement of most laborers in the last several millenia, the payment of taxes (= ransom) to the state or rent to parasitic landlords in chris return for being otherwise left alone.
Even this raw deal is beginning to look good. *All* industrial (and office) workers are employees and under the sort of surveillance which ensures servility. But modern work has worse implications. People don't just work, they have jobs. Essays Probation Officers! One person does one productive task all the time on an or-else basis. Even if the task has a quantum of intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don't) the thesis monotony of its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential.
A job that might engage the energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for the fun of it, is topics just a burden on those who have to do it for forty hours a week with no say in how it should be done, for the profit of owners who contribute nothing to the project, and with no opportunity for thesis sharing tasks or spreading the work among those who actually have to do it. This is the real world of work: a world of bureaucratic blundering, of sexual harassment and discrimination, of bonehead bosses exploiting and scapegoating their subordinates who -- by any rational-technical criteria -- should be calling the shots. But capitalism in the real world subordinates the rational maximization of productivity and ETL Functional, profit to the exigencies of organizational control. The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the sum of assorted indignities which can be denominated as discipline. Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is simple enough. Thesis Chris! Discipline consists of the totality of totalitarian controls at the workplace -- surveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching -in and -out, etc.
Discipline is what the factory and the office and the store share with the prison and the school and the mental hospital. It is something historically original and horrible. It was beyond the capacities of such demonic dictators of easy servece, yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and Ivan the Terrible. For all their bad intentions they just didn't have the machinery to control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do. Discipline is the distinctively diabolical modern mode of control, it is an innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at the earliest opportunity. Such is work. Pearson! Play is how to write an essay on a just the opposite. Play is always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is work if it's forced. This is axiomatic.
Bernie de Koven has defined play as the suspension of thesis chris, consequences. This is unacceptable if it implies that play is inconsequential. The point is nowadays lack of responsibility not that play is without consequences. This is to demean play. The point is that the thesis chris pearson consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Dictatorship! Playing and giving are closely related, they are the behavioral and transactional facets of the same impulse, the play-instinct. They share an aristocratic disdain for results. The player gets something out of playing; that's why he plays.
But the core reward is the experience of the activity itself (whatever it is). Some otherwise attentive students of play, like Johan Huizinga (*Homo* *Ludens*), *define* it as game-playing or following rules. Thesis Chris Pearson! I respect Huizinga's erudition but emphatically reject his constraints. There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is teach thinking much more to play than game-playing. Conversation, sex, dancing, travel -- these practices aren't rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is. And rules can be *played* *with* at least as readily as anything else. Work makes a mockery of freedom.
The official line is that we all have rights and live in a democracy. Chris! Other unfortunates who aren't free like we are have to live in police states. These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. Dictatorship Topics! State bureaucrats control even the smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Either way, dissent and disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to the authorities. All this is supposed to be a very bad thing.
And so it is, although it is nothing but a description of the modern workplace. The liberals and conservatives and libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and thesis chris, hypocrites. There is more freedom in any moderately deStalinized dictatorship than there is in the ordinary American workplace. Teach Thinking Nursing! You find the same sort of hierarchy and discipline in an office or factory as you do in thesis pearson a prison or monastery. In fact, as Foucault and others have shown, prisons and factories came in at about the same time, and their operators consciously borrowed from each other's control techniques. Dictatorship Essay Topics! A worker is a par-time slave. The boss says when to show up, when to leave, and what to do in the meantime. He tells you how much work to do and how fast.
He is free to thesis chris carry his control to humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the clothes you wear or how often you go to the bathroom. With a few exceptions he can fire you for any reason, or no reason. He has you spied on by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on officers every employee. Talking back is pearson called insubordination, just as if a worker is a naughty child, and it not only how to write an essay book gets you fired, it disqualifies you for unemployment compensation. Without necessarily endorsing it for thesis chris pearson them either, it is easy servece noteworthy that children at home and in school receive much the same treatment, justified in their case by their supposed immaturity.
What does this say about their parents and teachers who work? The demeaning system of domination I've described rules over half the waking hours of a majority of women and thesis pearson, the vast majority of men for essay teenagers nowadays lack the sense of responsibility decades, for chris most of essays on juvenile probation officers, their lifespans. Thesis Chris Pearson! For certain purposes it's not too misleading to call our system democracy or capitalism or -- better still -- industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and office oligarchy. Anybody who says these people are free is lying or stupid. You are what you do. If you do boring, stupid monotonous work, chances are you'll end up boring, stupid and monotonous. Work is a much better explanation for the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. People who are regimented all their lives, handed off to ETL Functional Analysis work from thesis chris, school and bracketed by teach critical thinking nursing the family in the beginning and the nursing home at the end, are habituated to thesis heirarchy and psychologically enslaved. Their aptitude for autonomy is so atrophied that their fear of freedom is among their few rationally grounded phobias. Their obedience training at work carries over into the families *they* start, thus reproducing the essay lack system in more ways than one, and into politics, culture and everything else.
Once you drain the vitality from people at work, they'll likely submit to heirarchy and thesis, expertise in everything. They're used to teenagers lack it. We are so close to the world of thesis chris, work that we can't see what it does to us. We have to rely on essays on juvenile outside observers from other times or other cultures to appreciate the extremity and the pathology of our present position. Thesis Chris Pearson! There was a time in our own past when the work ethic would have been incomprehensible, and perhaps Weber was on to something when he tied its appearance to a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of four centuries ago would immediately and essay, appropriately be labeled a cult.
Be that as it may, we have only to thesis chris draw upon the wisdom of antiquity to put work in perspective. Easy Writeing! The ancients saw work for what it is, and their view prevailed, the Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by industrialism -- but not before receiving the endorsement of its prophets. Let's pretend for a moment that work doesn't turn people into stultified submissives. Let's pretend, in defiance of any plausible psychology and the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on the formation of character. And let's pretend that work isn't as boring and tiring and humiliating as we all know it really is. Even then, work would *still* make a mockery of all humanistic and democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of our time. Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and thesis pearson, bad citizens because they have no time to fulfill the probation officers responsibilities of friendship and citizenship. Thesis! He was right.
Because of work, no matter what we do we keep looking at out watches. The only thing free about so-called free time is that it doesn't cost the boss anything. Free time is ETL Functional Analysis mostly devoted to getting ready for thesis work, going to work, returning from work, and ETL Functional Analysis, recovering from work. Free time is a euphemism for the peculiar way labor as a factor of chris, production not only transports itself at its own expense to and from the workplace but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and repair. Coal and steel don't do that. Lathes and typewriters don't do that. Analysis! But workers do. No wonder Edward G. Pearson! Robinson in one of ETL Functional, his gangster movies exclaimed, Work is for saps! Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and obviously share with him an awareness of the destructive effects of work on the worker as a citizen and a human being. Herodotus identified contempt for work as an attribute of the classical Greeks at the zenith of their culture. To take only one Roman example, Cicero said that whoever gives his labor for money sells himself and puts himself in the rank of chris pearson, slaves.
His candor is essay nowadays the sense now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to chris look down upon have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists. The Kapauku of West Irian, according to Posposil, have a conception of balance in life and accordingly work only every other day, the day of rest designed to how to write on a regain the chris lost power and health. Our ancestors, even as late as the eighteenth century when they were far along the path to our present predicament, at least were aware of what we have forgotten, the underside of industrialization. Their religious devotion to St. Monday -- thus establishing a *de* *facto* five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration -- was the despair of the earliest factory owners. They took a long time in submitting to the tyranny of the bell, predecessor of the time clock. In fact it was necessary for a generation or two to replace adult males with women accustomed to obedience and children who could be molded to fit industrial needs.
Even the exploited peasants of the *ancien* *regime* wrested substantial time back from their landlord's work. According to Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants' calendar was devoted to Sundays and holidays, and Chayanov's figures from villages in Czarist Russia -- hardly a progressive society -- likewise show a fourth or fifth of peasants' days devoted to repose. Controlling for productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies. The exploited *muzhiks* would wonder why any of us are working at all. So should we. To grasp the write on a full enormity of our deterioration, however, consider the earliest condition of humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Chris Pearson! Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and short. Topics! Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and disaster awaiting the unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the struggle for existence. Actually, that was all a projection of fears for the collapse of government authority over communities unaccustomed to doing without it, like the England of Hobbes during the thesis chris pearson Civil War. Hobbes' compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of society which illustrated other ways of life -- in North America, particularly -- but already these were too remote from their experience to be understandable. (The lower orders, closer to the condition of the Indians, understood it better and often found it attractive. Essay Nowadays Lack Of Responsibility! Throughout the seventeenth century, English settlers defected to Indian tribes or, captured in war, refused to return.
But the thesis pearson Indians no more defected to white settlements than Germans climb the easy writeing servece Berlin Wall from the west.) The survival of the chris pearson fittest version -- the Thomas Huxley version -- of Darwinism was a better account of economic conditions in Victorian England than it was of dictatorship essay topics, natural selection, as the anarchist Kropotkin showed in his book *Mutual* *Aid,* *A* *Factor* *of* *Evolution*. Pearson! (Kropotkin was a scientist -- a geographer -- who'd had ample involuntary opportunity for fieldwork whilst exiled in Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the story Hobbes and how to an essay book, his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography. The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the thesis chris data on contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the easy writeing servece Hobbesian myth in an article entitled The Original Affluent Society. Pearson! They work a lot less than we do, and their work is hard to distinguish from essays officers, what we regard as play. Thesis Pearson! Sahlins concluded that hunters and gatherers work less than we do; and rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is a greater amount of sleep in the daytime per capita per year than in ETL Functional Analysis any other condition of society. They worked an average of four hours a day, assuming they were working at all. Their labor, as it appears to thesis us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on any large scale, as Sahlins says, is impossible except under industrialism.
Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller's definition of play, the only occasion on which man realizes his complete humanity by giving full play to both sides of servece, his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: The animal *works* when deprivation is the mainspring of its activity, and thesis chris pearson, it *plays* when the fullness of its strength is dictatorship essay this mainspring, when superabundant life is its own stimulus to activity. (A modern version -- dubiously developmental -- is Abraham Maslow's counterposition of deficiency and growth motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in the productivist pantheon, observed that the realm of freedom does not commence until the point is passed where labor under the compulsion of necessity and external utility is required. He never could quite bring himself to identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the thesis pearson abolition of work -- it's rather anomalous, after all, to be pro-worker and anti-work -- but we can. The aspiration to go backwards or forwards to ETL Functional Analysis a life without work is evident in every serious social or cultural history of pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Dorothy George's *England* In* *Transition* and Peter Burke's *Popular* *Culture* *in* *Early* *Modern* *Europe*. Thesis Pearson! Also pertinent is Daniel Bell's essay, Work and its Discontents, the first text, I believe, to refer to the revolt against work in so many words and, had it been understood, an easy, important correction to the complacency ordinarily associated with the volume in which it was collected, *The* *End* *of* *Ideology*. Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell's end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the end of social unrest but the thesis chris beginning of a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and uninformed by ideology. It was Seymour Lipset (in *Political* *Man*), not Bell, who announced at the same time that the fundamental problems of the topics Industrial Revolution have been solved, only a few years before the post- or meta-industrial discontents of college students drove Lipset from UC Berkeley to the relative (and temporary) tranquility of Harvard. As Bell notes, Adam Smith in *The* *Wealth* *of* *Nations*, for all his enthusiasm for thesis pearson the market and servece, the division of thesis, labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the seamy side of ETL Functional Analysis, work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of Smith's modern epigones. As Smith observed: The understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments. The man whose life is spent in performing a few simple operations. has no occasion to exert his understanding.
He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. Chris! Here, in a few blunt words, is my critique of work. Bell, writing in 1956, the dictatorship Golden Age of Eisenhower imbecility and thesis pearson, American self-satisfaction, identified the unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the 1970's and easy writeing servece, since, the one no political tendency is able to harness, the one identified in HEW's report *Work* *in* *America*, the one which cannot be exploited and so is ignored. That problem is the revolt against work. It does not figure in any text by any laissez-faire economist -- Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner -- because, in their terms, as they used to say on *Star* *Trek*, it does not compute. If these objections, informed by pearson the love of liberty, fail to ETL Functional persuade humanists of thesis, a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Work is hazardous to your health, to borrow a book title. Analysis! In fact, work is mass murder or genocide. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the chris pearson people who read these words. Between 14,000 and ETL Functional, 25,000 workers are killed annually in this country on the job. Over two million are disabled.
Twenty to twenty-five million are injured every year. And these figures are based on a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. Thus they don't count the thesis half million cases of occupational disease every year. I looked at one medical textbook on occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long. Even this barely scratches the writeing servece surface. The available statistics count the obvious cases like the 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of whom 4,000 die every year, a much higher fatality rate than for AIDS, for instance, which gets so much media attention.
This reflects the pearson unvoiced assumption that AIDS afflicts perverts who could control their depravity whereas coal-mining is a sacrosanct activity beyond question. What the statistics don't show is that tens of millions of people have heir lifespans shortened by work -- which is all that homicide means, after all. Consider the doctors who work themselves to death in teach thinking their 50's. Consider all the other workaholics. Even if you aren't killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to work, coming from work, looking for work, or trying to forget about work. The vast majority of victims of the automobile are either doing one of these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of those who do them.
To this augmented body-count must be added the thesis chris pearson victims of auto-industrial pollution and work-induced alcoholism and drug addiction. Both cancer and heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly, or indirectly, to work. Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of writeing servece, life. People think the Cambodians were crazy for exterminating themselves, but are we any different? The Pol Pot regime at chris pearson least had a vision, however blurred, of an egalitarian society. We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in order to sell Big Macs and Cadillacs to the survivors. Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs.
They died for nothing -- or rather, they died for ETL Functional work. But work is nothing to die for. Bad news for thesis chris liberals: regulatory tinkering is essay topics useless in pearson this life-and-death context. The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration was designed to police the core part of the problem, workplace safety. Even before Reagan and the Supreme Court stifled it, OSHA was a farce. Nowadays Lack Of Responsibility! At previous and (by current standards) generous Carter-era funding levels, a workplace could expect a random visit from an OSHA inspector once every 46 years. State control of the economy is no solution. Work is, if anything, more dangerous in the state-socialist countries than it is here. Thesis! Thousands of how to an essay on a book, Russian workers were killed or injured building the Moscow subway.
Stories reverberate about covered-up Soviet nuclear disasters which make Times Beach and Three-Mile Island look like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won't help and will probably hurt. From a health and safety standpoint, among others, work was at its worst in the days when the economy most closely approximated laissez-faire. Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively that -- as antebellum slavery apologists insisted -- factory wage-workers in the Northern American states and in Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves. No rearrangement of relations among bureaucrats and businessmen seems to make much difference at the point of production.
Serious enforcement of even the rather vague standards enforceable in theory by OSHA would probably bring the economy to a standstill. Chris! The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don't even try to crack down on most malefactors. What I've said so far ought not to be controversial. Many workers are fed up with work. Essay Teenagers Lack! There are high and rising rates of thesis chris pearson, absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and ETL Functional Analysis, sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on thesis chris the job. There may be some movement toward a conscious and not just visceral rejection of work. And yet the prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and dictatorship essay, their agents and also widespread among workers themselves is that work itself is inevitable and necessary. I disagree. Chris Pearson! It is now possible to abolish work and replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of how to an essay, free activities. To abolish work requires going at it from chris pearson, two directions, quantitative and qualitative. On the how to an essay one hand, on thesis chris pearson the quantitative side, we have to cut down massively on the amount of work being done.
At present most work is useless or worse and we should simply get rid of it. On the other hand -- and I think this the crux of the matter and the revolutionary new departure -- we have to take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of game-like and craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from other pleasurable pastimes, except that they happen to yield useful end-products. Surely that shouldn't make them *less* enticing to do. How To Write! Then all the thesis chris artificial barriers of power and property could come down. Creation could become recreation. And we could all stop being afraid of each other.
I don't suggest that most work is salvageable in this way. But then most work isn't worth trying to save. Nowadays Of Responsibility! Only a small and diminishing fraction of work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and reproduction of the work-system and its political and thesis chris, legal appendages. Twenty years ago, Paul and Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the work then being done -- presumably the figure, if accurate, is lower now -- would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing, and shelter. Theirs was only an educated guess but the main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of book, commerce or social control. Right off the bat we can liberate tens of millions of salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and everyone who works for them. There is thesis pearson a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkeys and ETL Functional, underlings also. Thus the economy *implodes*. Forty percent of the thesis chris pearson workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the most tedious and idiotic jobs ever concocted. Entire industries, insurance and banking and real estate for instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. Essay! It is no accident that the tertiary sector, the service sector, is growing while the secondary sector (industry) stagnates and the primary sector (agriculture) nearly disappears.
Because work is unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from relatively useful to thesis chris pearson relatively useless occupations as a measure to assure public order. Anything is better than nothing. Write On A Book! That's why you can't go home just because you finish early. Thesis! They want your *time*, enough of it to make you theirs, even if they have no use for most of it. Otherwise why hasn't the average work week gone down by more than a few minutes in the past fifty years?
Next we can take a meat-cleaver to production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant -- and above all, no more auto industry to servece speak of. An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model-T might be all right, but the auto-eroticism on which such pestholes as Detroit and Los Angeles depend on is out of the question. Already, without even trying, we've virtually solved the energy crisis, the environmental crisis and assorted other insoluble social problems. Finally, we must do away with far and away the largest occupation, the chris one with the longest hours, the teach critical nursing lowest pay and some of the most tedious tasks around. I refer to *housewives* doing housework and child-rearing. By abolishing wage-labor and achieving full unemployment we undermine the sexual division of pearson, labor. The nuclear family as we know it is an inevitable adaptation to the division of labor imposed by modern wage-work.
Like it or not, as things have been for the last century or two it is dictatorship economically rational for the man to bring home the bacon, for the woman to do the shitwork to provide him with a haven in a heartless world, and for the children to be marched off to youth concentration camps called schools, primarily to keep them out of Mom's hair but still under control, but incidentally to chris pearson acquire the habits of obedience and punctuality so necessary for workers. Essays Officers! If you would be rid of patriarchy, get rid of the nuclear family whose unpaid shadow work, as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the work-system that makes *it* necessary. Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the abolition of childhood and the closing of the schools. There are more full-time students than full-time workers in this country. We need children as teachers, not students.
They have a lot to contribute to the ludic revolution because they're better at chris playing than grown-ups are. Essay Teenagers Lack! Adults and children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence. Only play can bridge the chris pearson generation gap. I haven't as yet even mentioned the possibility of write an essay on a book, cutting way down on the little work that remains by automating and cybernizing it. All the scientists and engineers and technicians freed from pearson, bothering with war research and planned obsolescence would have a good time devising means to eliminate fatigue and tedium and danger from activities like mining. Undoubtedly they'll find other projects to amuse themselves with. Perhaps they'll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies.
Perhaps. I myself am no gadget freak. I wouldn't care to live in a pushbutton paradise. I don't what robot slaves to do everything; I want to nowadays do things myself. There is, I think, a place for labor-saving technology, but a modest place. Thesis Chris Pearson! The historical and pre-historical record is essays probation not encouraging. When productive technology went from hunting-gathering to agriculture and on to industry, work increased while skills and self-determination diminished. Thesis Pearson! The further evolution of industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the teach critical degradation of work. Intelligent observers have always been aware of this. Thesis Chris Pearson! John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven't saved a moment's labor. Karl Marx wrote that it would be possible to write a history of the inventions, made since 1830, for the sole purpose of supplying capital with weapons against the revolts of the working class.
The enthusiastic technophiles -- Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B. F. Skinner -- have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to say, technocrats. On Juvenile! We should be more than sceptical about the chris pearson promises of the computer mystics. *They* work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the rest of ETL Functional Analysis, us. But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to thesis chris pearson human purposes than the run of high tech, let's give them a hearing. What I really want to see is essays probation officers work turned into chris pearson, play. A first step is to discard the notions of a job and Analysis, an occupation.
Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of it by being reduced to chris jobs which certain people, and only those people are forced to on juvenile do to the exclusion of all else. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in their gardens? Under a system of thesis chris, permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. Probation Officers! There won't be any more jobs, just things to pearson do and people to do them. The secret of turning work into play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to on juvenile officers arrange useful activities to take advantage of whatever it is that various people at various times in fact enjoy doing. To make it possible for some people to pearson do the things they could enjoy it will be enough just to eradicate the dictatorship essay irrationalities and distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to thesis work. Critical Nursing! I, for instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don't want coerced students and I don't care to suck up to pathetic pedants for tenure.
Second, there are some things that people like to do from time to time, but not for too long, and certainly not all the time. You might enjoy baby-sitting for a few hours in order to share the thesis company of kids, but not as much as their parents do. The parents meanwhile, profoundly appreciate the time to themselves that you free up for them, although they'd get fretful if parted from their progeny for too long. These differences among individuals are what make a life of free play possible. The same principle applies to easy many other areas of activity, especially the primal ones. Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at their leisure, but not when they're just fueling up human bodies for thesis pearson work. Third -- other things being equal -- some things that are unsatisfying if done by yourself or in unpleasant surroundings or at the orders of an overlord are enjoyable, at least for a while, if these circumstances are changed. This is probably true, to some extent, of all work. People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to easy writeing make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Activities that appeal to some people don't always appeal to all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of interests and an interest in variety.
As the saying goes, anything once. Fourier was the thesis pearson master at speculating how aberrant and perverse penchants could be put to use in post-civilized society, what he called Harmony. He thought the Emperor Nero would have turned out ETL Functional all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for bloodshed by working in thesis chris a slaughterhouse. How To Book! Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in filth could be organized in Little Hordes to clean toilets and empty the garbage, with medals awarded to the outstanding. I am not arguing for these precise examples but for the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an overall revolutionary transformation. Bear in mind that we don't have to chris take today's work just as we find it and match it up with the proper people, some of whom would have to be perverse indeed. Teach Critical! If technology has a role in thesis chris all this it is less to automate work out of existence than to open up new realms for re/creation. To some extent we may want to return to handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and desirable upshot of communist revolution. Art would be taken back from the snobs and essay, collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to an elite audience, and its qualities of beauty and thesis, creation restored to integral life from dictatorship essay topics, which they were stolen by work.
It's a sobering thought that the grecian urns we write odes about and showcase in museums were used in their own time to store olive oil. Thesis! I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in the future, if there is one. The point is that there's no such thing as progress in the world of work; if anything it's just the opposite. We shouldn't hesitate to write an essay pilfer the past for what it has to offer, the chris pearson ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched. The reinvention of teach nursing, daily life means marching off the edge of our maps. There is, it is true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect. Besides Fourier and Morris -- and even a hint, here and thesis, there, in Marx -- there are the writings of Kropotkin, the syndicalists Pataud and Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and new (Bookchin). The Goodman brothers' *Communitas* is exemplary for illustrating what forms follow from given functions (purposes), and there is something to be gleaned from the essay often hazy heralds of alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines. The situationists -- as represented by Vaneigem's *Revolution* *of* *Daily* *Life* and in the *Situationist* *International* *Anthology* -- are so ruthlessly lucid as to be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the endorsement of the rule of the worker's councils with the abolition of thesis chris, work. Better their incongruity, though than any extant version of leftism, whose devotees look to be the last champions of work, for if there were no work there would be no workers, and without workers, who would the left have to organize?
So the abolitionists would be largely on their own. ETL Functional! No one can say what would result from unleashing the creative power stultified by work. Chris! Anything can happen. Dictatorship Topics! The tiresome debater's problem of freedom vs. necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the production of use-values is coextensive with the consumption of delightful play-activity. Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not -- as it is now - -- a zero/sum game. An optimal sexual encounter is the paradigm of chris pearson, productive play, The participants potentiate each other's pleasures, nobody keeps score, and everybody wins. The more you give, the more you get. Dictatorship! In the ludic life, the best of sex will diffuse into the better part of daily life. Generalized play leads to pearson the libidinization of ETL Functional, life. Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and desperate, more playful. If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of life than we put into it; but only if we play for chris pearson keeps.
No one should ever work. On Juvenile Probation Officers! Workers of the world. *relax*!
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Idle parenting means happy children. 12:01AM GMT 16 Feb 2008. Cancel all clubs, ditch the after-school activities and leave those kids alone, urges Tom Hodgkinson. An unhealthy dose of the work ethic is threatening to wreck childhood. Under a tyrannical work-obsessed government, years that should be devoted to thesis chris play and joyful learning are being stifled by targets and tests. Leisure time is being invaded by the commercial and escapist virtual worlds of the computer. Pushy parents don't help by making childhood a stress-filled time of how to on a, striving and competing. Our children's days are crammed full with activities: ballet, judo, tennis, piano, sport, art projects. At home they are entertained by giant screens and computers. In between, they are strapped into cars and made to listen to educational tapes. Ambitious mothers force hours of homework on bewildered 10-year-olds, hanging the abstract fear of future employers over chris pearson, their heads.
Then they buy them a Nintendo Wii, the dictatorship topics, absurd, costly gadget that's supposed to bring some element of physicality to computer games. It's only a matter of thesis, time before children have their own BlackBerrys. I think of the New Yorker cartoon of two kids in a playground, each staring at a personal organiser and one saying: I can fit you in for unscheduled play next Thursday at four. All these activities impose a huge burden of cost and time on the already harried parent. They leave no room for simply mucking about.
They have the other unwelcome side effect of making the children incapable of looking after themselves. When they are stimulated by outside agencies, whether that be course leader, computer or television, they lose the easy, ability to create their own games. They forget how to play. I recall when our eldest child, a victim of chronic over-stimulation by his anxious parents, screamed I need some entertainment! during a bored moment. A chilling comment, particularly from thesis chris, a five-year-old. Teenagers Of Responsibility. What now? What next? These are the questions our hyper-stimulated kids will ask.
What has happened to their own imagination? There is a way out of thesis chris, this over-zealous parenting trap, a simple solution that will make your life easier and cheaper. Writeing Servece. It will make your kids' lives more enjoyable and thesis chris pearson also will help to produce happy, self-sufficient children, who can create their own lives without depending on a Mummy substitute. I call it idle parenting and our mantra is: Leave them alone. The welcome discovery that a lazy parent is a good parent took root when I read the following passage from a DH Lawrence essay, Education of the People, published in 1918: How to begin to educate a child. First rule: leave him alone. Second rule: leave him alone. Teach Critical Thinking Nursing. Third rule: leave him alone. That is the whole beginning. To the busy modern parent, this idea seems counter-intuitive.
Aren't we always told to do more, not less? All parents have a nagging sense that somehow we are doing it all wrong and that more work needs to be done. But the problem is that we put too much work into parenting, not too little. By interfering a lot, we are not letting children grow up and learn themselves. The child who has been overprotected will not know how to look after himself. We are too much in thesis pearson, children's faces. We need to retreat. Essays Officers. Let them live.
Welcome to the school of thesis chris, inactive parenting. It's a win-win situation: less work for you and better for the child, both in terms of enjoying everyday life and also for self-reliance and independence. Teach Critical Thinking Nursing. I am not advocating slobbish neglect. (Maybe I went too far with my idle parenting when I dozed off on the sofa in front of the woodburning stove, while doing the childcare, as the ugly modern phrase has it, to be woken by the screams of a toddler who had placed his hands squarely on the hot metal and thesis chris pearson burned his fingertips.) Clearly we don't let our children jump out of nowadays lack the sense of responsibility, windows or go about chris pearson, with unchanged nappies. There is carefree and there is Analysis, careless, and there is a difference. But to create a household free of care would be a wonderful thing. It has become obvious to thesis chris me, watching our three children grow up, that the more they have been ignored, the better. Dictatorship Topics. The eldest had a surfeit of anxious parental supervision and is still the trickiest and most needy (although we're working on it). Thesis Chris. The second had a little less attention and she is dictatorship topics, more self-sufficient. The third was born on the bathroom floor and has had to thesis pearson get on with his own life. Analysis. And he is perhaps the best of all three at playing. Certainly he is the most comical.
The great thing about children is that they like being busy. Since parents like being lazy, it makes sense for the children to do the work. This idea was partly explored in the 19th century, when children as young as five were sent into the factories. The fact that meddlesome liberals have since introduced child labour laws does not need to prevent the idle parents exploiting their own offspring. One morning, not so long ago, V and I refused to get up.
I imagine we were hung over. At about pearson, nine o'clock, the bedroom door swung open and in walked Arthur, then six, with two cups of tea. Dictatorship Essay Topics. A lot can be achieved by lying in bed. Simply by doing nothing, you can train children to do useful things. During the last holiday, we found we were lying in thesis chris pearson, bed till 10 or 11. By abandoning our kids, they had taught themselves how to get up, make themselves breakfast and play. Paradoxically, the idle parent is a responsible parent because at easy writeing, the heart of idle parenting is thesis chris, a respect for the child, a trust in another human being. It is the irresponsible parent who hands the child over to various authorities for its education and care, whether that is childminders, schools, CBeebies or the write book, virtual world of Habbo Hotel. Or it is the parent who tries to chris pearson impose his own vision on the children and does not simply let them be.
Another great advantage of being idle is that it avoids causing resentment in the parent. There is nothing so corrosive or pestilent as resentment stewing in the breast. Imagine making all those sacrifices, putting yourself out for your children, going without, and then they go junkie on you. No, there is no room for martyrs in the world of the idle parent. Our happiness comes first.
And that is the right way round. As a cab driver said to me the other day: My kids are happy because we're happy. An Essay On A Book. Do not suffer. Enjoy your life. The idle parent is a stay-at-home parent.
Not for us costly leisure pursuits at the weekend. Thesis Chris Pearson. We reject the cheap thrills of expensive padded plastic fun palaces, zoos and write an essay book days out in thesis, general. We find fun in teenagers nowadays lack the sense of responsibility, our own backyards. We make aeroplanes out of chris, cereal packets and it's amazing how many catching and tickling games you can play with your kids while sitting on the sofa. The idle parent is dictatorship topics, a thrifty parent. Chris. We don't work too hard and teenagers nowadays lack the sense of responsibility therefore we can't expect to be rolling in cash. With thrift comes creativity. Waste is unpoetic, thrift is creative, as GK Chesterton wrote. Thesis Pearson. With no money, you start to Analysis discover your own inner resources.
You make things and draw. Put a pile of A4 paper on thesis pearson, the kitchen table, along with a stapler, scissors, crayons and teach thinking glue, and you'll be amazed at what your children come up with. Forget digital gewgaws. Thesis. Go analogue. It's more fun and a lot cheaper. Put a bird feeder outside the kitchen window. Fun does not need to easy writeing servece be expensive. We don't care about status and career advancement and how we are perceived by others. We are free of thesis pearson, all of easy servece, that rubbish. We simply want to enjoy our lives and to thesis give our children a happy childhood.
What greater gift could there be from a parent? If our children tell their friends in later life that they enjoyed their childhood, I would count that as a great achievement. Better to have a happy childhood than a high-achieving one that brings a big psychiatrist's bill in adult life. Idle parents are sociable. We recognise the importance of friends.
They lighten the burden. A myth of modern society is the ETL Functional Analysis, idea that you're on your own in this world. Instead of talking to friends and neighbours, anxious people seek advice in books, websites and internet forums. We resist asking for chris help or admitting weakness. Be weak! Give up! You can't do everything. Lower your standards.
Get friends to help you. Organise little nurseries at ETL Functional Analysis, your house where parents can chat and chris kids can play while you ignore them. I love DH Lawrence's idea of childcare. He says babies should be given to stupid fat old women who can't be bothered with them#x2026; leave the children alone. Pitch them out into essay nowadays, the streets or the thesis, playgrounds, and take no notice of them.
Do not view them as raw material to be moulded into an obedient slave for the workplace of the future. Let them play. And yes, get your friends around. Life is so much easier when the work is dictatorship essay topics, shared. Thesis. Friends bring laughter and essays officers joy. There's no sadder sight than the lone parent, pushing her child around the gloomy municipal park, trying to chris pearson tell herself that she is having a good time.
My idea of essay teenagers lack of responsibility, childcare is a large field. At one side is a marquee serving local ales. Thesis Chris. This is where the parents gather. On the other side, somewhere in the distance, the children play. I don't bother them and they don't bother me.
I give them as much freedom as possible. But the teach critical thinking, life of an idle parent is not so easy. Children do not always adapt to the anti-consumerist model that the natural parent promotes. They want stuff. Children get in your face. They make a terrible mess. They scream and thesis whine. And the mother and father seem to disagree on pretty much everything, from paint colours to mealtime manners, as a matter of teach critical thinking, marital policy. There are more worries. Is it mean to deny a child an iPod Nano for his birthday and instead give him a ball of string and The Dangerous Book for Boys? Should I really put a broadband connection in the tree house?
Should I work even harder so that they can go skiing and wear expensive trainers? Would I be less grumpy if I drank less alcohol? Sometimes we doubt our own gospel. Thesis Pearson. So over the coming weeks, I hope to nowadays the sense outline an thesis enjoyable parenting philosophy in writeing servece, Weekend, while acknowledging that it isn't always easy. I will confess my many parenting errors.
I am a disaster-prone, chaotic layabout and so should warn you not to listen to my advice. Pearson. Certainly my friends say the idea of me advising other parents on childcare is absurd. With that caveat in how to book, mind, let us go forth, throw away the rule books, forget what other people think and enjoy family life and all its joys and thesis woes. Manifesto of the idle parent. We reject the idea that parenting requires hard work We pledge to leave our children alone That should mean that they leave us alone, too We reject the rampant consumerism that invades children from the moment they are born We read them poetry and fantastic stories without morals We drink alcohol without guilt We reject the inner Puritan We fill the house with music and laughter We don't waste money on essay topics, family days out and holidays We lie in bed for as long as possible We try not to interfere We push them into thesis pearson, the garden and shut the door so that we can clean the house We both work as little as possible, particularly when the kids are small Time is more important than money Happy mess is better than miserable tidiness Down with school We fill the house with music and merriment Tom Hodgkinson is essay, editor of The Idler magazine and author of the best-selling How to be Free and How to chris be Idle. On A Book. His new column on idle parenting begins in Weekend on March 1. Feminism. What does it mean anyway? Sexual revolution? Not when it comes to the dishes.
In Family Advice. Competitive mums do battle at the school gate, survey claims. Read more from Women. The Big Short hits UK cinemas: these are the best films about business. The Big Short, the film adaptation of Michael Lewis' book of the same name about the causes of the financial crisis, opens in UK cinemas this weekend. How will the story stack up against the greatest films about business? Martin Chilton looks at quotes about matrimony from thesis chris pearson, Socrates to Sinatra.
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As the reality TV star argues that her nude photo empowers women, perhaps we can finally appreciate the pearson, radical feminist message of lads’ mags. EU referendum: From Boadicea to Mrs Pankhurst. meet the teach thinking, posthumous backers of thesis chris, Brexit. SKETCH: On International Women’s Day, an all-female Brexit campaign is launched and quickly attracts support from the young, the old, and the dead. The most intrepid women of all time. To mark International Women's Day, we look at the adventurous females who have travelled beyond the ordinary. More from the web. More from the essay nowadays, web.
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