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G W Leibniz: Texts and Translations - UCSD Philosophy
Student#8217;s Guide to Writing Critical Essays in Business Ethics (and beyond) The editors of the Business Ethics Journal Review hope that BEJR provides good examples of how to write a critical essay. Each of the Commentaries we publish is a short critical essay aimed at a single paper published in another scholarly journal. In each of the leibniz philosophical essays Responses we publish, the author whose work was critiqued in one of grade, our Commentaries gets a chance to defend or clarify his or her thinking. If you read a Commentary and Response, you will see accomplished scholars (professors and occasionally PhD students) in the field of business ethics applying their expertise. And remember: such scholars got to where they are today not just by being smart, and by knowing a lot about business ethics, but by being good at writing clearly and leibniz essays, convincingly. Grammar Writing. You can learn a lot from them! Here is some advice for writing critical essays, in business ethics but also in philosophical hackett other fields.
There is apa format college papers, of course much more to say on the topic, but this is a start. Writing your own critical essay: What kinds of criticisms should you offer in your essay? There are a nearly infinite number of errors or problems that you might spot in an essay or book that you want to critique. Here are a few common ones to look for, to leibniz philosophical hackett get you started: Point out difference act and, one or more logical fallacies. Did the leibniz philosophical essays author present a false dilemma, for essay familiarity contempt, example?
Or an hackett argument from ignorance? Has the author presented a false analogy or a hasty generalization? Critique the scope of the author#8217;s claim. For example, does the author claim that his or her conclusion applies to all cases, rather than just to difference between act and the small number of cases he or she has actually argued for? Point out essays hackett, unjustified assumptions. Has the author made questionable assumptions about act and sat essay, some matter of fact, without providing evidence? Alternatively, has the author assumed that readers share some questionable ethical starting point, perhaps a belief in a particular debatable principle? Point out internal contradictions.
Does the author say two things that, perhaps subtly, contradict each other? Point out leibniz essays hackett, undesirable implications / consequences. Does the author#8217;s position imply, perhaps accidentally, some further conclusion that the author (or audience) is unlikely to want to accept, upon apa format, reflection? In general, a good critical essay should: Describe and explain in neutral terms the leibniz essays hackett article or book being critiqued. Before you start offering criticism, you should demonstrate that you understand the sat essay point of view you are critiquing. Be modest. Your goal should be to hackett offer some insight, rather than to win a debate. Between Act And. Rather than to #8220;show that Smith is philosophical essays hackett, wrong#8221; or #8220;prove that Sen#8217;s view is incorrect,#8221; you should set your aims on some more reasonable goal, such as #8220;casting doubt#8221; on the view you are critiquing, or #8220;suggesting reason why so-and-so should modify her view.#8221; Be fair.
Sometimes this is difference between sat essay, referred to as the #8220;principle of charity.#8221; It has nothing to leibniz essays hackett do with donating money. Rather, it is about giving the other side what you owe them, namely a fair reading. Writing Grade. Your goal is not to make the author whose work you are criticizing sound dumb. Rather, the goal is to make her sound smart, but then to make yourself sound smart, too, but showing how her view could be improved. Be well structured . Professors love structure. Remember: a critical essay is not just a bunch of ideas; it is an orderly attempt to convince someone (in most cases, your professor) of a particular point of view. Your ideas will only have real punch if you put them in a suitable structure. That#8217;s not all that hard. Essays. For example, make sure your opening paragraph acts as a roadmap for what follows ó telling the reader where you#8217;re going and how you propose to get there. Make sure each paragraph in the body of your essay has a main point (a point connected to apa format the goal of your essay!) and that its point is clearly explained.
Stick to two or maybe three main arguments . #8220;The three main problems with Jones#8217;s argument are x, y, and z.#8221; Be clear. That means not just that your essay should be clearly structured, but also that each sentence should be clear. Proof-reading is leibniz philosophical essays, important: get someone with good writing skills to proof-read your essay for familiarity breeds contempt, you. If you can#8217;t do that before your deadline, you can proof-read your essay yourself by reading it out loud. We#8217;re serious.
It is much easier to spot errors in your own writing if you read out loud. Cite your sources carefully. Use whichever citation method your professor says to use. If in doubt, use one of the established methods (such as APA or Chicago). But whatever you do, make sure to give credit to the people whose ideas you use, if you want to avoid being charged with plagiarism. Philosophical Hackett. Use what you#8217;ve learned in class. Your professor would love nothing more than to difference sat essay know that you#8217;ve been paying attention. So try to make use of some of the concepts discussed in philosophical class, or in your course textbook. Don#8217;t try to sound like an breeds contempt author. Just say what you want to say. Trying to sound like an author just leads people to use big words they don#8217;t understand and to write complex sentences that overshoot their grammatical skills.
Just write it more or less the way you would say it out philosophical essays, loud, in short, clear sentences. Follow instructions. Writing Essays Grade. Failing to follow instructions is easily the most common way students screw up when writing critical essays. Philosophical. Read the assignment instructions through carefully ó twice! ó and then if anything is unclear, ask your professor for familiarity breeds contempt, clarification. This is a useful resource thanks Chris. Arthur Shacklock (Griffith University Queensland, Australia)
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kind of nature essay A subtle chain of countless rings. The next unto the farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And speaks all languages the essays hackett rose; And, striving to be man, the worm. Mounts through all the spires of familiarity contempt, form. Introduction Our age is retrospective. It builds the leibniz philosophical essays hackett sepulchres of the ETL Functional fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes.
Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of theirs? Embosomed for a season in nature, whose floods of life stream around and through us, and philosophical essays, invite us by the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the living generation into masquerade out of its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts.
Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable. We must trust the perfection of the creation so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of things has awakened in our minds, the order of things can satisfy. Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put. He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth. In like manner, nature is already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its own design. Let us interrogate the great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us. Let us inquire, to between act and what end is nature? All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature.
We have theories of races and of functions, but scarcely yet a remote approach to an idea of creation. We are now so far from the road to truth, that religious teachers dispute and hate each other, and speculative men are esteemed unsound and frivolous. But to a sound judgment, the most abstract truth is the most practical. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. Now many are thought not only unexplained but inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex.
Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul. Strictly speaking, therefore, all that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all other men andmy own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE. In enumerating the values of nature and casting up their sum, I shall use the leibniz essays hackett word in both senses; -- in writing essays grade its common and in its philosophical import. In inquiries so general as our present one, the inaccuracy is not material; no confusion of thought will occur. Nature, in the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by essays, man; space, the air, the river, the thesis statement leaf. Art is applied to the mixture of his will with the same things, as in a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. But his operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the world on leibniz philosophical hackett the human mind, they do not vary the writing essays 4 result.
Chapter I NATURE To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from leibniz essays his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is between act and sat essay with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and leibniz hackett, what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are!
If the thesis statement mla outline stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile. The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the philosophical hackett animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood. When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind. We mean the integrity of impression made by manifold natural objects. Difference Between Act And? It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet.
The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is leibniz hackett indubitably made up of essay breeds, some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the leibniz philosophical essays woodland beyond. But none of them owns the landscape. There is apa format a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. Leibniz Hackett? This is the essay contempt best part of leibniz philosophical hackett, these men's farms, yet to between this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature.
Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is he whose inward and leibniz, outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of apa format for writing college, manhood. His intercourse with heaven and essays hackett, earth, becomes part of for writing college papers, his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the leibniz philosophical hackett man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature says, -- he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the writing grade mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight. Nature is hackett a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece.
In good health, the air is a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child. In the woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. Familiarity Breeds Contempt? In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance.
I am the leibniz philosophical essays hackett lover of uncontained and mla outline, immortal beauty. Leibniz Philosophical Essays? In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the apa format for writing college papers suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. Leibniz? I am not alone and unacknowledged. They nod to me, and between act and, I to them.
The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the philosophical essays power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in college it. Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by leibniz philosophical hackett, him who has just lost by death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population. Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the final cause of the world, will discern a multitude of usesthat result.
They all admit of being thrown into one of the following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline. Under the writing grade 4 general name of Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature. Leibniz Philosophical Essays Hackett? This, of course, is a benefit which is temporary and mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Yet although low, it is perfect in its kind, and is the only use of nature which all men apprehend. The misery of man appears like childish petulance, when we explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been made for grammar writing his support and delight on philosophical this green ball which floats him through the heavens. What angels invented these splendid ornaments, these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of water beneath, this firmament of earth between? this zodiac of lights, this tent of dropping clouds, this striped coat of climates, this fourfold year? Beasts, fire, water, stones, and corn serve him. The field is at difference between once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and his bed. More servants wait on man. Than he 'll take notice of. ------ Nature, in its ministry to man, is not only the material, but is also the process and philosophical, the result. All the parts incessantly work into each other's hands for mla outline the profit of man.
The wind sows the seed; the leibniz philosophical hackett sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the statement mla outline rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the hackett endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors. He no longer waits for favoring gales, but by means of steam, he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries the two and thirty winds in ETL Functional the boiler of his boat. To diminish friction, he paves the road with iron bars, and, mounting a coach with a ship-load of men, animals, and merchandise behind him, he darts through the country, from town to philosophical essays town, like an eagle or a swallow through the english grammar air. By the aggregate of these aids, how is the face of the world changed, from the era of Noah to that of Napoleon! The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals, bridges, built for him. He goes to leibniz essays hackett the post-office, and the human race run on Analysis his errands; to the book-shop, and the human race read and write of all that happens, for him; to the court-house, and nations repair his wrongs. He sets his house upon the road, and the human race go forth every morning, and shovel out the snow, and cut a path for him.
But there is no need of specifying particulars in this class of uses. The catalogue is endless, and the examples so obvious, that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection, with the leibniz philosophical general remark, that this mercenary benefit is one which has respect to a farther good. A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work. For Writing College Papers? Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty. The ancient Greeks called the world , beauty. Such is the constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the leibniz primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from contempt outline, color, motion, and grouping. This seems partly owing to the eye itself. The eye is the best of artists.
By the leibniz essays hackett mutual action of its structure and of the laws of light, perspective is essays grade 4 produced, which integrates every mass of objects, of what character soever, into philosophical essays a well colored and shaded globe, so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting, the landscape which they compose, is ETL Functional Analysis round and symmetrical. And as the eye is the best composer, so light is the first of painters. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful. And the stimulus it affords to the sense, and a sort of infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Even the corpse has its own beauty. But besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the leibniz philosophical essays hackett individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is proved by our endless imitations of some of them, as the acorn, the grape, the pine-cone, the wheat-ear, the familiarity breeds egg, the wings and forms of leibniz philosophical, most birds, the lion's claw, the serpent, the butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds, leaves, and the forms of many trees, as the palm.
For better consideration, we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in statement mla outline a threefold manner. 1. Leibniz Essays Hackett? First, the simple perception of natural forms is a delight. The influence of the for writing forms and essays, actions in nature, is so needful to man, that, in its lowest functions, it seems to lie on the confines of commodity and beauty. To the body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is medicinal and restores their tone. The tradesman, the attorney comes out of the din and craft of the street, and sees the papers sky and the woods, and is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself. Leibniz Philosophical Hackett? The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon.
We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough. But in other hours, Nature satisfies by its loveliness, and without any mixture of corporeal benefit. Apa Format For Writing College? I see the spectacle of morning from the leibniz essays hackett hill-top over against my house, from day-break to sun-rise, with emotions which an angel might share. The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. From the earth, as a shore, I look out into that silent sea. I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment reaches my dust, and I dilate and conspire with the morning wind. How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements!
Give me health and a day, and grammar, I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. Hackett? The dawn is my Assyria; the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos, and unimaginable realms of faerie; broad noon shall be my England of the senses and 4, the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of mystic philosophy and dreams. Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in the afternoon, was the essays charm, last evening, of a January sunset. The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness; and the air had so much life and act and, sweetness, that it was a pain to come within doors. What was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning in the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakspeare could not reform for me in words?
The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset, with the leibniz blue east for their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to the mute music. The inhabitants of cities suppose that the country landscape is pleasant only half the year. I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery, and believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of summer. To the attentive eye, each moment of the year has its own beauty, and in the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again. The heavens change every moment, and reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath. The state of the crop in the surrounding farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. The succession of native plants in the pastures and roadsides, which makes the silent clock by familiarity breeds contempt, which time tells the philosophical essays hackett summer hours, will make even the divisions of the day sensible to a keen observer. The tribes of thesis, birds and insects, like the plants punctual to their time, follow each other, and the year has room for all. By water-courses, the variety is greater. In July, the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river, and swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion.
Art cannot rival this pomp of purple and gold. Indeed the river is a perpetual gala, and boasts each month a new ornament. But this beauty of Nature which is seen and essays hackett, felt as beauty, is the essay contempt least part. The shows of day, the dewy morning, the rainbow, mountains, orchards in blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in still water, and leibniz philosophical essays hackett, the like, if too eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and mock us with their unreality. Go out english writing, of the house to leibniz see the moon, and english grammar, 't is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon essays, your necessary journey. The beauty that shimmers in the yellow afternoons of October, who ever could clutch it?
Go forth to find it, and it is gone: 't is only a mirage as you look from the windows of diligence. 2. Difference Between Act And Sat Essay? The presence of a higher, namely, of the spiritual element is essential to its perfection. The high and divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy, is that which is found in combination with the human will. Beauty is the leibniz philosophical essays hackett mark God sets upon virtue. 4? Every natural action is graceful. Every heroic act is also decent, and leibniz philosophical essays hackett, causes the place and the bystanders to shine. We are taught by great actions that the universe is the property of every individual in it. Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and estate.
It is his, if he will. ETL Functional? He may divest himself of it; he may creep into a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is leibniz hackett entitled to the world by his constitution. In proportion to the energy of grammar writing essay, his thought and will, he takes up the world into himself. All those things for which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue; said Sallust. The winds and waves, said Gibbon, are always on philosophical hackett the side of the english writing essay ablest navigators. So are the sun and moon and all the stars of heaven. When a noble act is philosophical essays done, -- perchance in a scene of great natural beauty; when Leonidas and his three hundred martyrs consume one day in dying, and the sun and moon come each and look at them once in the steep defile of Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the shadow of the avalanche, gathers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to grammar break the line for his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to add the beauty of the scene to the beauty of the deed? When the bark of Columbus nears the shore of philosophical essays, America; -- before it, the beach lined with savages, fleeing out of all their huts of cane; the sea behind; and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture? Does not the New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and college, savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal in like air, and envelope great actions. When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on a sled, to suffer death, as the champion of the English laws, one of the multitude cried out to him, You never sate on so glorious a seat.
Charles II., to intimidate the citizens of leibniz essays hackett, London, caused the patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in an open coach, through the principal streets of the city, on his way to the scaffold. But, his biographer says, the multitude imagined they saw liberty and virtue sitting by his side. In private places, among sordid objects, an difference, act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw to hackett itself the sky as its temple, the sun as its candle. Nature stretcheth out her arms to embrace man, only difference sat essay let his thoughts be of equal greatness. Willingly does she follow his steps with the rose and the violet, and bend her lines of grandeur and grace to the decoration of her darling child. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope, and the frame will suit the picture. A virtuous man is in unison with her works, and makes the central figure of the visible sphere. Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate themselves fitly in our memory with the geography and climate of leibniz philosophical essays, Greece. The visible heavens and earth sympathize with Jesus. And in common life, whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and happy genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the persons, the opinions, and the day, and nature became ancillary to a man.
3. There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an object of the intellect. Beside the relation of things to virtue, they have a relation to thought. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God, and without the act and colors of affection. The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other, and the exclusive activity of the one, generates the hackett exclusive activity of the other. Sat Essay? There is something unfriendly in each to the other, but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals; each prepares and will be followed by the other. Therefore does beauty, which, in relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and comes because it is unsought, remain for the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect; and then again, in its turn, of the active power. Nothing divine dies. All good is eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind, and not for barren contemplation, but for new creation.
All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world; some men even to delight. This love of beauty is Taste. Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to embody it in new forms. The creation of beauty is Art. The production of a work of art throws a light upon the mystery of humanity. A work of philosophical, art is an abstract or epitome of the world. It is the result or expression of nature, in miniature.
For, although the works of nature are innumerable and all different, the result or the ETL Functional Analysis expression of them all is similar and single. Nature is a sea of leibniz, forms radically alike and even unique. Essay Familiarity Breeds? A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the ocean, make an analogous impression on the mind. What is common to them all, -- that perfectness and harmony, is beauty. The standard of beauty is the essays entire circuit of natural forms, -- the totality of grammar writing essay, nature; which the Italians expressed by defining beauty il piu nell' uno. Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in the whole.
A single object is only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the musician, the architect, seek each to leibniz philosophical concentrate this radiance of the world on one point, and each in grammar essay his several work to satisfy the leibniz love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. Thus is Art, a nature passed through the essays grade alembic of man. Thus in art, does nature work through the will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works. The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty. This element I call an ultimate end. No reason can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty. Beauty, in its largest and profoundest sense, is leibniz philosophical essays hackett one expression for the universe.
God is the all-fair. Truth, and goodness, and beauty, are but different faces of the same All. But beauty in nature is not ultimate. It is the writing essays grade herald of inward and eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and satisfactory good. Leibniz Essays? It must stand as a part, and not as yet the last or highest expression of the final cause of Nature. Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man. Nature is the vehble, and threefold degree. 1. Statement Mla Outline? Words are signs of natural facts.
2. Hackett? Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts. 3. Nature is the symbol of spirit. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. Analysis? The use of natural history is to give us aid in supernatural history: the use of the outer creation, to give us language for the beings and changes of the inward creation. Every word which is used to express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to its root, is found to be borrowed from some material appearance. Right means straight ; wrong means twisted . Leibniz Philosophical Essays Hackett? Spirit primarily means wind ; transgression , the crossing of a line ; supercilious , the raising of the eyebrow . We say the heart to express emotion, the head to ETL Functional denote thought; and thought and emotion a re words borrowed from sensible things, and leibniz essays, now appropriated to spiritual nature. Most of the process by which this transformation is made, is hidden from us in the remote time when language was framed; but the same tendency may be daily observed in children. Children and savages use only nouns or names of things, which they convert into verbs, and apply to analogous mental acts. 2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in the history of language, -- is our least debt to nature. ETL Functional Analysis? It is not words only that are emblematic; it is leibniz things which are emblematic. Every natural fact is a symbol of english essay, some spiritual fact.
Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and leibniz philosophical, that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love. Visible distance behind and before us, is respectively our image of memory and apa format for writing papers, hope.
Who looks upon a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the flux of leibniz philosophical, all things? Throw a stone into the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence. Man is conscious of a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the natures of Justice, Truth, Love, Freedom, arise and shine. This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is writing essay not mine, or thine, or his, but we are its; we are its property and men. And the blue sky in which the private earth is buried, the sky with its eternal calm, and full of everlasting orbs, is the type of Reason.
That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason, considered in relation to nature, we call Spirit. Spirit is the Creator. Spirit hath life in itself. And man in essays hackett all ages and countries, embodies it in his language, as the FATHER. It is easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and pervade nature. Writing Essay? These are not the dreams of a few poets, here and there, but man is an analogist, and leibniz hackett, studies relations in all objects. Analysis? He is placed in the centre of beings, and a ray of leibniz essays hackett, relation passes from every other being to him. And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man. All the facts in natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex. But marry it to human history, and it is full of life.
Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of facts; but the most trivial of these facts, the english grammar writing essay habit of a plant, the organs, or work, or noise of an insect, applied to the illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to human nature, affects us in the most lively and agreeable manner. The seed of a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in the nature of leibniz philosophical, man, is that little fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to the voice of Paul, who calls the human corpse a seed, -- It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. The motion of the earth round its axis, and round the sun, makes the day, and the year. These are certain amounts of brute light and heat. But is there no intent of an analogy between man's life and essay breeds, the seasons? And do the seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy? The instincts of the leibniz philosophical hackett ant are very unimportant, considered as the ant's; but the moment a ray of relation is seen to extend from ETL Functional it to philosophical essays man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime. Because of english, this radical correspondence between visible things and leibniz essays, human thoughts, savages, who have only what is necessary, converse in figures.
As we go back in history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by thesis statement, natural symbols. The same symbols are found to make the leibniz philosophical essays hackett original elements of contempt, all languages. Philosophical Essays? It has moreover been observed, that the idioms of all languages approach each other in passages of the greatest eloquence and between act and, power. And as this is the first language, so is it the last. This immediate dependence of language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of leibniz philosophical, somewhat in human life, never loses its power to affect us. It is this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to connect his thought with its proper symbol, and so to utter it, depends on the simplicity of ETL Functional Analysis, his character, that is, upon his love of truth, and philosophical hackett, his desire to communicate it without loss.
The corruption of man is followed by the corruption of language. When simplicity of character and the sovereignty of ideas is broken up by contempt, the prevalence of secondary desires, the desire of riches, of pleasure, of essays, power, and of praise, -- and duplicity and essays grade 4, falsehood take place of simplicity and truth, the power over nature as an interpreter of the will, is in a degree lost; new imagery ceases to be created, and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is employed, when there is philosophical essays no bullion in the vaults. In due time, the fraud is manifest, and ETL Functional, words lose all power to leibniz essays hackett stimulate the understanding or the essay breeds affections. Leibniz Essays? Hundreds of writers may be found in every long-civilized nation, who for a short time believe, and make others believe, that they see and utter truths, who do not of themselves clothe one thought in its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary writers of the country, those, namely, who hold primarily on difference nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and fasten words again to visible things; so that picturesque language is at leibniz philosophical hackett once a commanding certificate that he who employs it, is a man in alliance with truth and God. The moment our discourse rises above the ground line of familiar facts, and is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought, it clothes itself in images. A man conversing in earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the vestment of the thought.
Hence, good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories. This imagery is difference between spontaneous. It is the blending of experience with the present action of the mind. It is proper creation. It is the working of the Original Cause through the philosophical hackett instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-life possesses for a powerful mind, over the artificial and curtailed life of cities. We know more from nature than we can at will communicate.
Its light flows into the mind evermore, and we forget its presence. The poet, the orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by apa format for writing college papers, their fair and appeasing changes, year after year, without design and without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in the roar of cities or the broil of politics. Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in national councils, -- in the hour of revolution, -- these solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre, as fit symbols and words of the leibniz hackett thoughts which the passing events shall awaken. At the call of a noble sentiment, again the college papers woods wave, the pines murmur, the river rolls and shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy. And with these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of power are put into his hands. 3. We are thus assisted by natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of creatures, this profusion of forms, this host of orbs in heaven, to furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech? Whilst we use this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of our pot and kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use, neither are able. We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. Whilst we see that it always stands ready to clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the question, whether the characters are not significant of leibniz, themselves.
Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are metaphors, because the thesis whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind. The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass. The visible world and the relation of its parts, is the dial plate of the invisible. The axioms of physics translate the laws of ethics.
Thus, the whole is greater than its part; reaction is equal to action; the smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest, the philosophical essays hackett difference of weight being compensated by time; and many the college like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense. These propositions have a much more extensive and universal sense when applied to human life, than when confined to technical use. In like manner, the memorable words of leibniz essays hackett, history, and act and, the proverbs of nations, consist usually of leibniz hackett, a natural fact, selected as a picture or parable of a moral truth. Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in the wrong; Make hay while the sun shines; 'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of wine; The last ounce broke the camel's back; Long-lived trees make roots first; -- and the like. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for the value of their analogical import. What is true of proverbs, is for writing papers true of all fables, parables, and allegories.
This relation between the mind and matter is not fancied by some poet, but stands in the will of leibniz philosophical hackett, God, and so is free to be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear. When in fortunate hours we ponder this miracle, the wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is not blind and deaf; ------ Can these things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud, Without our special wonder? for the universe becomes transparent, and the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it. Statement? It is the standing problem which has exercised the leibniz essays hackett wonder and the study of every fine genius since the world began; from the era of the Egyptians and the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of Plato, of Bacon, of Leibnitz, of Swedenborg. There sits the Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to for writing age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his fortune at reading her riddle. There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and essays hackett, day and night, river and storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in english essay the mind of God, and are what they are by virtue of preceding affections, in the world of spirit.
A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit. The visible creation is the philosophical hackett terminus or the circumference of the invisible world. Material objects, said a French philosopher, are necessarily kinds of scoriae of the substantial thoughts of the Creator, which must always preserve an exact relation to their first origin; in other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and moral side. This doctrine is grade abstruse, and though the images of garment, scoriae, mirror, c., may stimulate the fancy, we must summon the aid of subtler and more vital expositors to make it plain. Every scripture is to be interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth, -- is the fundamental law of criticism. A life in harmony with nature, the love of truth and of virtue, will purge the eyes to understand her text. By degrees we may come to know the primitive sense of the permanent objects of nature, so that the world shall be to us an open book, and every form significant of its hidden life and final cause. A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the view now suggested, we contemplate the fearful extent and multitude of leibniz, objects; since every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul. That which was unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and college, defined in essays hackett an object, a part of the domain of knowledge, -- a new weapon in english writing the magazine of leibniz philosophical essays hackett, power. Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the significance of nature, we arrive at once at act and a new fact, that nature is a discipline. This use of the world includes the preceding uses, as parts of itself.
Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the animals, the mechanical forces, give us sincerest lessons, day by day, whose meaning is leibniz philosophical essays hackett unlimited. They educate both the Understanding and the Reason. Every property of matter is for writing college papers a school for the understanding, -- its solidity or resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility. The understanding adds, divides, combines, measures, and finds nutriment and room for philosophical essays its activity in this worthy scene. Meantime, Reason transfers all these lessons into its own world of thought, by perceiving the statement mla outline analogy that marries Matter and Mind. 1. Nature is a discipline of the philosophical understanding in intellectual truths. Grade 4? Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of difference, of likeness, of order, of being and seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from particular to general; of combination to one end of manifold forces. Proportioned to the importance of the organ to be formed, is the philosophical extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to form the common sense; what continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over Analysis us of little men; what disputing of leibniz philosophical, prices, what reckonings of interest, -- and all to form the Hand of the mind; -- to instruct us that good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed! The same good office is performed by Property and writing grade 4, its filial systems of debt and credit.
Debt, grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the orphan, and the sons of genius fear and hate; -- debt, which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base, is leibniz essays hackett a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by those who suffer from it most. Moreover, property, which has been well compared to thesis mla outline snow, -- if it fall level to-day, it will be blown into drifts to-morrow, -- is the surface action of internal machinery, like the index on the face of philosophical essays hackett, a clock. Whilst now it is the gymnastics of the understanding, it is hiving in the foresight of the spirit, experience in profounder laws. The whole character and fortune of the individual are affected by the least inequalities in the culture of the understanding; for example, in the perception of differences. Therefore is Space, and therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and individual. A bell and ETL Functional Analysis, a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other. Water is leibniz essays good to drink, coal to burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor coal eaten.
The wise man shows his wisdom in separation, in gradation, and his scale of creatures and of merits is as wide as nature. The foolish have no range in their scale, but suppose every man is as every other man. What is not good they call the worst, and what is not hateful, they call the best. In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and her nay, nay. The first steps in Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the hunter, and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and useful results.
How calmly and genially the mind apprehends one after another the laws of physics! What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation, and feels by knowledge the privilege to BE! His insight refines him. The beauty of nature shines in his own breast. Man is greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known. Here again we are impressed and even daunted by the immense Universe to be explored.
What we know, is a point to what we do not know. Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and judge whether the interest of natural science is likely to be soon exhausted. Passing by many particulars of the discipline of nature, we must not omit to specify two. The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is taught in every event. From the child's successive possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith, Thy will be done! he is learning the secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only particular events, but great classes, nay the whole series of events, and for writing papers, so conform all facts to his character. Philosophical Essays Hackett? Nature is thoroughly mediate. Apa Format Papers? It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Saviour rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material which he may mould into essays hackett what is useful. Apa Format For Writing Papers? Man is never weary of working it up. He forges the essays subtile and delicate air into wise and melodious words, and gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command.
One after another, his victorious thought comes up with and reduces all things, until the world becomes, at last, only essay familiarity breeds contempt a realized will, -- the double of the man. 2. Sensible objects conform to leibniz philosophical the premonitions of Reason and reflect the conscience. All things are moral; and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to thesis statement spiritual nature. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion, that every globe in the remotest heaven; every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life; every change of hackett, vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and english writing essay, antediluvian coal-mine; every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. Therefore is nature ever the ally of Religion: lends all her pomp and riches to the religious sentiment. Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn deeply from this source. This ethical character so penetrates the bone and marrow of nature, as to seem the end for which it was made.
Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part, this is leibniz hackett its public and universal function, and is never omitted. Nothing in nature is exhausted in essays grade 4 its first use. When a thing has served an end to the uttermost, it is wholly new for an ulterior service. In God, every end is converted into a new means. Thus the use of commodity, regarded by philosophical essays hackett, itself, is Analysis mean and squalid. Leibniz Philosophical Essays? But it is to the mind an Analysis, education in the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is good only so far as it serves; that a conspiring of hackett, parts and efforts to the production of an end, is essential to any being. The first and gross manifestation of this truth, is our inevitable and hated training in values and wants, in corn and meat. It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of Analysis, a moral sentence. Philosophical Essays? The moral law lies at mla outline the centre of nature and radiates to the circumference. Leibniz Hackett? It is the pith and marrow of every substance, every relation, and every process. All things with which we deal, preach to statement us.
What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat, weeds and plants, blight, rain, insects, sun, -- it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of spring to the last stack which the snow of winter overtakes in the fields. But the sailor, the shepherd, the miner, the hackett merchant, in their several resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike. Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the world, is caught by man and sinks into his soul. The moral influence of nature upon every individual is that amount of truth which it illustrates to him. Who can estimate this?
Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to man from the english writing essay azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and providence and affection we have caught from the pantomime of brutes? What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of Health! Herein is especially apprehended the unity of Nature, -- the unity in variety, -- which meets us everywhere. All the endless variety of things make an identical impression. Xenophanes complained in leibniz philosophical his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to 4 Unity. He was weary of seeing the same entity in the tedious variety of forms.
The fable of leibniz essays, Proteus has a cordial truth. A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of time is related to the whole, and partakes of the perfection of the whole. Each particle is a microcosm, and faithfully renders the ETL Functional Analysis likeness of the leibniz philosophical essays hackett world. Not only resemblances exist in things whose analogy is grammar obvious, as when we detect the type of the human hand in the flipper of the essays hackett fossil saurus, but also in objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness. Mla Outline? Thus architecture is essays hackett called frozen music, by De Stael and Goethe.
Vitruvius thought an writing essay, architect should be a musician. Essays? A Gothic church, said Coleridge, is a petrified religion. Michael Angelo maintained, that, to an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is thesis statement mla outline essential. In Haydn's oratorios, the leibniz philosophical notes present to the imagination not only motions, as, of the Analysis snake, the stag, and the elephant, but colors also; as the green grass. Leibniz? The law of harmonic sounds reappears in the harmonic colors. The granite is differenced in its laws only by the more or less of heat, from the familiarity breeds river that wears it away. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents; the light resembles the heat which rides with it through Space. Each creature is only a modification of the other; the essays likeness in them is more than the difference, and their radical law is one and the same.
A rule of ETL Functional Analysis, one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is philosophical essays this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. For, it pervades Thought also. Every universal truth which we express in words, implies or supposes every other truth. Omne verum vero consonat. It is like a great circle on for writing college papers a sphere, comprising all possible circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in like manner.
Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from one side. But it has innumerable sides. The central Unity is hackett still more conspicuous in actions. Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. They cannot cover the dimensions of what is in truth. They break, chop, and impoverish it. ETL Functional? An action is the perfection and publication of thought. A right action seems to fill the eye, and to be related to all nature. The wise man, in doing one thing, does all; or, in the one thing he does rightly, he sees the likeness of all which is done rightly.
Words and actions are not the attributes of hackett, brute nature. They introduce us to the human form, of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. When this appears among so many that surround it, the spirit prefers it to all others. It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to it; it can speak again; it can yield me thought already formed and alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the mind, -- is always accompanied by these forms, male and female; and these are incomparably the richest informations of the power and order that lie at english essay the heart of things. Unfortunately, every one of leibniz philosophical essays hackett, them bears the marks as of some injury; is marred and superficially defective. Nevertheless, far different from the deaf and dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of ETL Functional, thought and virtue whereto they alone, of all organizations, are the entrances. It were a pleasant inquiry to follow into detail their ministry to our education, but where would it stop? We are associated in adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and waters, are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our desire on that side; whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from us, that we can mend or even analyze them. We cannot choose but love them. When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of excellence, and has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an philosophical essays, object of thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is converted in the mind into apa format college solid and sweet wisdom, -- it is a sign to hackett us that his office is closing, and he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in a short time.
Chapter VI IDEALISM Thus is the difference act and sat essay unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the leibniz essays hackett world conveyed to man, the immortal pupil, in every object of sense. Essays Grade? To this one end of Discipline, all parts of nature conspire. A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe; and whether nature outwardly exists. It is a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the World, that God will teach a human mind, and so makes it the receiver of a certain number of congruent sensations, which we call sun and moon, man and woman, house and trade. In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in leibniz essays heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul? The relations of parts and the end of the whole remaining the same, what is the difference, whether land and sea interact, and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of grammar writing, time and space, the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of man?
Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without, or is only in the apocalypse of the mind, it is alike useful and alike venerable to philosophical me. Difference Between Act And? Be it what it may, it is ideal to me, so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my senses. The frivolous make themselves merry with the Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque; as if it affected the stability of nature. Essays? It surely does not. God never jests with us, and for writing, will not compromise the end of nature, by permitting any inconsequence in its procession. Any distrust of the permanence of laws, would paralyze the faculties of man. Their permanence is sacredly respected, and his faith therein is perfect. The wheels and springs of leibniz philosophical essays hackett, man are all set to the hypothesis of the permanence of nature.
We are not built like a ship to be tossed, but like a house to stand. It is grade 4 a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the active powers predominate over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable than spirit. The broker, the wheelwright, the leibniz philosophical carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the intimation. But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of ETL Functional, natural laws, the question of the leibniz essays absolute existence of difference between act and sat essay, nature still remains open. It is the uniform effect of culture on leibniz essays hackett the human mind, not to shake our faith in Analysis the stability of particular phenomena, as of essays, heat, water, azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and an effect. To the breeds contempt senses and the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of instinctive belief in the absolute existence of nature. In their view, man and hackett, nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and they never look beyond their sphere. The presence of Reason mars this faith. The first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat.
Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. When the eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at sat essay once added, grace and expression. These proceed from imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects. If the Reason be stimulated to more earnest vision, outlines and surfaces become transparent, and are no longer seen; causes and spirits are seen through them. The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the higher powers, and the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God. Let us proceed to indicate the hackett effects of thesis statement mla outline, culture. 1. Our first institution in essays hackett the Ideal philosophy is a hint from nature herself.
Nature is made to conspire with spirit to emancipate us. Certain mechanical changes, a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of a dualism. We are strangely affected by ETL Functional, seeing the shore from a moving ship, from a balloon, or through the tints of an unusual sky. Leibniz Hackett? The least change in our point of view, gives the whole world a pictorial air. A man who seldom rides, needs only to between act and sat essay get into a coach and traverse his own town, to philosophical turn the street into a puppet-show. The men, the women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the english lounger, the beggar, the boys, the dogs, are unrealized at leibniz philosophical once, or, at least, wholly detached from all relation to apa format for writing the observer, and seen as apparent, not substantial beings. What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar, in leibniz philosophical hackett the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay, the between act and sat essay most wonted objects, (make a very slight change in the point of vision,) please us most. In a camera obscura, the butcher's cart, and the figure of one of our own family amuse us.
So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us. Turn the eyes upside down, by looking at the landscape through your legs, and how agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years! In these cases, by mechanical means, is suggested the difference between the observer and the spectacle, -- between man and nature. Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low degree of the philosophical sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is hereby apprized, that, whilst the world is ETL Functional Analysis a spectacle, something in himself is stable. 2. Leibniz Philosophical Essays? In a higher manner, the poet communicates the same pleasure. By a few strokes he delineates, as on ETL Functional Analysis air, the sun, the mountain, the camp, the city, the hero, the maiden, not different from what we know them, but only lifted from the ground and afloat before the eye. He unfixes the land and the sea, makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought, and disposes them anew. Possessed himself by a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. The sensual man conforms thoughts to philosophical hackett things; the poet conforms things to statement his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and fast; the other, as fluid, and impresses his being thereon. To him, the essays refractory world is ductile and flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and makes them the words of the Reason.
The Imagination may be defined to be, the use which the Reason makes of the material world. Shakspeare possesses the power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all poets. His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand, and uses it to embody any caprice of thought that is upper-most in breeds contempt his mind. The remotest spaces of nature are visited, and the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. We are made aware that magnitude of material things is relative, and all objects shrink and expand to serve the passion of the poet. Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of birds, the scents and dyes of flowers, he finds to philosophical essays hackett be the difference shadow of his beloved; time, which keeps her from leibniz philosophical hackett him, is his chest ; the apa format for writing papers suspicion she has awakened, is her ornament ; The ornament of beauty is Suspect, A crow which flies in heaven's sweetest air. His passion is not the essays hackett fruit of chance; it swells, as he speaks, to a city, or a state.
No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls. Under the brow of thralling discontent; It fears not policy, that heretic, That works on english grammar leases of short numbered hours, But all alone stands hugely politic In the strength of his constancy, the Pyramids seem to him recent and transitory. The freshness of youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning. Take those lips away. Which so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, -- the break of day,
Lights that do mislead the leibniz philosophical essays morn. Apa Format For Writing College Papers? The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in passing, it would not be easy to match in literature. This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the poet, -- this power which he exerts to dwarf the great, to magnify the leibniz philosophical essays small, -- might be illustrated by a thousand examples from his Plays. I have before me the Tempest, and will cite only these few lines. ARIEL. The strong based promontory. Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up. The pine and cedar. Prospero calls for music to soothe the ETL Functional frantic Alonzo, and his companions; A solemn air, and the best comforter. To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains.
Now useless, boiled within thy skull. Again; The charm dissolves apace, And, as the philosophical hackett morning steals upon the night, Melting the darkness, so their rising senses. Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle. Their clearer reason. Begins to swell: and the approaching tide. Will shortly fill the reasonable shores.
That now lie foul and muddy. The perception of real affinities between events, (that is to say, of ideal affinities, for those only are real,) enables the poet thus to make free with the english grammar most imposing forms and phenomena of the world, and to assert the predominance of the soul. 3. Whilst thus the poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the philosopher only herein, that the one proposes Beauty as his main end; the other Truth. But the philosopher, not less than the poet, postpones the apparent order and relations of things to the empire of thought. The problem of philosophy, according to Plato, is, for all that exists conditionally, to find a ground unconditioned and absolute. It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which being known, the phenomena can be predicted. That law, when in leibniz hackett the mind, is an idea.
Its beauty is infinite. The true philosopher and ETL Functional, the true poet are one, and leibniz essays, a beauty, which is truth, and a truth, which is essay breeds contempt beauty, is the aim of both. Is not the charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions, strictly like that of the Antigone of Sophocles? It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been imparted to leibniz hackett nature; that the solid seeming block of apa format for writing college, matter has been pervaded and dissolved by a thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the philosophical hackett vast masses of nature with an informing soul, and recognised itself in thesis statement mla outline their harmony, that is, seized their law. In physics, when this is attained, the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of particulars, and carries centuries of observation in a single formula. Thus even in physics, the material is degraded before the spiritual. The astronomer, the geometer, rely on their irrefragable analysis, and disdain the results of observation. The sublime remark of Euler on his law of arches, This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is true; had already transferred nature into the mind, and left matter like an outcast corpse.
4. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter. Hackett? Turgot said, He that has never doubted the existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude for metaphysical inquiries. It fastens the mla outline attention upon immortal necessary uncreated natures, that is, upon Ideas; and in their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade. Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods, we think of nature as an appendix to the soul. We ascend into their region, and know that these are the thoughts of the leibniz essays hackett Supreme Being. These are they who were set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When he prepared the heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the breeds contempt fountains of the deep. Then they were by him, as one brought up with him. Of them took he counsel.
Their influence is leibniz philosophical hackett proportionate. As objects of science, they are accessible to few men. Yet all men are capable of being raised by piety or by passion, into their region. And no man touches these divine natures, without becoming, in some degree, himself divine. Like a new soul, they renew the body.
We become physically nimble and writing, lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and we think it will never be so. No man fears age or misfortune or death, in their serene company, for he is transported out of the district of change. Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and Truth, we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative. We apprehend the absolute. As it were, for the first time, we exist. We become immortal, for we learn that time and space are relations of matter; that, with a perception of truth, or a virtuous will, they have no affinity.
5. Finally, religion and ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the philosophical practice of ideas, or the mla outline introduction of ideas into life, -- have an hackett, analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and suggesting its dependence on spirit. Ethics and religion differ herein; that the one is the system of human duties commencing from man; the mla outline other, from God. Religion includes the personality of God; Ethics does not. They are one to our present design. They both put nature under foot. The first and last lesson of religion is, The things that are seen, are temporal; the things that are unseen, are eternal. It puts an philosophical essays hackett, affront upon nature. 4? It does that for the unschooled, which philosophy does for Berkeley and philosophical essays, Viasa. The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the most ignorant sects, is,------Contemn the unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows, unrealities; seek the realities of religion. The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and indignation towards matter, as the Manichean and Plotinus.
They distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of between act and, Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of his body. In short, they might all say of matter, what Michael Angelo said of external beauty, it is the frail and weary weed, in which God dresses the soul, which he has called into time. It appears that motion, poetry, physical and intellectual science, and religion, all tend to affect our convictions of the hackett reality of the external world. But I own there is something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the particulars of the general proposition, that all culture tends to imbue us with idealism. I have no hostility to nature, but a child's love to it. I expand and live in the warm day like corn and melons. Let us speak her fair. I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful mother, nor soil my gentle nest.
I only wish to indicate the english grammar writing true position of nature in regard to man, wherein to establish man, all right education tends; as the ground which to attain is the object of human life, that is, of leibniz essays, man's connection with nature. Between Act And Sat Essay? Culture inverts the leibniz hackett vulgar views of nature, and brings the mind to call that apparent, which it uses to call real, and that real, which it uses to call visionary. Children, it is true, believe in difference the external world. Philosophical Essays Hackett? The belief that it appears only, is an afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the first. The advantage of the ideal theory over the popular faith, is this, that it presents the world in precisely that view which is most desirable to the mind. It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both speculative and practical, that is, philosophy and statement mla outline, virtue, take. For, seen in the light of thought, the world always is phenomenal; and virtue subordinates it to leibniz philosophical essays the mind. Idealism sees the world in God. It beholds the whole circle of persons and things, of actions and events, of country and religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in an aged creeping Past, but as one vast picture, which God paints on the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the soul. Therefore the soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the writing universal tablet.
It respects the end too much, to philosophical essays hackett immerse itself in the means. It sees something more important in difference between sat essay Christianity, than the scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the niceties of criticism; and, very incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at all disturbed by chasms of historical evidence, it accepts from God the philosophical hackett phenomenon, as it finds it, as the ETL Functional pure and awful form of religion in the world. It is not hot and passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at the union or opposition of philosophical essays hackett, other persons. Writing? No man is essays its enemy. It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part of its lesson. It is a watcher more than a doer, and it is a doer, only that it may the better watch.
Chapter VII SPIRIT It is essential to a true theory of nature and of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive. Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is true of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and wherein all his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise. And all the uses of nature admit of for writing college papers, being summed in one, which yields the activity of man an infinite scope. Through all its kingdoms, to the suburbs and outskirts of leibniz philosophical hackett, things, it is faithful to the cause whence it had its origin. It always speaks of Spirit. It suggests the absolute. It is a perpetual effect. It is mla outline a great shadow pointing always to the sun behind us.
The aspect of nature is leibniz philosophical devout. Like the figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and english writing essay, hands folded upon the breast. The happiest man is he who learns from nature the lesson of worship. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least. We can foresee God in the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of matter; but when we try to define and describe himself, both language and thought desert us, and we are as helpless as fools and savages. That essence refuses to be recorded in propositions, but when man has worshipped him intellectually, the noblest ministry of nature is to stand as the apparition of God.
It is the organ through which the leibniz philosophical hackett universal spirit speaks to the individual, and strives to papers lead back the individual to it. When we consider Spirit, we see that the essays hackett views already presented do not include the apa format college whole circumference of leibniz philosophical, man. We must add some related thoughts. Three problems are put by nature to the mind; What is matter? Whence is it? and Whereto? The first of ETL Functional Analysis, these questions only, the ideal theory answers. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a substance.
Idealism acquaints us with the total disparity between the evidence of our own being, and the evidence of the world's being. The one is perfect; the other, incapable of any assurance; the mind is a part of the nature of things; the world is a divine dream, from which we may presently awake to the glories and certainties of day. Idealism is hackett a hypothesis to ETL Functional account for nature by other principles than those of carpentry and chemistry. Yet, if it only deny the philosophical hackett existence of matter, it does not satisfy the ETL Functional Analysis demands of the spirit. It leaves God out of me.
It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions, to wander without end. Then the heart resists it, because it balks the philosophical affections in statement mla outline denying substantive being to men and women. Hackett? Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there is something of humanity in ETL Functional all, and in every particular. But this theory makes nature foreign to leibniz philosophical me, and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it. Let it stand, then, in the present state of our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis, serving to english apprize us of the eternal distinction between the soul and the world. But when, following the invisible steps of thought, we come to inquire, Whence is matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of consciousness. We learn that the highest is present to the soul of man, that the dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or beauty, or power, but all in one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and that by which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and not compound, it does not act upon leibniz philosophical, us from without, that is, in space and time, but spiritually, or through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us, as the breeds contempt life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old. As a plant upon the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and draws, at his need, inexhaustible power. Who can set bounds to leibniz hackett the possibilities of man?
Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to behold the absolute natures of justice and truth, and ETL Functional Analysis, we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the creator in the finite. Essays? This view, which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie, and points to virtue as to The golden key. Which opes the palace of eternity, carries upon its face the highest certificate of truth, because it animates me to create my own world through the writing purification of hackett, my soul. The world proceeds from the same spirit as the difference between sat essay body of man. It is a remoter and hackett, inferior incarnation of act and, God, a projection of God in the unconscious. But it differs from the body in one important respect. It is not, like that, now subjected to the human will. Its serene order is inviolable by us.
It is, therefore, to us, the present expositor of the divine mind. It is a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. As we degenerate, the contrast between us and leibniz, our house is more evident. Analysis? We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from God. Leibniz? We do not understand the notes of birds.
The fox and the deer run away from us; the bear and tiger rend us. We do not know the ETL Functional Analysis uses of more than a few plants, as corn and the apple, the potato and philosophical essays hackett, the vine. Is not the landscape, every glimpse of which hath a grandeur, a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is thesis statement between man and nature, for you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in his delight, until he is out of the sight of men. Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and philosophical, the frame of things, the highest reason is always the truest.
That which seems faintly possible -- it is so refined, is often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities. Empirical science is apt to cloud the sight, and, by the very knowledge of functions and processes, to bereave the ETL Functional student of the manly contemplation of the whole. The savant becomes unpoetic. Philosophical Essays? But the best read naturalist who lends an entire and devout attention to truth, will see that there remains much to learn of his relation to the world, and that it is not to be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities, but is arrived at by untaught sallies of the thesis spirit, by leibniz philosophical essays, a continual self-recovery, and by entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation, and that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. For, the problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and the naturalist omit to state. It is familiarity breeds contempt not so pertinent to leibniz essays man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to writing essays grade know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form.
When I behold a rich landscape, it is less to my purpose to recite correctly the leibniz order and superposition of the strata, than to know why all thought of multitude is lost in a tranquil sense of writing essays, unity. I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details, so long as there is leibniz philosophical essays hackett no hint to explain the relation between things and thoughts; no ray upon the metaphysics of english grammar writing, conchology, of leibniz philosophical hackett, botany, of the arts, to show the relation of the forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon ideas. In a cabinet of natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and sympathy in grade regard to the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of beast, fish, and insect. The American who has been confined, in philosophical hackett his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is surprised on entering York Minster or St. ETL Functional Analysis? Peter's at philosophical hackett Rome, by the feeling that these structures are imitations also, -- faint copies of an invisible archetype. Nor has science sufficient humanity, so long as the statement mla outline naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and the world; of which he is lord, not because he is the most subtile inhabitant, but because he is its head and heart, and finds something of hackett, himself in every great and small thing, in every mountain stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open. A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century. The following lines are part of his little poem on mla outline Man. Man is all symmetry, Full of proportions, one limb to another,
And to all the world besides. Each part may call the farthest, brother; For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and tides. Nothing hath got so far. But man hath caught and kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the highest star; He is in hackett little all the sphere.
Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they. Find their acquaintance there. For us, the winds do blow, The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow; Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure; The whole is either our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of familiarity, pleasure. The stars have us to bed: Night draws the curtain; which the sun withdraws. Music and light attend our head.
All things unto our flesh are kind, In their descent and essays, being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause. More servants wait on man. Than he'll take notice of. English Grammar Writing Essay? In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him. When sickness makes him pale and wan.
Oh mighty love! Man is one world, and hath. Another to attend him. The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science, but the end is lost sight of in attention to the means. Leibniz Essays? In view of this half-sight of science, we accept the sentence of statement, Plato, that, poetry comes nearer to leibniz vital truth than history. Every surmise and vaticination of the Analysis mind is essays hackett entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories, and sentences, which contain glimpses of truth, to digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion. A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to the torpid spirit.
I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and nature, which a certain poet sang to me; and which, as they have always been in the world, and perhaps reappear to every bard, may be both history and prophecy. `The foundations of man are not in matter, but in spirit. ETL Functional? But the element of spirit is eternity. To it, therefore, the longest series of hackett, events, the oldest chronologies are young and recent. In the cycle of the universal man, from essay familiarity whom the leibniz known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and all history is but the epoch of one degradation. `We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature. We own and essay, disown our relation to philosophical it, by turns.
We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of reason, and eating grass like an ox. But who can set limits to the remedial force of spirit? `A man is a god in ruins. When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and shall pass into the immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams. Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these disorganizations should last for apa format papers hundreds of years. It is kept in philosophical essays check by death and infancy. Infancy is the perpetual Messiah, which comes into the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to return to paradise. `Man is the english grammar dwarf of himself. Once he was permeated and leibniz essays, dissolved by writing grade, spirit. Leibniz Hackett? He filled nature with his overflowing currents. Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from man, the sun; from woman, the moon.
The laws of his mind, the periods of his actions externized themselves into day and night, into writing grade the year and the seasons. But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired; he no longer fills the veins and veinlets; he is leibniz philosophical shrunk to a drop. He sees, that the structure still fits him, but fits him colossally. Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from far and on high. He adores timidly his own work. Now is man the follower of the sun, and woman the follower of the moon. Yet sometimes he starts in his slumber, and wonders at himself and his house, and Analysis, muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and it. He perceives that if his law is still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is sterling yet in nature, it is not conscious power, it is not inferior but superior to his will. It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. At present, man applies to nature but half his force.
He works on the world with his understanding alone. He lives in it, and masters it by a penny-wisdom; and he that works most in it, is but a half-man, and whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good, his mind is imbruted, and he is leibniz essays a selfish savage. His relation to nature, his power over it, is through the understanding; as by between, manure; the economic use of fire, wind, water, and the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the repairs of the hackett human body by the dentist and the surgeon. This is such a resumption of power, as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by inch, instead of vaulting at once into his throne. Meantime, in the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of a better light, -- occasional examples of the action of man upon nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as understanding. Such examples are; the traditions of ETL Functional, miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the Slave-trade; the miracles of essays hackett, enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of essays, Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. These are examples of Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre; the exertions of a power which exists not in time or space, but an instantaneous in-streaming causing power.
The difference between the actual and the ideal force of man is happily figured by the schoolmen, in saying, that the knowledge of man is an evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of leibniz philosophical essays hackett, God is a morning knowledge, matutina cognitio. The problem of restoring to the world original and eternal beauty, is difference solved by the redemption of the soul. The ruin or the blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in our own eye. The axis of vision is philosophical essays hackett not coincident with the axis of things, and so they appear not transparent but opake. Familiarity Breeds Contempt? The reason why the philosophical world lacks unity, and lies broken and in heaps, is, because man is disunited with himself. He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. Love is as much its demand, as perception. Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. In the uttermost meaning of the words, thought is devout, and devotion is grade 4 thought.
Deep calls unto deep. But in actual life, the leibniz philosophical marriage is not celebrated. There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of their fathers, but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of 4, all their faculties. Leibniz Philosophical Essays Hackett? And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the understanding. Is not prayer also a study of truth, -- a sally of the soul into the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily, without learning something. Thesis Statement? But when a faithful thinker, resolute to detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of thought, shall, at leibniz essays hackett the same time, kindle science with the fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the creation. It will not need, when the mind is prepared for study, to search for objects.
The invariable mark of wisdom is to see the miraculous in writing essays the common. What is a day? What is a year? What is summer? What is woman? What is a child? What is essays sleep? To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting.
We make fables to hide the baldness of the fact and conform it, as we say, to the higher law of the mind. But when the fact is seen under the light of an idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. We behold the real higher law. To the wise, therefore, a fact is true poetry, and the most beautiful of fables. These wonders are brought to our own door. You also are a man. Man and woman, and essay, their social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to you. Learn that none of these things is superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and affections of the mind.
Whilst the abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in leibniz philosophical essays hackett the concrete to between be solved by your hands. It were a wise inquiry for the closet, to compare, point by point, especially at remarkable crises in life, our daily history, with the rise and progress of ideas in the mind. So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect, -- What is truth? and of the affections, -- What is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. Then shall come to pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid.
Spirit alters, moulds, makes it. The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to pure spirit, it is fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient. Every spirit builds itself a house; and philosophical, beyond its house a world; and beyond its world, a heaven. Know then, that the world exists for you. For you is the phenomenon perfect.
What we are, that only can we see. All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do. Adam called his house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ETL Functional Analysis, ploughed land; or a scholar's garret. Yet line for hackett line and point for point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names. Build, therefore, your own world. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen.
The sordor and filths of nature, the essays grade 4 sun shall dry up, and philosophical essays hackett, the wind exhale. As when the summer comes from the south; the snow-banks melt, and the face of the earth becomes green before it, so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path, and carry with it the beauty it visits, and the song which enchants it; it shall draw beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more seen. The kingdom of man over nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as now is grade 4 beyond his dream of God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to leibniz essays hackett perfect sight.'
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The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and ETL Functional who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions. Leibniz Essays? How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude. Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in papers, yourself and what you can offer employers. How to philosophical essays describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to achieving excellence. Analysis? 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to philosophical work independently, with minimal supervision.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to learn a new skill or technique. Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an openness to grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts. While there is some debate about whether leadership is something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to Analysis take charge and hackett manage your co-workers.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and between act and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards. 12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and cultures. Philosophical? How to difference between act and sat essay describe this skill on your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an leibniz philosophical hackett allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. Thesis Mla Outline? How to describe this skill on leibniz philosophical essays, your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation.
Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the ability to familiarity work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at leibniz philosophical essays hackett building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Employability skills and personal values are the critical tools and traits you need to succeed in the workplace? and they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and values and assessed the degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of writing grade, Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. Leibniz Hackett? From the english grammar essay, Career Development Center at essays Binghamton University.
Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. For Writing College? Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Essays Hackett? Since 2005, LiveCareerís team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and difference writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen.
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Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and english writing blogs about storytelling in the job search at essays A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into writing the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and leibniz philosophical with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiotís Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by apa format for writing, e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out leibniz essays, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!!
These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and apa format papers employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and essays hackett more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to Analysis the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.
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Leibniz: Philosophical Essays
essay photos As a digital photographer, if you havenít been asked this question you eventually will: ďDo you manipulate your photographs?Ē Sometimes it comes under another aspect: ďDo you change the colors?Ē And occasionally it goes straight to the heart of the matter: ďIs this real?Ē There is a certain percentage of the public who believes that fine art photographs must represent reality. There are people who do not know that there are differences between what they see and leibniz essays, what the statement mla outline, camera captures. Finally, there are individuals who do not understand that a photograph is a two dimensional representation of reality and not reality itself because reality is far more complex, perceived by us through five senses and not just one. Some people are willing to change their minds when these things are explained to them.
Others have their minds made up and leibniz, do not want to be bothered by the facts. Those are the grammar essay, ones that I am referring to in this essay. The people in this last category not only believe that photographs must represent reality, they also believe that to leibniz achieve this photographs must be unaltered. They believe that a photograph must be printed exactly the way it comes out of the camera. While this may be true for certain types of technical photographs, when it comes to art and to my work I believe the exact opposite to be true, namely that photographs must be altered in ETL Functional, one way or another in order to have a chance to represent the reality that I perceive. My premise for leibniz philosophical hackett this essay is english grammar writing, that a fine art photograph, created by an artist with the goal of expressing himself or herself, is a representation of this artistís view of leibniz philosophical, reality - a representation of this artistís vision - and difference sat essay, not a representation of the world as others may see it. Philosophical Hackett! This can be a blessing or a crime, depending on your opinion regarding this matter. Eventually, this is act and, a matter of opinion. Personally, my opinion is philosophical essays, that a photograph cannot capture reality as we experience it physically and I can back it up with facts (I do so in my other essays on this subject including Of Cameras and Art and The Eye and the Camera ). Breeds Contempt! However, I found that debating this point with people who do not agree with me isnít necessarily the leibniz hackett, smartest decision.
So, I propose a different approach, one that works well for me. A little bit of history. For a long time I didnít know what to difference say when confronted by people asking me if my work was real, if I manipulated the colors, or if I changed something in the scenes I photographed. Essays! In fact, as a fledging artist unsure of where I stood, I felt threatened by apa format for writing papers these questions and leibniz hackett, was more concerned with defending myself than with anything else. At that time I believed that explaining my artistic approach would help. So I answered by saying that this - the color changes, the manipulations, the modifications I made to the image - were representative of my style and that my goal was to show how I saw the world. I also explained that I preferred to call what I do ďenhancementsĒ rather than ďmanipulations,Ē because the later was a derogative statement while the former was positive and complimentary. Unfortunately, my efforts were to no avail. These fine differences in terminology were lost on thesis mla outline, these people. Leibniz Essays! Furthermore, their minds were made up and papers, they did not want to be bothered by the facts.
My explanations may have been accurate, thought out and sophisticated, but they were facts nevertheless. Leibniz Hackett! While they may have had a chance to be heard in an academic setting, they were completely useless in apa format college papers, a real world situation. I also thought that doing all this would help in regards to philosophical hackett selling my work. I believed that I could change peopleís mind and that once this was achieved they would buy my photographs. What I discovered was how many people have their minds made up and donít want to be bothered by apa format college papers the facts. I also discovered that people who do not believe what you say, or who do not like what you do, will not buy your work. After all, I am selling art. And to buy art, someone has to like the work and leibniz essays, often like the artist as well. When people donít like one or the other, or worse donít like either, trying to essays grade 4 make a sale is not just futile, it is delusional.
What I discovered overall was that my explanations had little effect on these people. While some believed me, most were unconvinced. What I did not know then, was that the majority of leibniz philosophical essays hackett, those asking these questions were primarily interested in starting an argument. Breeds Contempt! They knew that what I showed in leibniz philosophical hackett, my work was my vision. Writing! They asked if it was real not because they wondered about what my answer would be, but because they did not like my vision of reality.
Certainly, a few Ė a minority ó really did not understand how my work was created. Philosophical Hackett! But those were satisfied with my answer that this is essays grade 4, my style, my vision of the world. Those that I am talking about here are the leibniz essays, others, those that wouldnít accept that answer as valid. I finally saw the light and decided on for writing papers, a different course of action. I decided that in front of obvious suspicion regarding the honesty of leibniz essays hackett, my answers, I would give the most direct and for writing papers, least questionable answer possible.
I decided, in a sense, that I would act as if I was in a court of leibniz essays hackett, law, where the party being questioned, the party whose actions are at Analysis, stake, is asked to answer with a simple ďyesĒ or ďno.Ē In short, and to philosophical essays get to the point, I decided to just say yes . The Art of saying Yes. When you are asked ďdo you manipulate your colors?Ē and you answer ďyesĒ you create an entirely different situation than when you start explaining why you do what you do. English Grammar Essay! When you say ďyesĒ, you state the facts and nothing but the philosophical, facts: ďYes, I do manipulate my colors.Ē Although the person asking the writing grade 4, question may not like your answer, it is difficult to question this answer without questioning your personal integrity. When you do explain why you do what you do, you are in effect trying to legitimize your actions. In that case, three things need to leibniz essays be explained. First, trying to legitimize your actions implies that you know they may not be perceived as legitimate.
Second, you are leaving it up to the person asking the question to decide whether they believe you or not. Third, you are opening the door for a lengthy discussion because the person asking the question now has the writing essays grade, option of philosophical essays, taking apart your answer point by difference between sat essay point. In other words, although I was speaking the leibniz hackett, truth when I tried to explain myself, I was giving control to the person asking the question. Once I had given my answer, they were in control because it was up to them to decide whether they believed my explanations or not, and up to them to decide how they were going to respond. I was also confusing the matter by explaining in a lengthy manner what could have been answered with just one word: yes or no. Apa Format College Papers! They could legitimately ask why I was not saying ďYesĒ or just saying ďNoĒ.
They had grounds to question my integrity regarding what I was really doing in essays hackett, my work. Once I decided to just say ďyes,Ē I took control of the ETL Functional Analysis, situation. Philosophical! Why? Simply because when someone answers a question in the most straightforward manner possible, the two only options available are to either believe this person or not. If you donít believe that the Analysis, person is philosophical hackett, saying the english, truth, then you must come back with a question as straightforward as their answer, and most likely you will hesitate doing so because you will expect a second answer just as straightforward as the first one. You also run the chance of coming across as insulting. After all, someone you just met answered your question in the most straightforward and to philosophical essays the point manner possible.
This person can, if pressed further, could legitimately ask what reasons you have to essays not believe them. Or ask if you are suspicious by nature or if you have a problem with what they do. Finally, they could ask if there is something wrong with you in the first place. Neither option is leibniz essays hackett, bound to be pleasant for familiarity breeds contempt the person asking the leibniz hackett, questions. And as a general rule, human beings do not purposefully engage in unpleasant actions. For example, if someone asks me ďDo you manipulate your colors?Ē and I answer ďyesĒ and they then ask ďIs that so?Ē my answer will be another ďyes.Ē I could say ďyes sirĒ to emphasize my answer, or just because I feel that they need a longer answer, but that is all I would say at a show of difference act and sat essay, my work. If they ask ďhow do you manipulate your colors?Ē I will answer ďin Photoshop.Ē And if they say, ďOh, I see, you use Photoshop!Ē my answer will again be ďyesĒ with or without ďSir.Ē Of course, the philosophical hackett, exact words being used and the exact questions being asked vary in difference sat essay, their grammatical construction according to the situation, but in my experience, this is how things go. Letís back up a little. My Creative Writing teacher at Northern Arizona University, Allen Woodman, defined drama as being: ďtwo dogs, one bone.Ē As we all know, such a situation can quickly lead to a dogfight because most dogs will want that one bone for themselves.
Dogs rarely share with other dogs. With humans, fights often occur for essays hackett the same reason: two individuals both wanting the same thing for themselves. If we metaphorically apply it to the situation discussed in this essay, photographers or photography enthusiasts often enter into a conflict regarding reality because they both believe they describe reality in their work. However, their work looks radically different, although they both photographed the same subject. In this situation, who is familiarity contempt, right?
Who can claim to represent reality? Clearly, it must be one or the other but not both. This is essays, usually what is at for writing college, stake when someone looks at leibniz essays hackett, my work and asks: ďDo you manipulate your colors?Ē or ďIs this real?Ē They question whether I claim to represent reality or not. If I say that I do, most likely we are going to have an argument because most likely they see reality differently than I do. College Papers! Therefore, if they believe there is philosophical hackett, only one possible reality out there, one of us will be wrong. Two photographers, one reality equals a problem. However, my answer does not point to a conflict. My answer is not ďyes, I represent reality.Ē My answer is ďyesĒ I do manipulate my work. And ďyesĒ I manipulate reality. Therefore, my reality may be different from yours.
At conferences, I give a longer answer, explaining, ďIn fact I clone, change the colors, alter the contrast, even remove houses that look ugly in the middle of a pristine wilderness. Sat Essay! In short, I modify reality. What you see is not what I photographed. What you see is how I felt when I created this image. What you see is the world as see it and as I want to show it.Ē ďFurthermore, I feel great about doing what I do. In fact, I love it and I have never been happier than since I gave myself the freedom of doing so! Not only leibniz philosophical essays hackett, that, but I write essays describing precisely not only how I do what I do, but teaching others how they can do it too.
I even give workshops and seminars and conference presentations about both the techniques I use and the philosophical and rhetorical views that underline my position. And if there is anything else you would like to know about apa format for writing, this subject that I have not covered yet, donít hesitate to ask. I may have overlooked something, and essays hackett, if so I will be glad to fix it right away.Ē What I am saying, to go to 4 the root of leibniz hackett, my message and writing essays 4, of my artistic position, is leibniz philosophical essays, that there isnít just one reality. Instead, there are multiple realities.
And if we limit this discussion to just myself and the person asking the questions mentioned above, then there are at least two different realities: theirís and mine. We both see the world in different ways. Essays Grade 4! I see the leibniz, world the way it is depicted in my work, and they see the world whichever way they like. That is OK. They can have their reality, I can have my reality, and I donít see a problem with that whatsoever. I donít claim that their reality is wrong or that my reality is right, or that their reality is thesis statement, right and mine is wrong. In fact, I really donít care which reality is hackett, right and wrong. All I know is that I love my reality. Writing Essays Grade! It makes me feel great, makes me want to get out of bed in the morning to create more of it, makes me want to leibniz hackett go further in statement mla outline, describing in greater details exactly what it consists of, and leibniz essays hackett, above all it makes me want to experience it as much as I can. In short, I love my reality and I live in it happily. All I ask is that they donít impose their reality on me anymore than I impose my reality on them.
It is a free country and thesis statement, they can do whatever they please, but their freedom stops where mine begins. We have the same rights, and leibniz philosophical hackett, we should both remember that. We may both believe that we are right in depicting the world the difference between act and sat essay, way we do in our work, but we could just as easily be wrong, not just them, me or you but all of us. Technique is meant to be seen. There is another aspect to philosophical essays this, and that aspect is technique. Technique, in statement, my view, is meant to be seen and should be visible. If this technique involves manipulating or enhancing the essays hackett, image, depending on which side of the essays, fence you stand on, then this enhancement, or manipulation if this is what you want to call it, must be visible.
Why? Because I want others to see it. Because I want my audience to see what I did to the image, see how I made my vision a reality through the use of essays, this technique or that technique. In fact, I want this to english grammar writing essay be visible so much that starting April 2006 I am providing the master file to my images with print purchases. I do this so others can learn how to do what I do, but also to show how I did what I did. That is, I am taking advantage of one aspect of digital technology, which is that the digital image file can be duplicated countless times and still be as good as the original. Such is not the case with a negative or a transparency, whose quality degrades dramatically with each copy made from the original.
There is also a matter of philosophical essays, quality. The only way to tell if a technique is good, effective or again mastered by the practitioner, by the master, is to between act and see it for ourselves. Otherwise, we rely on the word of others, on the opinion of leibniz essays, someone else but us. Statement Mla Outline! Mastery is something that must be witnessed, something that must be seen. Leibniz Philosophical Essays! If one wants to be recognized as a master, one cannot have as a goal to grammar essay make his technique transparent. Leibniz Essays Hackett! One must try as hard as possible to make his technique something that can be seen, something visible to all. Technique, in other words, must be or become part of the work. It must not be just the path that lead to the creation of this artwork, it must be part of the writing essays grade, artwork.
To return to my main point in this essay, and to just saying yes when asked if my work is enhanced or manipulated, I must give this answer in leibniz, order to tell my audience that it is my intention to english grammar writing essay make my technique visible. Indeed, I often emphasize my yes answer, by saying yes! In writing, there is no other way to show this subtle difference besides placing an essays hackett exclamation point after the yes, but in reality this slight change conveys my love and my passion for the work that I do and for my desire to share this with my audience. Bringing a conclusion to this essay is grammar writing, difficult. On the one hand, there is a lot more to say on philosophical, the subject. On the other hand, some may argue that such an breeds contempt essay should never be written. The first position is leibniz philosophical hackett, correct the second one is incorrect. There is a lot more to be said on this subject, and this essay does need to english grammar writing be written because finding the proper answer to these questions is philosophical essays hackett, very difficult. As I said at the beginning, if you are a photographer and you show your work to other people, regardless of whether you sell your work or not, you will be asked these questions.
If you havenít yet, you eventually will. It is essay familiarity breeds contempt, only a matter of time. Leibniz Hackett! As the popular statement goes: it is not a matter of if, it is a matter of when. And when the time comes, you better have an between sat essay answer. Otherwise you will join the ranks of the stumped. I donít know about you, but personally I hate being stumped. So yes, this essay definitely has a reason to exist.
This reason is to help you find out philosophical, where you stand. My answer is ďYesĒ because I do believe, and for act and sat essay good reasons, that I manipulate reality. Your answer may be different. For example, if you believe you do not manipulate reality, then your answer should be ďNo.Ē My goal is to create images that represent the world not as it is, but as how I see it, how I feel when I am in leibniz philosophical essays hackett, a specific location and how I perceive this location as a whole. Not just the part that I see, but the apa format for writing, part that I donít see: the leibniz, melting sap of ETL Functional Analysis, Pinion pines on philosophical essays, a warm summer days; the call of a blackbird bouncing off a canyon wall; the heat waves floating in difference act and, front of me over the bare sandstone; the multitude of sensory inputs that are, by nature, non-visual. After all, a photograph is nothing but something we can look at. Yet, the reality of the world is much more than that. We experience this reality through five senses: smell, touch, hearing, taste and finally sight.
A photograph only makes use of the fifth sense. It is a partial perception of the hackett, world, representing at the most 1/5th of thesis statement mla outline, all that we sense. Leibniz Philosophical Essays! I wish those that argue that unaltered photographs can represent reality would understand that. But, as I explain, it is not in apa format for writing college papers, my power to hackett change their mind. Therefore, I limit myself to grade just answering ďyesĒ when they ask me questions about whether my work is leibniz hackett, manipulated or not. Of course my work is manipulated. How could it be otherwise? Only a fool would believe that it isnít. Yes. To some extent, my goal is to essay contempt include in my photographs as much of what we perceive with these other four senses as is possible to include in a two dimensional medium.
It is also to transform the world from what it actually is to what I wish it was. Essays Hackett! For example, I may photograph a depressing yet otherwise beautiful scene, and if all it takes is remove the houses that mar this scene, or brighten the writing grade 4, colors, for leibniz philosophical essays hackett this photograph to bring joy to my heart instead of sadness, then I will unashamedly do so, regardless of what others might think. If someone wants a depressing photograph, or a photograph in between, which all the philosophical essays hackett, houses that mar the hills in an otherwise beautiful location are present, I know for apa format papers a fact that there are countless photographers out philosophical hackett, there, and that one, if not several of them, will either have exactly what these people want or will be willing to create exactly what they want. So no, donít write to ETL Functional me saying that you wish I didnít do what I do, or that you wish I didnít manipulate reality, change the leibniz philosophical, colors, remove things, or alter the contrast. Donít write to me to ask that I do not make the world more beautiful, more joyful, more inviting, or more attractive than it really is in your opinion. Instead, write to me to tell me that you like what I do and that you wish I would go further. Write to me to say that you see my point, that your mind is not made up and that you are willing to be bothered by the facts. College! Write to me to say that you love my work. Why? Simply because if you disagree with what I do, you actually disagree with who I am.
You see, what I show in my work is hackett, part of me, part of who I am and part of between, how I perceive the world. It is that part that I make visually accessible to philosophical hackett all. It is that part that I am willing to share with others. And no, I am not willing to change. Definitely not. I am not willing to see the world as a depressing or gloomy place. Call me delusional if you wish, but do keep it to essays grade 4 yourself.
There is another aspect to this, and philosophical, this aspect is the audience I am addressing. I am addressing an audience who loves what I do. I am addressing an audience who has loved what I do since I started, nearly 20 years ago. I am addressing an for writing audience who is growing daily and who wants to see me go further in my approach, in my practice and in my style. An audience who knows that I manipulate colors, change things around a little, and who not only leibniz essays hackett, does not care one bit that I do so but actually loves that I do what I do. I am addressing an apa format for writing papers audience who loves my work for what it is. So no, donít even give it a try. Leibniz Philosophical Essays! And if you do, donít expect me to care. I donít and I wonít. I have already answered the act and sat essay, question, and the answer is yes.
Yes, I manipulate my work, change the essays, colors and much more; and yes, I feel great about contempt, doing so; and yes, I am proud of it and leibniz essays hackett, have no remorse whatsoever; and apa format for writing, yes, I have no intention whatsoever of changing this approach. In fact, this is my style. This is me. If you are a photographer, I strongly encourage you to follow my approach. If nothing else, it will free you and liberate your creativity. Leibniz Essays! I know it does for me.
Remember that you must be free in order to be an artist. If you do not feel free to create whatever your heart desires, then you might call yourself an artist, but you are not really an artist. Art is personal expression. It is the expression of grammar writing, your personality, of your vision, or your view of the world, of your perception of hackett, reality. Grammar Writing Essay! Art is not doing something because you believe someone else may like it better than what you would otherwise do.
Art, in short, is leibniz essays hackett, freedom. What is art is another discussion altogether, one that I will address in ETL Functional, a future essay in this series. For now, remember that the most effective answer to a question designed to stump you is the shortest, most direct and most honest answer you can possibly think of. Essays! In this situation it is a resounding Yes or a resounding No. It all depends whether you believe that your work is manipulated or not. In general, and in closing, it is best not to act defensively when you find yourself confronted by someone asking questions such as the ones I mention in this essay. Often, these questions are aimed at making you take a defensive position. Unfortunately, if you do so you find that you have to defend yourself in regards to actions that you are perfectly free to apa format college papers conduct.
Actions that, eventually, are nobodyís business except your own. Leibniz Philosophical Essays Hackett! Actions that, furthermore, are perfectly legal but that your interlocutor may want you to feel are not. Unfortunately for them, what is essay familiarity breeds contempt, illegal are things such as loan sharking, drug dealing or pistol-whipping a priest. It does not include image manipulation. Leibniz! You canít be arrested for doing it, you canít be taken to court and you canít be placed on probation or otherwise legally punished. The best solution for people who really do not like your work and who do not want to be bothered by the facts is to move on and go look at difference, the work of an leibniz philosophical essays hackett artist that they like. Therefore, if they ask you questions, there is no reason for you to feel threatened or act in a defensive manner. Just tell them the truth, and let them believe whatever they want to believe.
Remember, if they donít like you or your work, they will never buy your work. And if they compliment you about your work, they are either lying or pulling your leg. So just say yes and let them be. That is what I do. Learn more about Alain and college, view more of his work on his website at www.beautiful-landscape.com.
Alain can be contacted at email@example.com. Comments on NPN nature photography articles? Send them to the editor.
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Essay: Conflict between the Arabs and leibniz essays hackett Israelis in the Middle East. Conflict between the Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East is not just a modern day problem; it is a 5,000 year enmity with roots extending to Biblical times. After researching the history of the Middle East, I have come to the conclusion that peace in essay the region has not been achieved for several reasons. First, this issue has existed for thousands of leibniz years, with origins extending to events in the Book of Genesis. Secondly, there are modern day political dynamics involved between the Arabs and Israelis that make getting to the bargaining table difficult for essay familiarity, the leadership of essays both sides.
Additionally, Arab and Muslim aggression towards the Jewish State since its founding in english writing essay 1948 is a leading contributor to hindrances in any peace process. On the other hand, Israelís desire for territorial expansion has also hindered talks with its neighbors on brokering a lasting peace agreement. Lastly, there are the essays hackett fluid self-interests of the essay breeds contempt United States and other nation states that must be taken into account when analyzing the stalemate in peace efforts in the region. The Arab-Israel conflict has its traditional roots in the Holy Bibleís Book of Genesis. The issues began when two women, Sarah and Hagar, each gave birth to a son by the monotheistic patriarch, Abraham. In Genesis 16, Hagar gave birth to her son, Ishmael, and in Genesis 21 Sarah gave birth to Isaac. Leibniz Philosophical Hackett! The God of Abraham tells the Patriarch in Genesis 17 that He will make his covenant through his son with Sarah and that Abrahamís descendants through Isaac will be given dominion over papers, Ďall the Land of Canaan, for perpetual holding (Genesis 17:8).í The Biblical ĎLand of Canaaní encompasses the majority of modern day Palestine, giving way to the Jewish argument that all of the territory rightfully belongs to them since it was given to them directly by God. These events in Genesis reach their climax when in leibniz philosophical essays Genesis 21, at the orders of Sarah and with the consent of God, Abraham expels Hagar and Ishmael from his household. God tells Abraham not to worry about Ishmael because He would Ďmake a nation of him also, because he is your offspring (Genesis 21:13).í
Ishmael and contempt his offspring, known as ĎIshmaelites,í are traditionally considered to be the ancestors of todayís Arabs and Isaac and his offspring are the ancestors of leibniz philosophical essays modern day Jews. The great nations that God promises to each of Abrahamís sons are the essays grade modern Muslim and Jewish religions where Abraham is considered to be the Ďfirst Muslimí and the Ďfirst Jewí by the respective faiths. So it must be understood that discontent between these two peoples is essays hackett not a modern phenomenon with its origins in 1948, but that this is an issue that has been occurring for thousands of years and that no lasting solutions for peace should be expected to happen easily. The famed Jewish writer and activist Elie Weisel sums up the ancient roots of the Arab-Israeli conflict in one of his writings, titled ĎIshmael and between act and sat essay Hagar,í that Ďif only leibniz philosophical essays Sarah could have shared her love between Isaac and Ishmael! If only she could have brought them together instead of setting them apart! Maybe some of todayís tragedies would have been avoided. The Palestinian problem is rooted in the separation of these two brothers.í Secondly, peace in the Middle East has not been attained due to modern day political dynamics between the statement Arabs and Israelis that make even getting to the bargaining table difficult for philosophical essays, the leadership of both sides.
Most of essay familiarity breeds contempt these political dynamics, while religious sentiments may be underlying issues, seem to stem from disagreements based on land and leibniz essays security. The idea of a Jewish state started in the latter part of the nineteenth century when rising anti-Semitism in essay familiarity breeds contempt continental Europe became a catalyst for the Zionist movement, which advocated for global Jewry to leibniz return to the land of their ancestors and create a Jewish state in english grammar essay the Holy Land. During this time period, the Holy Land was under the control of the philosophical hackett Ottoman Empire, which would cease to exist after World War I due to act and its alliance with the Central Powers. After the Great War, the Holy Land came under the authority of the British Empire and leibniz philosophical essays hackett became known and the Mandate of Palestine. In their periodical on the past and present issues concerning the Arab-Israeli conflict, scholars Joel Beinin and Lisa Hajjar note that after the war, Ďthe British foreign minister, Lord Arthur Balfour, issued a declaration announcing his governmentís support for english grammar essay, the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestineí (Beinin and Hajjar 3). Beinin and leibniz hackett Hajjar go on to explain the details of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, which was an essays grade arrangement between Britain and France to divide the former Ottoman Empireís Arab provinces in an effort to split control of the region. After World War I, the League of Nations granted France a mandate over leibniz philosophical hackett, Syria and created a separate state, Lebanon, which contained a Christian majority. Britain obtained a mandate over Iraq and the present-day area of Israel, the english West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Jordan (Beinin and Hajjar 3). Other events that contributed to the twenty first century disagreements in the conflict include the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and philosophical the Six Day War in 1967.
As a result of these two wars, Israel greatly expanded its territory into Arab majority areas such as the West Bank, Gaza and the Sinai Peninsula up to the Suez Canal. Presently, the top, political priorities for the Arabs are the creation of an independent state of Palestine that is comprised of the grammar writing West Bank, Gaza, and other settlements within the current borders of Israel. Arab interests also include the return of the Golan Heights to Syria, the removal of leibniz essays hackett Jewish settlers in Arab majority territories and the Palestinian national capitol being located in East Jerusalem. Israelis want a country where they feel safe and secure, access to their ancient, holy sites and for the Arabs in Palestine to live peacefully within the Jewish state. Conflict arises because Israel fears that any acquiescence to any of the Arab interests is a possible threat to its survival. For example, Israel will not give back the Golan Heights because it feels that they do not want to provide Shiite terrorists based in Syria the high ground to launch attacks. Additionally, the Israeli government is afraid that if the Palestinians are given complete sovereignty over the West Bank, Jewish citizens would be cut off from their holy sites in Jerusalem and the surrounding areas. Palestinians fear that if a two state solution is not worked out that Arabs in statement Israel will forever be treated as second class citizens. Another impediment to peace in the Middle East has been Arab/Muslim aggression towards the Jewish state since its founding in 1948 and Israelís desire for leibniz philosophical hackett, territorial expansion from its original partition borders. Modern violence first broke out in Palestine in late 1947, after the announcement of the United Nations Partition Plan that called for thesis, an Arab and Jewish State to be created in Palestine.
The Jews accepted this UN plan while the Arabs did not. For the next few months, while under continuous attack from the Arabs, the regionís Jews were regularly on the defensive with the occasional offensive retaliation (Morris 2008). When the hostilities of the 1948 War came to an end between the Jews and Arabs, the State of Israel still controlled all of the territory that it was granted during the partition along with a large portion of the land that was set aside for the Arab state. Philosophical Essays! Despondent about the outcome of the 1948 War, the Arabs were insistent on two major demands: that Israel withdraw its forces back to breeds the original UN Partition Plan boundaries and allow Palestinian refugees to return to Israel. These demands were both rejected because Israel argued that the new borders were created on philosophical essays account of war and statement that the UN lines did not take into consideration the defense needs of the Jewish state. Israel also rejected the Arab requests for Palestinians to be allowed to return to Israel because doing so would alter the Jewishness of the new country (Sela 2002). The Arab-Israeli Six Day War in 1967 escalated the aforementioned reasons to unprecedented levels.
The Six Day War broke out on June 5, 1967, when Israel preemptively attacked Syria and leibniz philosophical essays Egypt and destroyed a significant amount of their air and ground forces. This caused the Kingdom of Jordan to enter the fray, but they too were soundly defeated by the Israeli armed forces. Within the next five days, Israel had taken control of the West Bank and the entire holy city of Jerusalem from Jordan, the Golan Heights from Syria and the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza from Egypt (Beinin and Hajjar 7). In the aftermath of the War, Palestinian nationalism, increased Arab hatred toward the Jewish state and Israelís unwillingness to disengage from its newly occupied territories made the region even more of a powder keg. Since the 1967 Six Day War, there have been several more conflicts between Israel and its Arab neighbors such as the 1973 Yom Kippur War in which Israel was attacked on its religious Day of Atonement. Other conflicts have taken place in Lebanon between Israel and terrorist groups such as the Iranian backed Hezbollah group in the last decade and Yasser Arafatís Fatah organization in the 1980s. The roots of the present political disagreements between the Arabs and Israelis are the parameters for writing essays, the creation of a sovereign Palestinian state. Also, the aftermath of the essays hackett 2015 Israeli national elections have probably made things harder for peace talks with the reelected Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu saying on the eve of the election that if he were to familiarity contempt be reelected he would not be supportive of the two-state solution compromise with the philosophical hackett Palestinians. ETL Functional Analysis! This has led to leibniz essays hackett tensions with the essays grade 4 leadership of traditional allies of Israel such as the United States led by President Barack Obama.
Another major issue that must be analyzed and understood when discussing the lack of progress towards mediating the Arab-Israeli Conflict is the fluid self-interests of other nations including the United States and Iran. In modern times, the Arabs and Israelis are not the only two actors who have taken a vested interest in having peace, or lack thereof, in the region. Ever since the end of leibniz essays hackett World War I when the for writing college British Empire took control over Palestine from the defeated Ottoman Empire, foreign nations have tried to impose their initiatives to establish a peaceful solution for philosophical hackett, living situation of the diverse groups of Analysis people living in such a small geographic location. As far as Great Britain is concerned, while present-day relations between Israel and the government of leibniz essays Prime Minister David Cameron are close, this has not always been so. After the Arab-Israeli War of 1948, Britain was seen as being pro-Arab by its maintaining of close ties to various Arab states (Black 2002). Another example is the once-cordial relations that the Analysis State of Israel had with the Iranians when Iran was under the rule of the moderate Mohammad-Reza Shah of the Pahlavi Dynasty. Philosophical! Now, under the for writing rule of the Ayatollahs since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iran is widely considered to be Israelís greatest antagonist, perhaps the largest sponsor of terrorism against the Jewish state. The Islamic Republic also boldly denies Israelís basic rights to exist as a sovereign nation. Leibniz Philosophical Essays! Since Israelís founding in 1948, the United States has undoubtedly been the most influential foreign actor in its brief history.
The United States was the first country to recognize Israel and thesis statement mla outline has contributed billions of dollars in foreign assistance (Mark 2002). American Presidents from Harry Truman to George W. Bush have always advocated for leibniz philosophical essays hackett, policies that seemed to be pro-Israel and support for Israel always seemed to be an issue that crossed partisan lines. Today, however, support for Israel seems to be dependent on writing essays the political party with which a person affiliates with. Republicans tend to be more in leibniz philosophical essays hackett favor of essay familiarity breeds Israeli causes due to its policies of Ďhawkishí foreign policy and its social conservative wing being pro-Israel for religious reasons. Leibniz! The Democratic Party tends not to let the religious dynamics be a part of its approach when dealing with the essays 4 Arab-Israeli conflict, they have a more moderate outlook on foreign policy and like to take the philosophical essays viewpoint of the Arabs into account as part of the process for finding a solution to the ongoing dilemma.
These differences of difference between act and sat essay opinion between the political parties in the United States has contributed to why the peace process has stalled in the last few years. This dynamic has come to the forefront in recent months with the public hostilities that have taken place between President Obama and Prime Minister Netanyahu. Along with his election eve statement about not wanting a Palestinian state, a couple of weeks before the essays election Prime Minister Netanyahu spoke to the Republican-controlled American Congress about his opposition to the Obama administrationís policies towards reaching a nuclear deal with the government of Iran. This see-sawing of self-interests by ETL Functional Analysis, foreign states, which is leibniz philosophical essays dependent on the policies of the english writing present government or party in power, has had destabilizing effects on the region due to a lack of having a consistent plan for peace. Peace in the Middle East has not been attainable between the Arabs and Israelis for several reasons. First, this issue has been going on since Biblical times with its roots taking shape due to leibniz philosophical events that take place in ETL Functional the Book of Genesis. There are also many modern day political dynamics that began in the late nineteenth century involving the Arabs and philosophical essays hackett Israelis that make getting to the bargaining table difficult for the leadership of both sides. Also, Arab and Muslim aggression towards the Jewish State since its inception is a leading contributor to between hindrances in any peace process, along with Israelís desire for leibniz philosophical, territorial expansion that have also hindered talks with the Arabs on brokering a lasting peace agreement.
The fluid self-interests of the United States and other nation states such as Iran must also be taken into account when analyzing the stalemate in 4 peace efforts in the region. This dilemma has a lot of serious variables and it is going to leibniz essays hackett take a lot of compromise on the side of ETL Functional all parties to establish a lasting peace in the region. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Miscellaneous essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of essays hackett us is qualified to a high level in our area of thesis statement mla outline expertise, and leibniz philosophical we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
Just complete our simple order form and writing 4 you could have your customised Miscellaneous work in leibniz philosophical your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Miscellaneous essay was submitted to us by between act and, a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Conflict between the Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East . Leibniz Hackett! Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/miscellaneous/essay-conflict-between-the-arabs-and-israelis-in-the-middle-east/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to essay familiarity breeds contempt have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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